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Design and Prototype Test of SCINTILLATING FIBER TRACKER

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1 Design and Prototype Test of SCINTILLATING FIBER TRACKER
Supported by 2014 JSA Postdoc Prize It is a great honor to receive the 2014 JSA postdoc prize and I would like to thank JSA user group board for giving me such a great opportunity to work on the exciting project -- Zhihong Ye Duke University JLab User Group Meeting, 06/03/2014

2 Original Motivation: The Proton Charged Radius Experiment (PRad) in Hall-B
High resolution, large acceptance, hybrid HyCal calorimeter (PbWO4 and Pb-glass) Measure GEp within Q2 range of 2x10-4 – 2.0x10-2 GeV2 (lower than all previous (e,p) experiments) Simultaneous detection of elastic and Møller electrons Windowless H2 gas flow target Add a new position detector here To increase the resolution at the lowest Q2 points, we decied to add a new position detector with additional features: Thin  Not too much space between Vacuum Box Exit and HyCal Minimum radiation materials  Control the background events at a small level. Allow a hole at the center for the electron beam to go through The original motivation to propose this new tracker is to serve the coming experiment in Hall-B, the proton charged radius measurement, or called PRad. This experiment will use the high resolution, large acceptace calorimeters, HYCal, to measure the GEP at very low Q2. The experimental technique is to simultanueous ly detect the elastic and Moller electrons and do the yield ratio. To minimize the background, we will use the windowless H2 gas flow target .This picture shows the basic configuration of our experiment, …. To increase the Q2 resolution at very low points, we decided to put a position detector between the vacuum box and the hycal. This detector must be very thin since we only have a tiny space for it to fit in, and the materials are need to be minimized since the low background rates is crucial to this experiment. More importantly, since the entire experimental setup is along the beam line, this detector must have a hole to allow the beam pipe to go through 2 Spokesperson: A. Gasparian, D. Dutta, H. Gao, M. Khandaker 2

3 Original Motivation: The Proton Charged Radius Experiment (PRad) in Hall-B
Possible Candidates of Position Detectors (or Tracking Devices): Drift Chambers (DC) Provide <100 um position resolution; Thin; Widely used; No enough time to design, built and test a 1.2 meter x 1.2 meter large DC; Hard to produce a hole at the center; GEM current selection High tracking resolution (<100um) and good timing (~ 10ns); High rate; Insensitive to EM field UVa (Nilanga Liyanage’s group) can produce 120cm x 60cm plates; A hole can be produced; Can be ready before the experiment; Readout electronics are available; Scintillating Fiber Tracker (SFT) as a backup due to the lack of time, man-power and experience Good position resolution: e.g. 1mm fibers can give as good as ~300um; Thin, e.g. 1 mm plastic fiber gives only <0.3% radiation length; Replace Veto-Counter to perform precise time-measurement at the same time A hole can be easily produced. And more advantages! Basically, there are three option we can choose: First is the Drift Chambers which have been the traditional tracking device at Jlab. They provide very good position resolution and have very thin materials ; However, there is no enough time for us to develop such a 1.2 x 1.2cm DC available; and it is hard to produce a hole at the center; The GEM detectors generealy become more popular in the new 12GeV projects since it can provide high tracking resolution as well as relatively good timing information. Compared with DC, it can handle much higher rate and can be put into the magnetic field. Besides, a hole can be produced at the center. Nilanga’s group at Uva is able to produce a single GEM plate with 1.2mx60cm large active area, and the detector frame can be minimized if we combine two such planes together. For the Prad experiment, the good news is that this GEM can be ready before the experiment and we can borrow the entire electronics system. The Scintillating Fiber Tracker I proposed was originally chose to use in PRad but due to the time limitation, the budget issue and lack of experience, we now treat it as a backup. This tracker, or called SFT, can provide relative high position resolution. And it is very thin, like 1mm fiber gives only less than 0.3% radiation length. It can replace the Veto-Counter to perform the time measurement at the same, so we can actually reduce the materials along the beam line. Besides, there is no problem to make a hole at the center. And there are more advantages for such a new device!

4 Scintillating Fiber Tracker: Advantages
Scintillating Material: emits visible lights via de-excitation when a charged particle deposits its energy through ionization process; Scintillating Fiber (SciFi): A core of scintillating materials with one or several layers of thin cladding with lower index of refraction; Good Time Response: SFT can provide better timing measurement than DC and GEM; Without Gas Systems: Unlike GEM and DC; Easy Handling: Easily installed, stored and transported; can be used in vacuum or high EM field; Easy Analysis: We just need to determine which SciFi is fired (“YES/NO” algorithm). Let me remind you that scintillating martials certain fluorescence (floe’ resns) compound which emit visible light when a charged particle goes through and deposits its energy through the ionization process. And the scintillating fiber, or called SciFi, is a core of scintillating material with one or multiple layers of cladding. Hence the SFT can provide much better time resolution than DC and GEM and it does not require any gas system, unlike GEM and DC. Since its weight is so light, it can easily install, store and transport; we can put it into the vacuum or high EM field; Unlike the complicated offline tracking algorithm of DC and GEM, we just need to determine with fiber is fired, or I call it “YES or NO algorithm” This new SFT can have a wide application in many projects!

5 Scintillating Fiber Tracker: Previous Developments
Existing similar detectors (since 1990s): Mainly applied in Medical Imaging (small size): e.g., Proton Computed Tomography Scanner (FERMILAB-PUB E), INFN D0 in Fermi Lab: 0.84 mm SciFi + Visible Light Photon-Counter (VLPC) Four concentric cylinders (Nucl. Phy. B 61B (1998) ) KAOS in Mainz: 200cm wide 50cm long 0.25mm SciFi + Multi-Anode PMT 200cm x 50cm, only the vertical plane (C. Ayerbe Gayoso, PhD thesis) by INFN Using SciFi to perform tracking has been utilized since It is more commonly used in the medical imaging systems with much small size, for example, the Proton computed tomography scaner develped at Fermi lab and INFN. The D0 collaboration at Fermi Lab built the SFT with four concentric cylinders in 1990, and the KAOS collaboration in Mainz also built a SFT with 2meter long and 50cm wide, but it only contained the vertical plane, as you can see from the picture. Carlos Ayerbe who built this detector got his PhD from this project and now he is working at W&M. There are also several new SFT being under developing at LHCb and many facilities. New detectors under developing: LHCb: 300cm long 0.25mm round SciFi+ Silicon Photon Multiplier 250cm x 300cm, 5 super layers, only the vertical plane COMPASS, HERMES, SONTRAC, etc …

6 Scintillating Fiber Tracker: Our Design
The new SFT proposed for PRad: 120cm x 120cm active area SciFi would be about 1.5m long X&Y position tracking on electrons Two perpendicular planes, each has two layers of SciFi Time measurement on electrons replacing veto-counter to reject photons A hole at the center allowing the beam pipe to go through Detector Frame Photon-Detectors on one side only For 1mm SciFi (300um resolution), ~4800 fibers and ~2400 output-channels! (If combining two-fibers and reading out signal from one-end) What we should know before we build: What type of SciFi? How many layers? How to assemble the SciFi? How to mount the SciFi on the supporting structure? What type of photon-detector? Silicon Photon Multiplier (SiPM) or Multi-Anode PMT (MaPMT) ? What Read-Out system? How to reduce the cost? The new SFT we want to build for Prad has a 1.2 by 1.2 meter active area, so the SciFi should be about 1.5 m long. We need to perform the position tracking on both the X and Y directions, we should have two planes perpendicular to each other, and each plane contains two layers of fibers to cover the gaps; As I mentioned earlier, we can replace the Veto-Counter to reject photons; and we will make a hole at the center of the detector; If we combine two fibers and read out the light from one side, we will totally need about 5000 fibers and roughly 2400 output-channels to get the tracking resolution of 300 um; We will need to add more channels if we want to increase the resolution by using smaller SciFi; There are several questions that we need to answer before we build this detector; …. Two fibers as one readout

7 Prototype Test Project:
https://wiki.jlab.org/pcrewiki/index.php/Prototype_Test The Plan Propose the project Prepare Setup Purchase Samples Test SciFi Test SiPM Purchase & Assemble SciFi Here we are! The SFT Prototype: 5 cm x 5 cm active area 50 (X) and 50 (Y) read-out channels meter long SciFi 100 SiPMs Mounting Frame and Supporting Struecture To answer these questions, I proposed the prototype test project; In this project, I will build the prototype with 5 by 5cm active and it contains 50 output channels on either X or Y directions, so totally I will need 200 SciFis and 100 SiPMs. I will also need to design a mounting frame and the supporting structure; So here is the plan: I caught the deadline to propose this project to the JSA postdoc prize competition, and very luckily it was accepted. We have completed the preparation of the setup, including the space, the electronics cables and connectors and many other tools. I received the research grand in mid-april and purchased some tools and samples for testing. We are now individually testing several types of SciFi as well as the SiPM. Once we determine which SciFi and SiPM work the best for us, we will purchase the full amount and design the mounting frame. We will also need to set up the readout system before we are able to test the tracking performance of the prototype. It will be great to have the test with real electron beam and a reference detector; Design Mounting Frame Purchase / Make (Detectors, PS, PreAmp) Read-Out System (FastBus, fADC, others?) Test Tracking Performance (with beam?)

8 Prototype Test Project: The Hall-a Laser Lab shared with SoLID-EC test
So here is the lab we are working at. We share the Hall-A laser lab behind the counting house with the SoLID-EC test project which is the other subject I am also working at. This picture shows the long black-box for the SciFi test and the small blackbox for the SiPM test. The third black box is for the SoLID-EC. It takes me a while to collected all these electronics from Hall-A/B and C halls and Brad Sawatzky from Hall-C has been helping me to set up the FastBus DAQ system. I will introduce the test setups in the following slides.

9 Prototype Test Project: SciFi Test
Selection of SciFi: Numbers about SciFi claimed by manufactures: ~8000(?) photons/MeV for each MIP within a 1mm fiber; ~3.1% Trap-Efficiency for Single-Clad (~5.4% for Multi-Clad); ~ 3 ns Decay Time; ~4 m Attenuation Length (for blue light); Position Resolution: , where D is the diameter of the fiber Single-Clad Multi-Clad Considering the quantum efficiency of photon-detector (<30%), 1-mm SciFi gives <50 p.e. on each end, but it should be much lower in reality . We look for one type of SciFi that has: Strong Light-Yield, Mechanically Strong, and High Detection Efficiency. There are couple of numbers the SciFi claimed by the manufacture: a 1-mm fiber can produce 8000 photons per MeV for each MIP. The trap-efficiency is the pentage of photons going out to both end of the fiber to the total generated photons. It is about 3.1% for single-layer cladding and 5.4% for multi-clad, so most of photons can not be detected; The decay time is 3ns which provide good time measurement; The attenuation length for blue light fibers is about 4m, so for our case, the 1.5 meter long SciFi won’t have much light loss due to the attenuation; We look for a certain of fiber that can produce enough light yield, and it is mechanically strong for us to drag and tighten on the mounting frame, and it has high electron detection efficieicy. There are two types of fibers we can use: one is the square fiber which can have smaller gaps and maximize the tracking efficiency, and it is easier to align and assemble into larger array. It also have a good trap-efficiency; The disavantage is that it has shorter attenuation length due to the geometry effect. The Round Fiber would have longer attentuation length but it has large gaps and poor trap-efficiency. For our SFT, the fiber is only 1.5m long and we more care about the light yield and detection efficiency, so the squre fiber senses to be the better choice. Option 1 ---Square Fiber Option 2 ---Round Fiber Charged Particle Direction Good: Longer Attenuation Length Bad: Larger Gaps, Poor Trap-Efficiency (position dependence) Good: Smaller Gaps (maximize the detection efficiency), Easier Align&Assembling Bad: Shorter Attenuation Length For our SFT with 150 cm fibers, square fiber may be better.

10 Prototype Test Project: SciFi Test
SciFi Testing Setup: The SciFi being testing: New Fiber-Samples from Kuraray: 1, x2 SCSF-78MJ , 1mm, Round, 3meters, Multi-Clad 2, x2 SCSF-78MSJ , 1mm, Round, 3meters, mechanics stronger, Single-Clad (30% less light yield) 3, x2 SCSF-78J, 1mm, Square , 3meters 4, x2 SCSF-78J, 1.5mm, Square , 3meters From Hall-D: x8 SCSF-78MJ 1mm, Round, 2 meters We have requested four types of SciFi samples from Kuraray: SCSF-78MJ 1mm round fiber with Multi-Clad, SCSF-78MSJ, 1mm Round fiber with single-clad but provide stronger mechanical strength; …. We currently only use the sand papers with different degrees to polish the fibers and we are expecting a better tool; Goal: Measuring the Light-Yield and Attenuation Length for different types of SciFi. 3um 2um 1um SciFi Polishing Tools

11 Prototype Test Project: SciFi Test
SciFi Testing Setup: 1-inch PMT (Hall-C) Scintillator (HallC) Ru106 Radiation Source SciFi I went to the home depot to buy several wood plates, screws nails, and tools, and with the help from our graduate student, we built a very beautiful black-box with 2m long and 20cm wide. We have the SciFi test setup in this box. The center part of this setup is the mounting black, Walter from the Hall-C machine shop built this nice piece for me. The square gap is used to hole the 1 cm wide scintillator for triggering purpose, and the hole is for the fiber to go through. The Ru106 source is positioned on top of the block and the beta source can go through the fiber then to the scintillator through a tiny hole. The fiber directly touch the surface of the 1-inch small PMT without any optical grease. We built a 200cm x 20cm Black-Box ! Thank you! Walter Machine Shop! Mounting Block

12 Prototype Test Project: SciFi Test
SciFi Testing Setup: Quick check 1mm 78MSJ-Round 1mm 78MJ-Round Checked the signals with Oscilloscope; Will take data with DAQ this week; Hall-D has done many tests with 78MJ which gives ~ 8 p.e.; ~20 p.e. would be a good number to get high detection efficiency (add two fibers); The fibers are needed to be polished with better tools (borrowing a polishing-machine from Hall-D). Hall-D’s experiences and test results can be adopted! ~5 p.e. ~8 p.e. 1mm 78J-Square 1.5 mm 78J-Sqaure Since the DAQ has just recently been setup, I did not have the chance to measure the ADC spectra. I used the scope to quickly check the output light signals from these fibers and hopefully I can take some data with the DAQ to check the ADC spectra in this week. The rough estimation of the number of photon electron has been given. The 78MJ 1mm round fiber has been tested by Hall-D and the results roughly 8 p.e. and to get a good detection efficiency, we need more number of p.e.. Adding two fibers as one output will double the light yield, but we might first need to polish the fiber with a finer tool. I am borrowing the plashing machine from hall-D. Of cause, Halll-D have done so many test on fibers and their experience and results can be directly adopted for our test. ~7 p.e. ~10 p.e.

13 Prototype Test Project: SciFi Test
Assembling & Mounting: Just a plan. Carl Zorn and Brian Kross, etc. in the Detector Group have given many suggestions Will learn from Carlos Ayerbe who built the SFT for Mark Emamian from Duke is helping the Mounting Frame design. The plan is divided into groups Fibers Rohacell Foam Aluminum Frame I have a meeting with experts in the detector group to discuss with them how to assemble the fibers and mount them on the frame. They have given me many suggestions and I highly appreciate that. I will also directly learn from Carlos who built the SFT for KAOS, as I mentioned earlier. I have an engineer from Duke univ. who is helping me to design the mounting frame. One ideal how to strongly hold those fibers and form a stable detector frame, is the mouting cookie. After assembling the fibers into several groups, we will use the cookie on each end to fix their position and meanwhile, not to damage the fibers. The biggest challenge for us is how to avoid the horizontal SciFi to sag due to their own weight. One solution is to glue them on a supporting plane with Rohacell foam and the carbon foils. The only problem is that we introduce more materials which could be the potential background. Rohacell Foam+Carbon Fiber Foil Screw Mounting Cookie on each end (Scheme Draw) Challenge for us– How to avoid the horizontal SciFis to bend down? Optical Glue Solution: Glue them on a plane with Rohacell foam+carbon fiber foils Problem: Adding more dense materials (potential radiation background)

14 Prototype Test Project: SiPM Test
SiPM Avalanche Photodiode (APD) pixels working in Geiger-mode Photon Detectors: 1, SiPMs: Silicon Photon Multiplier Cheap ~$10 per SiPM+~$10 power supply+~$10 Pre-Amp; Large Gain  ~~ x106 ; Insensitive to magnet field Need a Pre-Amp Design  Hall-D has a very good design Gain is temperature-depended Relatively larger dark current; Radiation damage by the neutron background; Cross-Talk One photon only fire one pixel (unless cross-talk or dark-current) The biggest components for a detector to detect light signal are the photon-detectors which also cost the most. In my proposal, the SiPMs were chose to be the readout detector. It contains many pixels of avalanche photodiode working in Geiger mode and one photon basically fires only one pixel. It has these features: Hamamatsu MPPC S P/50P Used in Hall-B & Hall-D for testing We newly purchased Hamamatsu Multi-Pixels Photon Counter (MPPC)

15 Prototype Test Project: SiPM Test
Photon Detectors: 2, MaPMTs (possible candidate) More commonly used; Multi-channels outputs Much cleaner background; High radiation tolerance; Degraded performance in strong magnet field; Cross Talk Expensive; The second choice could be the MaPMTs which is more commonly used. It contains up to 64 output channels in one tube and have much clean background compared with SiPM. It has longer lifetime in high radiation environment. However, its performance is degraded in high magnetic field and it also has the cross talk issue. Other concern is that its price still remain very high while the price of SiPM drops very quick in recent year. In our group, we have a MaPMT for me to testing on, and we will also borrow a 16ch MaPMT from SBS. Our Duke group has a 64ch H8500 MaPMT for test We will borrow a 16ch MaPMT from SBS From Carlos Ayerbe’s thesis

16 Thank you, Walter Kellner!
Fiber+SiPM Mounting Block Prototype Test Project: SiPM Test SiPM Test Setup: Thank you, Walter Kellner! High Precision Power Supply (Hall-D) x2 Low Voltage Power Supplies (Hall-A&-D) Sr90 Black Box (from Simona Malace) Temperature Sensor 4mm Scin. Strip+SiPM Fan SiPMs with Pre-Amp (Hall-D) SiPMs with Pre-Amp I am showing the SiPM test setup. We have the High and Low voltage power supplies to power the SiPM and its Pre-Amp. The black-box contain two sets of SiPM and Pre-Amp. One from Stepan from hall-b and one from Yi Qiang from hall-D. I also asked Walter to make another beautiful mounting block to mount the SiPM and Fiber togethers. Goal: Understand the performance of the SiPM --- Gain, Noise Level, Stability with Temperature, ADC & TDC spectra.

17 Hamamatsu Measurements
Prototype Test Project: SiPM Test 1 p.e. SiPM Test Setup: (Stepan’s SiPMs+Pre-Amp) 2 p.e. 3 p.e. 3 p.e. Hamamatsu Measurements (what we expect to see) 2 p.e. 1 p.e. Not yet seen pretty pattern from scope More to learn about SiPM Data taking with DAQ will be proceeded soon; Here are the SiPM signals from the Scope and the ADC spectra provided by Hamamatsu. Since each pixel detects one photon, we expect to see the clear separation of single p.e., two p.e. and more. I checked Stepan’s SiPM signals from the scope as well but I so far can not see clear signals as Hamamatsu did.

18 Prototype Test Project: Read-Out System
Read-Out System of >2400 Output Channels: 1, SiPM (or MaPMT) + FastBus ADC + TDC Requires a large amount of NIM modules and long delay cables 2, SiPM (or MaPMT) + fADC Need >20 fADC & VME64 which are rare and expensive 3, A “Cheaper” Solution  EASiROC for SiPM or MaROC for MaPMT Developed by Pre-Amp integrated with adjustable Low/High Gains; ADC outputs and TDC outputs; One “OR” logic output for triggering; One “SUM” analog output; ~$130 for each chip (or <$5 per channel); Need an additional readout board (“expensive”) Let me remind you that we have at lease 2400 readout channels, what kind of read-out daq system we should choose? We can use the old-school FastBus ADC+TDC but we will need huge amount of NIM modules and delay cables. The more fancier DAQ system would be the fADC. However, the Jlab fast electronics group is working crezily to build fADC for Hall-B/C and D and it will be hard for us to collect more than 20 fADC cards and their VME64 crates, and they are very expensive. Well, I provide a cheaper solution here --- There is a group at IN2P3, Omage, has been developing the readout chips for SiPM, called EASIROC, and for MaPMT, called MaROC. These chip can read in upto 64 signals from photo-detectors, it has the adjustable Pre-Amp with high and low gains. It provides not only the ADC and TDC signal output, but also gives the “OR” logic signal for triggers and “SUM” signals for energy detectors like RICH. It is relatively cheap, $130 per chip and could be cheaper if we purchase large amount. However, it does need an additional readout board to transfer the data, and saddly, they are not cheap. 16 OMEGA Test Board (USB readout)

19 With EASIROC+SiPM or MaROC+MaPMT, the SFT will be “portable”!
Prototype Test Project: Read-Out System Read-Out System of >2400 Output Channels: EASIROC (or the new version called CITIROC) 32 ADC Outputs 32ch Inputs with adjustable High/Low Gain 32 TDC Outputs Logic Output I give you the scheme drawings of the EASIROC and the MAROC. The newer version of EASIROC is called CITIROC. They told me that this produce should be available in this month. It has smaller deadtime and provide spontaneously ADC output. For the readout board, I was informed that the enginner at KED has designed a great design for the readout board. It uses the ethernet to transfer the data to the computer. I have contacted with him but he told me that all the documentations are in Japanese. I might have to learn Japanese if I really need to get this design in the near future. The MaROC has the similar feature. In the SoLID group which I am also working in, we just bought a MaROC3 with the read-out board to test our MaPMT. I will study this performance with the help from the SULI students. If the EASIROC or MAROC can be proved to work well, the SFT can be truly portable. Of cause, we still need to connect the cables to power the device, unless we use the battery and wifi. SiTCP read-out board designed at KEK (TCP/Ethernet 1Gbps ) A new MaROC3 with a read-out board (USB port) has been purchased for SoLID-EC test; We will study its performance with SULI students’ help. NIM-based Read-Out Board designed by I. Nakamura (KEK) for J-PAC With EASIROC+SiPM or MaROC+MaPMT, the SFT will be “portable”!

20 Summary: SFT provides a great option to improve the PRad experiment and can be applied to many other projects. Prototype Testing Project is undergoing: (1) It took a few months to prepare the setup due to very limited resources. (2) Received and receiving many helps from colleagues in Hall-A/B/C/D, Detector Group, Duke Univ, etc. (3) We have almost everything set up and will have some serious results very soon. Near Term goals (not working n full-time): Test and choose SciFi; Test SiPM and MaPMT Design and build the mounting structure Assembling the 1.2m x 1.2m SFT is challenging but practicable. Three options of the read-out systems are available. Highly appreciate your suggestions and helps, and welcome to join. I hope one day the full size SFT can be built!

21 Acknowledgement: I am grateful to receive many helps from:
Hall-A: Alexandre Camsonne, J-P Chen, Jack Segal, etc Hall-B: Sergey Boyariov, Stepan Stepanyan, Youri Sharabian, etc. Hall-C: Joe Beaufait, Mark Jones, Walter Kellner, Simona Malace, Brad Sawatzky, etc Hall-D: Elton Smith, Yi Qiang, etc Detector Group: Brian Kross, Wenze Xi, Carl Zorn, etc. RadCon: Adam Hartberger Many other colleagues and friends Special Thanks are given to: JSA User Board that give me the Postdoc Prize and offer me such a precious opportunity Hard working Graduate Student: Chao Peng (Duke), Li Ye (Mississippi Statue) Brad Sawatzky and Yi Qiang who lend me many instruments and help me to complete the setup Prof. Haiyan Gao, Yi Qiang and Stepan Stepanyan who give me many advices to design and carry out this project. Prof. Donal Day, Prof. Haiyan Gao and Doug Higimbotham who provide the reference letters. And the PRad collaboration & SoLID collaboration.

22 BACKUP SLIDES

23 Cost Estimation of the Full-Size SFT:
Each Fiber: 1mm width ( round or square ) is $1 per meter. for 1.2m x 1.2m, we need roughly m-long fibers for each plane to cover the gaps. for x-y two planes, 4800 fibers ~ $7.2 K Photo-Detector: SiPM module $10 for each channel quoted from Hamamatsu. Amplifier used in Hall-D: $10 for each channels ( plus Design Fee $???) Power Supply (~$10 for each channel) For one-end read-out: 2400 channels x $30 per channel ($72K + engineer design of the Pre-Amp) Mounting Frame and Supporting Structure ($???) Connectors + Cables + Tools + Supplies ($???) ReadOut+DAQ: From SiPM to raw data: Discriminators, FastBus ADC & TDC (40 cards for each) (or fADC ) OR: EASIROC --- $100 for 32 channels + Read-Out Board ( we need to borrow designs and make all by ourselves ~$1500 per board or cheaper) Total Read-Out: ~$120K ~~$80K


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