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1 © www.dharmaavenue.com DharmaAvenue INTEGRATED SYLLABUS for TERTIARY GROUP COLLEGES & UNIVERSITIES

2 © www.dharmaavenue.com TERTIARY GROUP Level 3B / TG Lesson 04 DharmaAvenue.com Integrated Syllabus © www.dharmaavenue.com Ref : 3B / TG / 04 Characteristics And Contributions Of Buddhism

3 © www.dharmaavenue.com Module 01Sub Module Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 ●CHARACTERISTICS AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF BUDDHISM ●CHARACTERISTICS AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF BUDDHISM INTRODUCTION TO BUDDHISM Lesson Plan Characteristics – Comprehensive Content Characteristics – Graceful Approach Agreement By Great Personalities Buddhist Contributions to the World Showcase of Contemporary Contributions Characteristics – Comprehensive Content Characteristics – Graceful Approach Agreement By Great Personalities Buddhist Contributions to the World Showcase of Contemporary Contributions DAIS-TG

4 © www.dharmaavenue.com Characteristics – Comprehensive Content Excerpts : Buddha & His Teachings – Bhikkhu Narada Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 01-22 DAIS-TG ●Obvious And Irrefutable ●Universal And Scientific ●Accessible And Verifiable ●Realistic And Sensible ●Practical And Effective ●Gradual And Measured ●Open And Transparent ●Assuring And Joyful

5 © www.dharmaavenue.com Characteristics – Graceful Approach Excerpts : Buddha & His Teachings – Bhikkhu Narada Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 02-22 DAIS-TG ●Harmless And Peaceful ●Tolerant And Persuasive ●Compassionate And Liberating ●Honorable And Equitable ●Just And Supportive

6 © www.dharmaavenue.com Admiration by Great Personalities Excerpt : Great Personalities On Buddhism – Ven. K. Sri Dhammananda On Philosophy ●Albert Einstein, renown scientist. The religion of the future will be a cosmic religion. It should transcend a personal God and avoid dogmas and theology. Covering both the natural and the spiritual, it should be based on a religious sense arising from the experience of all things, natural and spiritual, as a meaningful unity. Buddhism answers this description. ●Bishop Gore. It is Buddhism as we find it actually recorded, not a hypothetical primitive system, which still forms a challenge to other religions. ●Prof. Carl Gustay Jung, a leading psychologist. As a student of comparative religions, I believe that Buddhism is the most perfect one the world has ever seen. The philosophy of the Buddha, the theory of evolution and the law of Karma were far superior to any other creed. Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 03-22 DAIS-TG

7 © www.dharmaavenue.com Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 04-22 DAIS-TG ●H. G. Wells, science fiction writer. Over great areas of the world it still survives. It is possible that in contact with Western science, and inspired by the spirit of history, the original teaching of Gotama, revived and purified, may yet play a large part in the direction of human destiny. ●H. G. Wells. Buddhism has done more for the advance of world civilization and true culture than any other influence in the chronicles of mankind. ●Hazrat Inayat Khan, Muslim scholar. The mission of the Buddha was quite unique in its character, and therefore it stands quite apart from the many other religions of the world. His mission was to bring the birds of idealism flying in the air nearer to the earth, because the food for their bodies belonged to the earth. ●Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher. If I am to take the results of my philosophy as the standard of truth I should be obliged to concede to Buddhism the pre-eminence over the rest. Admiration By Great Personalities

8 © www.dharmaavenue.com ●Sir Edwin Arnold, writer. I have often said, and I shall say again and again, that between Buddhism and modern Science there exists a close intellectual bond. ●Hazrat Inayat Khan, Muslim scholar. The Buddha taught in the form of religion, and today the thinkers of the modern world are beginning to find the same solution which Buddha found over 2500 years ago; they call it psychoanalysis. It is the beginning of that which had already reached its summit in the highest idealism. ●Jawarhalal Nehru, former Prime Minister of India. His message was one of universal benevolence, of love for all. It was an ideal of righteousness and self-discipline. Buddha relies on reason and logic and experience and asks people to seek the truth in their own minds. It is remarkable how near this philosophy of the Buddha brings us to some of the concepts of modern physics and modern philosophic thought. Buddha's method was one of psychological analysis and, again, it is surprising to find how deep was his insight into this latest of modem science. Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 05-22 DAIS-TG Admiration By Great Personalities

9 © www.dharmaavenue.com ●Dr. S.N. Dasgupta, Principal, Sanskrit College, Calcuta. The contributions of the Buddhist thought seem at the same time to be the most ancient as well as the most modern; its theory of causation, its relativism, its doctrine of sense-data, its pragmatism, its emphasis on morals, its disbelief in any permanent soul and its unconcern about God and its denial of the validity of scriptures and denial of rituals and its anti-metaphysical character and its appeal to experience all tend to establish its superior claim to modernity. ●George Grimm, German Philosopher. Unlike anyone else, Buddha not only laid bare the great practical problem of how we can make ourselves perfectly free from sorrow and absolutely full of bliss, but he has referred his essential problem directly to the primary problem of our deepest nature. What wholly unique is that he has referred it to a simple syllogism of such simplicity that, with goodwill, even an intelligent shepherd can in the end experience it in all its overwhelming certainty. Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 06-22 DAIS-TG ●Prof. Max Muller, German scholar. Buddhism is the highest expression of philosophic thought. The highest spiritual conceptions are to be found therein. Admiration By Great Personalities

10 © www.dharmaavenue.com ●Swami Vivekananda. Of all the teachers of the world, the Buddha was the one who taught us most to be self-reliant, who freed us not only from the bondage of four false values but from dependence on the invisible beings called God or Gods. He invited everyone into the state of freedom which he called Nirvana. All must attain it, one day, and the attainment is the complete fulfillment of man. ●Rabindranath Tagore, famous poet. Buddhism was the first spiritual force, known to us in history, which drew close together such a large number of races separated by most difficult barriers of distance, by difference of language and custom, by various degrees and divergent types of civilization. It had its motive power, neither in international commerce, nor in empire building, nor in scientific curiosity, nor in a migrative impulse to occupy fresh territory. It was a purely disinterested effort to help mankind forward to its final goal. Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 07-22 DAIS-TG Admiration By Great Personalities

11 © www.dharmaavenue.com ●Prof. Huxley, scientist. Gautama got rid of even that shade of a shadow of permanent existence by a metaphysical tour de force of great interest to the student of philosophy seeing that it supplies the wanting half of Bishop Berkeley's well-known idealist argument. It is a remarkable indication of the subtlety of Indian speculation that Gautama should have seen deeper than the greatest of modern idealist'. The tendency of enlightened thought of all today all the world over is not towards theology, but philosophy and psychology. The bark of theological dualism is drifting into danger. The fundamental principles of evolution and monism are being accepted by the thoughtful. Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 08-22 DAIS-TG Admiration By Great Personalities

12 © www.dharmaavenue.com On Morality ●Prof. Max Muller. Buddha was the embodiment of all the virtues he preached. During his successful and eventful ministry of 45 years he translated all his words into action; and in no place did he give vent to any human frailty, or any base passion. The Buddha's moral code is the most perfect which the world has ever known. ●Prof. Max Muller. The most important element of the Buddhist reform has always been its social and moral code. That moral code taken by itself is one of the most perfect which the world has ever known. On this point all testimonials from hostile and friendly quarters agree; philosophers there may have been, religious preachers, subtle metaphysists, disputants there may have been, but where shall we find such an incarnation of love, love that knows no distinction of caste and creed or colour, a love that over- flowed even the bound of humanity, that embraced the whole of sentient beings in its sweep, a love that embodied as the gospel of universal 'Maitri' and Ahimsa. ●Rev. Adolph Thomas. The moral code of Buddhism has given a pure expression to natural morality. Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 09-22 DAIS-TG Admiration By Great Personalities

13 © www.dharmaavenue.com Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 10-22 DAIS-TG Admiration By Great Personalities ●Prof. Von Glasenapp, A German Philosopher. As I understand it, Buddhism is, all throughout a doctrine of salvation for the individual; the idea of human collectivity which has sinned and can be redeemed, is alien to it. Therefore it has no central authority which claims the right of issuing orders or proclaiming dogmas binding on all the Buddhists of the world. ●Prof. Rhys Davids. It is not too much to say that almost the whole of the moral teachings of the Gospels as distinct from the dogmatic teaching will be found in Buddhist writings several centuries older than the Gospels. ●Albert Schweitzer, Western philosopher. In this sphere He gave expression to truths of everlasting value and advanced the ethics not of India alone but of humanity. Buddha was one of the greatest ethical men of genius ever bestowed upon the world.

14 © www.dharmaavenue.com Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 11-22 DAIS-TG Admiration By Great Personalities ●Bishop Bigendet. Most of the moral truths prescribed by the gospel are to be met within the Buddhist scriptures --in reading the particulars of the life of the last Buddha Gotama, it is impossible not to feel reminded of many circumstances relating to our Saviour's life, such as it has been sketched by the Evangelists. ●Rev. Joseph Wain. Buddhism taught a life not by rule, but by principle, a life of beauty; and as a consequence, it was a religion of tolerance. It was the most charitable system under the sun. ●Anagarika B. Govinda, A German Scholar. Buddhist morality is based on freedom, i.e. on individual development. It is therefore relative. In fact there cannot be any morality nor any ethical principle it there is compulsion or determination from an agent outside ourselves. Therefore the idea of a Creator and ruler of this world takes away the very foundation of morality and ethics; for how can we be made responsible for our faults if we have been created with them or in such a weak form that we cannot resist the evil.

15 © www.dharmaavenue.com Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 12-22 DAIS-TG Admiration By Great Personalities ●Dr. S Radhakrishnan, former President of India. When we read Buddha's discourses, we are impressed by his spirit of reason. His ethical path has for its first step right views, a rational outlook. He endeavors to brush aside all cobwebs that interfere with mankind's vision of itself and its destiny. ●Dr. S Radhakrishnan. The Buddha gave an ethical twist to the thought of His time. We find in the early teaching of Buddhism three marked characteristics, an ethical earnestness, an absence of any theological tendency and an aversion to metaphysical speculation. ●Prof. Rhys Davids, Scholar. Buddhist or not Buddhist, I have examined every one of the great religious systems of the world, and in none of them have I found anything to surpass, in beauty and comprehensiveness, the Noble Eightfold Path and the Four Noble Truths of the Buddha. I am content to shape my life according to that path.

16 © www.dharmaavenue.com On Method And Approach ●Aldous Huxley, essayist and novelist. Alone of all the great world religions Buddhism made its way without persecution, censorship or inquisition. In all these respects its record is enormously superior to that of Christianity, which made its way among people wedded to materialism and which was able to justify the bloodthirsty tendencies of its adherents by an appeal to savage bronze-age literature of the Old Testament. Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 13-22 DAIS-TG Admiration By Great Personalities ●Jawarhalal Nehru, Prime Minister of India. If any question has to be considered, it has to be considered peacefully and democratically in the way taught by the Buddha. ●Dr. Cunningham, Archaeologist. Buddhists propagated their religion by the persuasive voice of the missionary, many others by the merciless edge of the sword. The sanguinary career of others was lighted by lurid flames of burning cities; the peaceful progress of the Buddhist 46 was illuminated by the cheerful faces of the sick in monastic hospitals, by the happy smiles of travellers reposing in rest houses by the road-side".

17 © www.dharmaavenue.com Buddhist Contributions to the World Excerpts : DharmaAvenue Resources Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 14-22 DAIS-TG ●Philosophy And Science Philosophy Health Science Other Sciences ●Education Knowledge and Education ●Ethics And Morality Value System Human Rights Governance ●Social And Welfare Arts & Architecture Culture & Civilization Services & Welfare Environment & Peace

18 © www.dharmaavenue.com Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 15-22 DAIS-TG Philosophy And Science Philosophy ●Introduce 4 Noble Truths (as against theo-centric teaching) ●Introduce ethics without God ●Introduce comprehensive meditation system ●Introduce universal orders and law of causation ●Introduce doctrine of Dependent Origination ●Introduce doctrine of Kamma and Rebirth ●Introduce classification of philosophical thoughts ●Introduce system of logic, dialogues, etc Health Science ●Introduce behavioral medicine ●Introduce mental health with meditation Other Sciences ●Introduce studies on energy as primary ‘particles’ ●Introduce studies on extra sensory faculties ●Introduce studies on the mind and its development ●Introduce studies on human and social evolution Buddhist Contributions To The World

19 © www.dharmaavenue.com Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 16-22 DAIS-TG Education Knowledge and Education ●Establish knowledge as a foundation for practise and realization (pariyatti, patipatti, pativedha) ●Establish code of conduct and responsibilities for various positions and roles in life – e.g., Sigalovada Sutta ●Establish code of conduct, responsibilities and discipline for the Monastic Order – the Vinaya ●Establish mentorship in the training of monks ●Establish clear methodology to develop personal qualities and values ●Establish meditation as a method to access supramundane knowledge Buddhist Contributions To The World

20 © www.dharmaavenue.com Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 17-22 DAIS-TG Ethics And Morality Value System ●Establish high standard of ethical behavior ●Establish openness and transparency ●Establish religious tolerance and harmlessness ●Establish equitability and equal opportunity ●Establish freedom of choice and meritocracy ●Establish respect for all forms of life ●Establish moderation, denounce extremism Human Rights ●Establish Freedom of Religious Practice ●Establish Freedom of Speech ●Uplift Status of Women in Society ●Admit Women in Monastic Order ●Denounce the Caste System Governance ●Establish code of discipline in the Monastic Order ●Establish democracy in the Monastic Order ●Establish code of ethics of governing Buddhist Contributions To The World

21 © www.dharmaavenue.com Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 18-22 DAIS-TG Social And Welfare Arts And Architecture See Next Slide ●Art: Japan (Ikebana, tea offering, zen garden), China (Shaolin), Tibet (Thangkas, Mandala) ●Architecture: Potala (Tibet), Borobudur (Indonesia), Sanchi Stupa (India), Mahabodhi Temple (India), Shwe Dagon (Burma), Emerald and Ayutthaya Temple (Thailand) ●Stone Sculptures and cave temples: India (Ajanta, Udaigiri, Ellora, Karle), Srilanka (Dambulla, Gal Vihara), Afghanistan (Bamiyam), China (Magao Caves, Yungang Grottoes, Longmen Grottoes) Culture And Civilization ●Contribution of King Asoka ●Contributions of Fa-hsien and Hsuan-tsang Services And Welfare See Next Slide Environment And Peace See Next Slide Buddhist Contributions To The World

22 © www.dharmaavenue.com Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 19-22 DAIS-TG Buddhist Contributions To The World Social And Welfare - Architecture Top to bottom, left to right: Potala, Tibet Angkor Wat, Cambodia Borobudur, Indonesia Shwe Dagon, Burma Jetawana Dagoba, Sri Lanka Mahabodhi Temple, India Abhayagiri Dagoba, Sri Lanka Wat Phra Pathom, Thailand Kek Lok Si, Malaysia

23 © www.dharmaavenue.com Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 20-22 DAIS-TG Buddhist Contributions To The World Top to bottom, left to right: Ajanta & Ellora, India (4) Yungang & Longmen, China (4) Sukhotai & Ayutthaya, Thailand (5) Dambulla, Anadhapura & Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka (6 pics) Bamiyam, Afghanistan (1) Social And Welfare – Stone Sculpture & Cave Temples

24 © www.dharmaavenue.com Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 21-22 DAIS-TG Buddhist Contributions To The World Top to bottom, left to right: Shaolin martial arts – China Zen Garden, Ikebana (flower arrangement), Tea Offering – Japan Mandala, Thangkas painting – Tibet Social And Welfare – Art & Culture

25 © www.dharmaavenue.com ●Tibet. The Dalai Lama and the non-violence peace movement ●Vietnam. Venerable Thich Nhat Hanh, interbeing and peace movement ●Taiwan. Buddhist model of international welfare work – the experience of Tzu Chi Buddhist Society ●Sri Lanka. Sharing resources, seeking peace – the experience of Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement ●Thailand-Europe. Harmony of cross cultural integration – Ajahn Chah and the Western Monastic Order ●Burma. Disseminating Treasures by the Burmese Masters ●India. Kiran Bedi and the reformation of prisoners Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 22-22 DAIS-TG Showcase of Contemporary Contributions Collated : DharmaAVenue

26 © www.dharmaavenue.com About Us Welcome to DharmaAvenue.com. We are an independent, non- sectarian and not-for-profit Buddhist e-library and educational resource center based in Malaysia. All sects of Buddhism are respected and represented on this website. It was founded in 2004 and is committed to outreach learning. We are dedicated to sourcing, structuring and sharing resources to avail Buddhist knowledge to individuals interested in self-learning and Buddhist organizations interested in learning resources. While we hope to nurture a structured, systematic and integrated approach to learning about the Buddha’s Teaching we also hope to project the relevancy and immediacy of this beautiful ancient religion. Copyright. For free distribution only. You may print copies of this work for your personal use. You may re-format and redistribute this work for use on computers and computer networks, provided that you charge no fees for its distribution or use. Otherwise, all rights reserved. Please give acknowledgment to dharmaavenue.com. Bibliography Buddha And His Teachings. Bhikkhu Narada, Buddhist Missionary Society Great Personalities On Buddhism. Ven. Dr. K. Sri Dhammananda, Buddhist Missionary Society Further Reading Contribution Of Buddhism To World Culture. Ven. Soma Thera, Wheel 44, Buddhist Publication Society Knowledge And Conduct. Buddhist Contribution To Philosophy And Ethics, Wheel 50, Buddhist Publication Society Contribution Of Buddhism To World Civilization And Culture, P.N. Chopra (Co.Ee.), Tokan Sum (Ed.), S.Chand & Co Buddhism. The Religion And Its Culture. Ananda Guruge, World Fellowship of Buddhist Other Modules in College & University Series Introduction To Buddhism Four Noble Truths Development Of Ethics Development Of Tranquility Development Of Insight Path Of Purification Dependent Origination Kamma And Rebirth History Of Buddhism Traditions In Buddhism Scriptural Studies Credits Collated and Edited by: K.L. Hor, including cover design and layout Sub-editor: Fong Hong Wai Photo credits: Various sources across the Net. May owners of these photos be blessed with merits of this non-profit Project. Copyright © dharmaavenue.com May 2005


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