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THE POWER SHIFT Jefferson / Madison Presidencies and the WAR OF 1812.

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Presentation on theme: "THE POWER SHIFT Jefferson / Madison Presidencies and the WAR OF 1812."— Presentation transcript:

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2 THE POWER SHIFT Jefferson / Madison Presidencies and the WAR OF 1812

3 ELECTION of 1800 Jefferson WINS (Aaron Burr becomes VP) Adams bitter in defeat TJ Ironic Presidency ( ) Wrote Dec. of Indep. Proclaiming freedom for all men, BUT owned slaves himself

4 ELECTION of 1800 Jefferson is elected President Shift in country to Dem.-Rep. thinking Shift in power in Executive & Legislative – Decentralized power, Reduce Army, Halt Navy, Roll back Hamilton’s Economic plan (Bank)

5 MARBURY v. MADISON 1803

6 USA John Adams (Federalist) is President Federalists dominate the new government Until…

7 Federalist Judges Remain Appointed for life Adams bitter in defeat Judiciary Act 1801 To spite Jefferson and avenge Federalists, Adams appoints 40 new Fed. Judges in the last hours of his Presidency > “Midnight Judges”

8 Adams Cartoon

9 To be official, commission must be hand delivered to the new judge Most are delivered before Adams’ term expires, some aren’t Jefferson orders his new Sec. of State James Madison to NOT deliver the remaining commissions

10 William Marbury One of the Undelivered “Midnight Judges” Sued the Gov’t (Madison) – wanted the US Supreme Court to force Madison to deliver his commission (Judiciary Act of 1789, passed by Congress, said this could happen (gave court the power to force appointments)

11 USSC Chief Justice John Marshall Agreed that Marbury should have been delivered, BUT… He wasn’t Marshall ruled that Article III of the Constitution (Judicial Branch) did not give the court the power to force an appointment

12 So What??? This meant that the court interpreted the law Congress passed (Jud. Act 1798) as UNCONSTITUTIONAL

13 Thus… In all cases, the Constitution takes precedence when a conflict exists between the Constitution and a law passed by Congress (Supremacy Clause)

14 This established the principle of… JUDICIAL REVIEW – USSC determines if laws passed are Unconstitutional

15 Also established the USSC as the final voice on what the Constitution means Judicial Branch is an equal partner in Gov’t

16 LA Purchase (1803) -Bought from France (Napoleon) for $15 million -Dilemma for Jefferson!!!!! -TJ is a Strict Constructionist… -Is the purchase legal??? -TJ advocates States’ Rights BUT… -Purchase increases the power of FEDERAL Gov’t

17 NAPOLEON BONAPARTE

18 Haitian Revolution

19 LOUISIANA PURCHASE

20 Why LA Purchase so Important??? Doubles size of USA – BIG country Gets France out of N. America for good Land and Resources for USA Increases Role of Federal Gov’t – administer the new land & states

21 LA Purchase negative consequences??? No regard for Native American land claims Conflict over Slavery expanding in USA Leads to Sectional Crisis and Civil War

22 Lewis and Clark Sent by Jefferson to explore LA Purchase Territory

23 St. Louis to Ft. Clatsop

24 NAPOLEONIC WARS IN EUROPE England vs. France

25 Britain and France both don’t want the USA to trade with the other USA caught in the middle – wants to be Neutral & trade with both Britain steps up practice of…

26 IMPRESSMENT OF AMERICAN SAILORS -Kidnapping and forcing US sailors into British Navy service Angers America Something Fierce!!!

27 Jefferson Responds with the EMBARGO ACT Stops most exports (trade) to ALL foreign ports Cuts USA off from the world Horrible move Wrecks American Economy

28 Sally Hemings Affair TJ allledgedly fathered 6 children with this slave over 38 year relationship. TJ never spoke publically on the issue.

29 Jefferson Leaves Presidency Hates it so much he leaves it off his Gravestone!!!! Election of 1808 – JAMES MADISON becomes 4 th President DEM.-REP. Party “Father of Constitution”

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31 WAR OF 1812 “The Second War for Independence”

32 THOMAS JEFFERSON President

33 NAPOLEON BONAPARTE

34 NAPOLEONIC WARS IN EUROPE England vs. France

35 Britain and France both don’t want the USA to trade with the other USA caught in the middle – wants to be Neutral & trade with both Britain steps up practice of…

36 IMPRESSMENT OF AMERICAN SAILORS -Kidnapping and forcing US sailors into British Navy service Angers America Something Fierce!!!

37 Jefferson Responds with the EMBARGO ACT Stops most exports (trade) to ALL foreign ports Cuts USA off from the world Horrible move Wrecks American Economy

38 JAMES MADISON Republican President

39 Replaces Embargo Act with… Non-Intercourse Act – prohibits trade with only Britain and France (belligerent nations) Does nothing to help US economy Citizens calling for war with Britain

40 AMERICAN “INDIAN” POLICY DEVELOPING BATTLE OF TIPPECANOE – November 7, 1811 Tecumseh’s Shawnee Tribe Defeated

41 GENERAL WILLIAM TECUMSEH HENRY HARRISON

42 Causes of War of 1812 “2 nd War of Independence” Demand for Neutral Rights – No Impressment Frontier Native Attacks Blamed on British Meddling USA desires new lands in British Canada & Spanish Florida

43 USA Conditions - totally unprepared to fight a war Only 20 ships in the Navy No Standing Army Weak Economy after Embargo Republicans not been taxing much

44 WAR OF British 3 pronged invasion attack Though USA fighting poorly, again Brits can’t quite nail the coffin shut USA able to hold off the British just enough

45 BATTLES WITH NATIVE AMERICANS DURING WAR OF 1812 FORT DEARBORN MASSACRE IN CHICAGO – August 14, 1812

46 FT. DEARBORN MONUMENT Michigan Ave. Bridge

47 GENERAL ANDREW JACKSON

48 BATTLE OF HORSESHOE BEND (ALABAMA) March 27,1814 General Andrew Jackson Defeats Creek Indians

49 WASHINGTON D.C. BURNED BY BRITISH – August 24,1814

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51 FRANCIS SCOTT KEY WRITES “The Star Spangled Banner” September 13, 1814 British Siege Fort in Baltimore – Bomb Heavily Fort resists attack Next morning “our flag was still there”

52 Oh, say can you see by the dawn's early light What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars thru the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming? And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there. Oh, say does that star- spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

53 TREATY OF GHENT – Dec. 24, 1814 ENDS WAR OF 1812

54 BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS – Jan. 8, 1815 Word of Treaty not yet reach Gen. Jackson Holds off 7,500 attacking British a. Greatest American victory happens after war is over

55 b. JACKSON IS A WAR HERO – leads to Presidency Will use war reputation to get elected President

56 Results of the War a. Sense of Patriotism – though fought poorly, held off British…Again b. Need for Infrastructure (roads, canals, bridges) c. Need for Economic Independence (Birth of US Manufacturing) d. USA begins to develop its “Indian Policy” – they’re trouble, get them out

57 Hartford Convention – New England Federalists threaten to secede from Union (destroys the Federalist Party)


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