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Zhihong Ye Duke University JLab User Group Meeting, 06/03/2014 Supported by 2014 JSA Postdoc Prize.

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Presentation on theme: "Zhihong Ye Duke University JLab User Group Meeting, 06/03/2014 Supported by 2014 JSA Postdoc Prize."— Presentation transcript:

1 Zhihong Ye Duke University JLab User Group Meeting, 06/03/2014 Supported by 2014 JSA Postdoc Prize

2  High resolution, large acceptance, hybrid HyCal calorimeter (PbWO 4 and Pb-glass)  Measure G E p within Q 2 range of 2x10 -4 – 2.0x10 -2 GeV 2 (lower than all previous (e,p) experiments)  Simultaneous detection of elastic and Møller electrons  Windowless H2 gas flow target Spokesperson: A. Gasparian, D. Dutta, H. Gao, M. Khandaker 2 Original Motivation: The Proton Charged Radius Experiment (PRad) in Hall-B  To increase the resolution at the lowest Q 2 points, we decied to add a new position detector with additional features:  Thin  Not too much space between Vacuum Box Exit and HyCal  Minimum radiation materials  Control the background events at a small level.  Allow a hole at the center for the electron beam to go through Add a new position detector here 2

3  Possible Candidates of Position Detectors (or Tracking Devices): o Drift Chambers (DC) Provide <100 um position resolution; Thin; Widely used; No enough time to design, built and test a 1.2 meter x 1.2 meter large DC; Hard to produce a hole at the center; GEM  current selection  High tracking resolution (<100um) and good timing (~ 10ns); High rate; Insensitive to EM field  UVa (Nilanga Liyanage’s group) can produce 120cm x 60cm plates;  A hole can be produced;  Can be ready before the experiment; Readout electronics are available; Scintillating Fiber Tracker (SFT)  as a backup due to the lack of time, man-power and experience Good position resolution: e.g. 1mm fibers can give as good as ~300um; Thin, e.g. 1 mm plastic fiber gives only <0.3% radiation length; Replace Veto-Counter to perform precise time-measurement at the same time A hole can be easily produced. And more advantages! Original Motivation: The Proton Charged Radius Experiment (PRad) in Hall-B 3

4 Scintillating Fiber Tracker: Advantages  Scintillating Material: emits visible lights via de-excitation when a charged particle deposits its energy through ionization process;  Scintillating Fiber (SciFi): A core of scintillating materials with one or several layers of thin cladding with lower index of refraction;  Good Time Response: SFT can provide better timing measurement than DC and GEM;  Without Gas Systems: Unlike GEM and DC;  Easy Handling: Easily installed, stored and transported; can be used in vacuum or high EM field;  Easy Analysis: We just need to determine which SciFi is fired (“YES/NO” algorithm). This new SFT can have a wide application in many projects! 4

5 Scintillating Fiber Tracker: Previous Developments  Existing similar detectors (since 1990s):  Mainly applied in Medical Imaging (small size): e.g., Proton Computed Tomography Scanner (FERMILAB-PUB E), INFN  D0 in Fermi Lab: 0.84 mm SciFi + Visible Light Photon-Counter (VLPC) Four concentric cylinders (Nucl. Phy. B 61B (1998) )  KAOS in Mainz: 200cm wide 50cm long 0.25mm SciFi + Multi-Anode PMT 200cm x 50cm, only the vertical plane (C. Ayerbe Gayoso, PhD thesis) by INFN  New detectors under developing:  LHCb: 300cm long 0.25mm round SciFi+ Silicon Photon Multiplier 250cm x 300cm, 5 super layers, only the vertical plane  COMPASS, HERMES, SONTRAC, etc … 5

6 Scintillating Fiber Tracker: Our Design  The new SFT proposed for PRad:  120cm x 120cm active area SciFi would be about 1.5m long  X&Y position tracking on electrons Two perpendicular planes, each has two layers of SciFi  Time measurement on electrons replacing veto-counter to reject photons  A hole at the center allowing the beam pipe to go through  What we should know before we build:  What type of SciFi? How many layers?  How to assemble the SciFi?  How to mount the SciFi on the supporting structure?  What type of photon-detector? Silicon Photon Multiplier (SiPM) or Multi-Anode PMT (MaPMT) ?  What Read-Out system?  How to reduce the cost? For 1mm SciFi (300um resolution), ~4800 fibers and ~2400 output-channels! (If combining two-fibers and reading out signal from one-end) Detector Frame Photon-Detectors on one side only Two fibers as one readout 6

7 Prototype Test Project: https://wiki.jlab.org/pcrewiki/index.php/Prototype_Test Propose the project The Plan Prepare Setup Test SciFi Test SiPM Purchase Samples Purchase & Assemble SciFi Design Mounting Frame Purchase / Make (Detectors, PS, PreAmp) Test Tracking Performance (with beam?) Here we are! Read-Out System (FastBus, fADC, others?)  The SFT Prototype:  5 cm x 5 cm active area  50 (X) and 50 (Y) read-out channels  meter long SciFi  100 SiPMs  Mounting Frame and Supporting Struecture 7

8 Prototype Test Project: The Hall-a Laser Lab shared with SoLID-EC test 8

9 Prototype Test Project: SciFi Test  Selection of SciFi: Option 1 ---Square Fiber Charged Particle Direction Option 2 ---Round Fiber Good: Smaller Gaps (maximize the detection efficiency), Easier Align&Assembling Bad: Shorter Attenuation Length  Numbers about SciFi claimed by manufactures: ~8000(?) photons/MeV for each MIP within a 1mm fiber; ~3.1% Trap-Efficiency for Single-Clad (~5.4% for Multi-Clad); ~ 3 ns Decay Time; ~4 m Attenuation Length (for blue light); Position Resolution:, where D is the diameter of the fiber Good: Longer Attenuation Length Bad: Larger Gaps, Poor Trap-Efficiency (position dependence)  We look for one type of SciFi that has: Strong Light-Yield, Mechanically Strong, and High Detection Efficiency. For our SFT with 150 cm fibers, square fiber may be better. Multi-Clad Single-Clad Considering the quantum efficiency of photon-detector (<30%), 1-mm SciFi gives <50 p.e. on each end, but it should be much lower in reality. 9

10 New Fiber-Samples from Kuraray: 1, x2 SCSF-78MJ, 1mm, Round, 3meters, Multi-Clad 2, x2 SCSF-78MSJ, 1mm, Round, 3meters, mechanics stronger, Single-Clad (30% less light yield) 3, x2 SCSF-78J, 1mm, Square, 3meters 4, x2 SCSF-78J, 1.5mm, Square, 3meters From Hall-D: x8 SCSF-78MJ 1mm, Round, 2 meters Goal: Measuring the Light-Yield and Attenuation Length for different types of SciFi.  SciFi Testing Setup: The SciFi being testing: SciFi Polishing Tools Prototype Test Project: SciFi Test 3um 2um 1um 10

11 Scintillator (HallC) 1-inch PMT (Hall-C) SciFi Ru106 Radiation Source Mounting Block We built a 200cm x 20cm Black-Box !  SciFi Testing Setup: Thank you! Walter Machine Shop! Prototype Test Project: SciFi Test 11

12  Checked the signals with Oscilloscope;  Will take data with DAQ this week;  Hall-D has done many tests with 78MJ which gives ~ 8 p.e.;  ~20 p.e. would be a good number to get high detection efficiency (add two fibers);  The fibers are needed to be polished with better tools (borrowing a polishing- machine from Hall-D).  Hall-D’s experiences and test results can be adopted!  SciFi Testing Setup: Quick check 1mm 78MJ-Round 1mm 78J-Square 1.5 mm 78J-Sqaure 1mm 78MSJ-Round ~8 p.e. ~5 p.e. ~7 p.e. ~10 p.e. Prototype Test Project: SciFi Test 12

13  Assembling & Mounting: Just a plan. Carl Zorn and Brian Kross, etc. in the Detector Group have given many suggestions Will learn from Carlos Ayerbe who built the SFT for Mark Emamian from Duke is helping the Mounting Frame design. Rohacell Foam+Carbon Fiber Foil Solution: Glue them on a plane with Rohacell foam+carbon fiber foils Problem: Adding more dense materials (potential radiation background) Optical Glue Rohacell Foam Aluminum Frame Fibers The plan is divided into groups Mounting Cookie on each end (Scheme Draw) Screw Challenge for us– How to avoid the horizontal SciFis to bend down? Prototype Test Project: SciFi Test 13

14  Photon Detectors: 1, SiPMs: Silicon Photon Multiplier  Cheap  ~$10 per SiPM+~$10 power supply+~$10 Pre-Amp;  Large Gain  ~~ x10 6 ;  Insensitive to magnet field  Need a Pre-Amp Design  Hall-D has a very good design  Gain is temperature-depended  Relatively larger dark current;  Radiation damage by the neutron background;  Cross-Talk Hamamatsu Multi-Pixels Photon Counter (MPPC) Used in Hall-B & Hall-D for testing We newly purchased Hamamatsu MPPC S P/50P Prototype Test Project: SiPM Test One photon only fire one pixel (unless cross-talk or dark-current) SiPM  Avalanche Photodiode (APD) pixels working in Geiger-mode 14

15  Photon Detectors: 2, MaPMTs (possible candidate) From Carlos Ayerbe’s thesis  More commonly used;  Multi-channels outputs  Much cleaner background;  High radiation tolerance;  Degraded performance in strong magnet field;  Cross Talk  Expensive; Our Duke group has a 64ch H8500 MaPMT for test We will borrow a 16ch MaPMT from SBS Prototype Test Project: SiPM Test 15

16  SiPM Test Setup: 4mm Scin. Strip+SiPM Goal: Understand the performance of the SiPM --- Gain, Noise Level, Stability with Temperature, ADC & TDC spectra. Fiber+SiPM Mounting Block SiPMs with Pre-Amp (Hall-D) SiPMs with Pre-Amp High Precision Power Supply (Hall-D) x2 Low Voltage Power Supplies (Hall-A&-D) Black Box (from Simona Malace) Temperature Sensor Thank you, Walter Kellner! Prototype Test Project: SiPM Test 16 Fan Sr90

17  SiPM Test Setup: (Stepan’s SiPMs+Pre-Amp) 1 p.e. 2 p.e. 3 p.e. Hamamatsu Measurements (what we expect to see)  Not yet seen pretty pattern from scope  More to learn about SiPM  Data taking with DAQ will be proceeded soon; 1 p.e. 2 p.e. 3 p.e. Prototype Test Project: SiPM Test 17

18  Read-Out System of >2400 Output Channels: 1, SiPM (or MaPMT) + FastBus ADC + TDC Requires a large amount of NIM modules and long delay cables 2, SiPM (or MaPMT) + fADC Need >20 fADC & VME64 which are rare and expensive 16 3, A “Cheaper” Solution  EASiROC for SiPM or MaROC for MaPMT  Developed by  Pre-Amp integrated with adjustable Low/High Gains;  ADC outputs and TDC outputs;  One “OR” logic output for triggering; One “SUM” analog output;  ~$130 for each chip (or <$5 per channel);  Need an additional readout board (“expensive”) Prototype Test Project: Read-Out System 18 OMEGA Test Board (USB readout)

19 SiTCP read-out board designed at KEK (TCP/Ethernet 1Gbps ) 32ch Inputs with adjustable High/Low Gain 32 ADC Outputs 32 TDC Outputs Logic Output EASIROC (or the new version called CITIROC) NIM-based Read-Out Board designed by I. Nakamura (KEK) for J-PAC  A new MaROC3 with a read-out board (USB port) has been purchased for SoLID-EC test; We will study its performance with SULI students’ help.  Read-Out System of >2400 Output Channels: With EASIROC+SiPM or MaROC+MaPMT, the SFT will be “portable”! Prototype Test Project: Read-Out System 19

20 Summary:  SFT provides a great option to improve the PRad experiment and can be applied to many other projects.  Prototype Testing Project is undergoing: (1) It took a few months to prepare the setup due to very limited resources. (2) Received and receiving many helps from colleagues in Hall-A/B/C/D, Detector Group, Duke Univ, etc. (3) We have almost everything set up and will have some serious results very soon.  Near Term goals (not working n full-time):  Test and choose SciFi;  Test SiPM and MaPMT  Design and build the mounting structure  Assembling the 1.2m x 1.2m SFT is challenging but practicable.  Three options of the read-out systems are available.  Highly appreciate your suggestions and helps, and welcome to join.  I hope one day the full size SFT can be built! 20

21 I am grateful to receive many helps from:  Hall-A: Alexandre Camsonne, J-P Chen, Jack Segal, etc  Hall-B: Sergey Boyariov, Stepan Stepanyan, Youri Sharabian, etc.  Hall-C: Joe Beaufait, Mark Jones, Walter Kellner, Simona Malace, Brad Sawatzky, etc  Hall-D: Elton Smith, Yi Qiang, etc  Detector Group: Brian Kross, Wenze Xi, Carl Zorn, etc.  RadCon: Adam Hartberger  Many other colleagues and friends Special Thanks are given to: JSA User Board that give me the Postdoc Prize and offer me such a precious opportunity Hard working Graduate Student: Chao Peng (Duke), Li Ye (Mississippi Statue) Brad Sawatzky and Yi Qiang who lend me many instruments and help me to complete the setup Prof. Haiyan Gao, Yi Qiang and Stepan Stepanyan who give me many advices to design and carry out this project. Prof. Donal Day, Prof. Haiyan Gao and Doug Higimbotham who provide the reference letters. And the PRad collaboration & SoLID collaboration. Acknowledgement: 21

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23 Cost Estimation of the Full-Size SFT: Each Fiber: 1mm width ( round or square ) is $1 per meter. for 1.2m x 1.2m, we need roughly m-long fibers for each plane to cover the gaps. for x-y two planes, 4800 fibers ~ $7.2 K Photo-Detector: SiPM module $10 for each channel quoted from Hamamatsu. Amplifier used in Hall-D: $10 for each channels ( plus Design Fee $???) Power Supply (~$10 for each channel) For one-end read-out: 2400 channels x $30 per channel ($72K + engineer design of the Pre-Amp) Mounting Frame and Supporting Structure ($???) Connectors + Cables + Tools + Supplies ($???) ReadOut+DAQ: From SiPM to raw data: Discriminators, FastBus ADC & TDC (40 cards for each) (or fADC ) OR: EASIROC --- $100 for 32 channels + Read-Out Board ( we need to borrow designs and make all by ourselves ~$1500 per board or cheaper) Total Read-Out: ~$120K ~~$80K 23


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