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Input, Output and Processing

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Presentation on theme: "Input, Output and Processing"— Presentation transcript:

1 Input, Output and Processing
Lesson 2 Input, Output and Processing

2 Standard Input Devices
Input – must be entered into computer and stored temporarily or permanently. Modem – device that allows one computer to talk to another. Keyboards – Most common input device for entering text and numbers. Various types: Ergonomic – use of more natural/comfortable hand, wrist and arm positions Cordless/Wireless – battery-powered transmit via wireless Specialized – special keys represent specific items (example: fast-food restaurants) Security – biometric fingerprint reader, magnetic stripe or smart card reader Foldable/Flexible – used with mobile devices; soft touch and water resistant. NIK-Nearly Indestructible Keyboard Laser Virtual – packaged small; use laser to project full-size keyboard. Connects to any PC or Smartphone Standard Input Devices

3 Standard Input Devices
Enhanced Keyboard Biometric Keyboard Flexible and Foldable Keyboards Standard Input Devices

4 Standard Input Devices
Virtual Keyboard Standard Input Devices

5 Standard Input Devices
Pointing Devices – Input device to position pointer on screen; has several shapes usually an arrow; use to move device; select objects like text or graphics; click icons, buttons, or links Mouse – Most common pointing device for the PC; fits in palm of hand. Various types: Mechanical – ball located in bottom of mouse; rolls on flat surface; sensors detect movement (direction and distance) Optomechanical – same as above but uses optical sensors to detect movement Optical – uses laser to detect movement; have no mechanical moving parts; respond more quickly and precisely than mechanical or optomechanical mice Wireless – battery powered; infrared waves to communicate with computer Trackball Mouse – upside down mechanical mouse with ball on top Radio Frequency – typically wireless, but uses radio frequency instead of infrared waves Foldable – wireless and flexible to be easily folded or rolled up Standard Input Devices

6 Standard Input Devices
Wireless Optical Trackball Radio Frequency Foldable Standard Input Devices

7 Standard Input Devices
Pointing Devices – continued Mouse – continued Mice have two or three buttons and a wheel Left click = mouse operations Right click = shortcut menu Point and Click triggers action in computer Pointing – places pointer in designated location Clicking – pressing and releasing mouse button to select specific location in doc Dragging – pressing mouse button and moving mouse = highlighting text Double-Clicking – press and release mouse button rapidly twice = select a word Triple-Clicking – press and release mouse button rapidly three times = select a paragraph Right-Clicking – displays a shortcut menu Rotating – rolling wheel forward or backwards = scroll vertically up or down Tilting – pressing wheel left or right = scroll horizontally Standard Input Devices

8 Standard Input Devices
Pointing Devices – continued Trackball – upside down mouse; use thumb and/or fingers to control ball motion; mouse is stationary; good choice for limited desk space; some keyboards have built-in trackballs Touchpad – common feature on laptop/notebook computers; specialized surface to convert motion and position of finger to placement on the computer screen. Pointing Stick – pressure sensitive device looks like an eraser; usually contained on notebook computer between the G, H, and B keys; use forefinger to move Audio Input – sound entered into computer; examples: microphones, CD/DVD players, radios, electronic keyboards; use voice recognition to speak commands into computer or enter text; computer has to have voice recognition software Standard Input Devices

9 Standard Input Devices
Trackball Mouse Keyboard with Trackball Standard Input Devices

10 Standard Input Devices
Pointing Stick Touchpad Standard Input Devices

11 Standard Output Devices
Output – data processed into useful format; display information (examples: printed text, spoken words, music, pictures, videos, and graphics; most common are monitors and printers. Monitors – visual display device; comprised of screen, housing, electrical components; display is called a soft copy since it is temporary. Various types: CRT – Cathode Ray Tube; earliest type, monochrome or color; heavy; nearly obsolete; replaced by flat panel monitors Flat Panel – take up less space; lighter; larger viewing area LCD – Liquid Crystal Display; produces image by manipulating light within the Liquid Crystal cells; originally for notebooks; 1997 started producing full-size monitors as alternative to the older CRTs; older LCD produced square display; newer monitors = widescreen format Plasma – Gas plasma technology; tiny amount of gas charged by electricity; illuminates miniature colored fluorescent lights; typically widescreen format Standard Output Devices

12 Standard Output Devices
CRT monitor LCD monitor Gas Plasma monitor Standard Output Devices

13 Standard Output Devices
Output Devices – Continued Printers – produce paper copy (hard copy); hard copy = permanent; several types available with differences to consider: Speed – measures in ppm (pages per minute); varies according to text and graphics Print Quality – measured in dpi (dots per inch); higher dpi = better resolution or print quality. Price – original cost of printer and what it cost to maintain it; price range from inexpensive to thousands of dollars; ink and toner cartridges need to be replaced periodically and have wide range of pricing as well Standard Output Devices

14 Standard Output Devices
Output Devices – Continued Printers – Continued Classifications Impact – use a mechanism to strike paper to form letters or graphics DOT Matrix example of this type. Non-Impact – form characters without striking paper Laser and Inkjet examples of this type Laser – produces images like a copy machine; image made from toner, high quality output; generally affordable but can be expensive Standard Output Devices

15 Standard Output Devices
How a laser printer works Standard Output Devices

16 Standard Output Devices
How an inkjet printer works Standard Output Devices

17 Standard Output Devices
Output Devices – Continued Speakers – generate sound (examples: music or instructions); headphones/earbuds = private Standard Output Devices

18 Specialized Input Devices
Other types of input devices that are used for specialized applications. Digital Cameras – store pictures digitally and transferred to computer’s memory. Various storage media: Flash Memory Cards, Memory Sticks, USB Keys, Mini Discs, SD Cards Video input is a set of full motion images captured with video camera. DV camera records video as digital signals. They can capture still images as well. PC Video camera sends live images via the web, video telephone calls, or Mini digital small enough to fit in pocket. Webcams = video capturing cameras connected to computers or computer networks. Display images via the web Specialized Input Devices

19 Specialized Input Devices
Miniaturized Digital Video camera Wearable Video Camera Specialized Input Devices

20 Specialized Input Devices
Game Controllers – Joystick and Wheel are types of pointing devices; used primarily for games Steering Wheel Joystick Specialized Input Devices

21 Specialized Input Devices
Scanners – Devices used to change images into computer code; various sizes and types: Image – converts image to electronic form to store in computer memory; manipulate images Bar Code – reads bar lines printed on products Magnetic – read encoded information on credit cards; contains user’s encoded account information Wireless – use Bluetooth technology to scan barcode data and transmit to computer Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) – use light source to read characters, marks, and codes; data converted into digital format; example: Banks use OCR to scan checks; Schools use OMR for testing (Scantron forms) Specialized Input Devices

22 Specialized Input Devices
Optical Scanner Bluetooth Scanner Specialized Input Devices

23 Specialized Input Devices
Touch Display Screen – special screen that reacts to direct touches within display area; use finger or hand; can be found in places like: airports, hotels, libraries, delivery services, fast-food restaurants; mobile device like iPhone, iPad, notebook computers have touch screens Specialized Input Devices

24 Specialized Input Devices
Stylus – Pen-like writing instrument used to enter information by writing or pointing on a screen. Environmental Probes/Sensors – used to view information like humidity and temperature in remote areas; smoke detector or pollution control readings; industries fish farms, moisture monitoring, warehouse security Remote Controls – manage devices like TVs, lights, fans, factory equipment (cranes, carts, etc.) Stylus Specialized Input Devices

25 Specialized Input Devices
Security Devices – Biometrics to authenticate to recognize a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic; uses reader/scanner and software to convert scanned information into digital format; used to identify people based on fingerprints, face, voice, or hand; analysis of retina, iris, hand geometry, or vein are other options; how it works: Enrollment – establishes baseline measurement for comparison Submission – present biological proof of identity to capture machine Verification – compares submitted sample to stored sample Uses in computer industry Computer Keyboards and USB Flash Drive with fingerprint authentication Specialized Input Devices

26 Specialized Input Devices
Virtual Devices – Similar to Laser Keyboard; use synchronized position of light-emitting and sensing devices to detect user input Touch-Sensitive Pads – Like the touchpad of a notebook; used by device like iPod, iPad, etc.; use to scroll through lists, adjust volume, view pictures or videos, or customize settings Input Devices For the Physically Challenged – Keyboards operated with one hand or foot Camera Mouse allow users to use Webcam and control mouse pointer with their head Human-Computer interface uses eye control to move pointer Joystick mouse can be operated by lips, chin, or tongue Voice input allows those that are visually or physically impaired to interact with computers Specialized Input Devices

27 Specialized Output Devices
Projectors – project images onto a screen for presentation FAX Machines – transmit and receives documents via telephone line or through computer Multi-function printer – combines functions like printing, copying, scanning, faxing Control devices/robots – Robotics is the study, design, and use of robot systems in manufacturing; applications for testing, product inspection, assembly, packaging, and painting Specialized Output Devices

28 Specialized Output Devices
Specialized Printers Examples: Dot matrix – uses printhead to strike paper to form character or number; measured in (CPS) characters per second; seldom used anymore Line – variation of the Dot matrix; connected to large mainframe computers or servers Thermal – forms characters by heating paper; requires special paper Mobile – small, battery-powered; for use with notebook computers Label and Postage – used to print labels with adhesive on one side; postage printer contains scales and prints postage stamps Plotters/large format – used by engineers, architects, or graphic artists; produces large drawings or drafting plans Specialized Output Devices

29 Specialized Output Devices
Output Devices For the Physically Challenged – Screen Magnifiers – Range of magnification and fonts that enlarge information on screen Screen Readers – assists those visually impaired by reading screen content; can read scanned documents Voice Synthesizers – changes computer text into synthetic speech Screen magnifier Specialized Output Devices

30 Ports and Connectors Firewire USB
Ports – interface which a peripheral device attaches to or communicates with the computer or other peripheral device USB (Universal Serial Bus) – connects up to 127 peripheral device with single connector; transfer rate = 200 million bits per second; USB 3.0 latest version; replaced standard serial and parallel ports of older computers; typically 4-8 connectors located on computer Plug and Play – computer system can configure expansion boards automatically; “Hot Plugging” = add/remove devices will computer is running Firewire – known as IEEE 1394 (data transfer up to 400 Mbps) or IEEE 1394b (data transfer up to 3200 Mbps); connects up to 63 devices Firewire Ports and Connectors USB

31 SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) – pronounced “SKUZZY”; standard interface for connecting peripherals like disk drives and printers IrDA – wireless standard that allows data to be transferred between devices using infrared light instead of cables; both devices must have IrDA port Bluetooth – uses radio waves to provide wireless short-range communication between mobile and stationary device; alternative to IrDA Expansion slots – openings on motherboard to put expansion boards/cards to enhance functions of a component or provide a connection; expansion boards also called: Adapter Cards Expansion Cards Add-ins Add-ons Hardware Installation – needs set of instructions to communicate with computer; instructions are called drivers; installed automatically or manually Ports and Connectors

32 Considering Computer Performance Factors
Microprocessor – most important element; higher the generation = faster and better processing speed and more instructions per second can be processed RAM (Random Access Memory) – amount of RAM helps to speed up processing cycle; more memory = better performance from computer; computer reads from RAM faster than the hard drive Hard Disk – size and speed affects computer performance; bigger and faster = faster data processing; disk organization affects computer performance therefore remove unneeded or outdated files Video – can enhance or slow computer performance; have adequate video memory to optimize performance Considering Computer Performance Factors

33 1) A(n) __________ is a device that allows one computer to talk to another. Answer: Modem 2) The __________ is the most commonly used input device for entering text and numbers into a computer. Answer: Keyboard 3) Desktop computers typically use a(n) __________ as their display device. Answer: Monitor QUICK QUIZZES

34 4) What is output? Answer: Output is data processed into a useful format 5) __________ are devices that can change images into codes for input to the computer. Answer: Scanners 6) What is biometrics? Answer: An authentication technique using automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. QUICK QUIZZES

35 7) A(n) __________ printer is a small, battery-powered printer, primarily used to print from a notebook computer. Answer: Mobile 8) The field of __________ is defined as the study, design, and use of robot systems for manufacturing. Answer: Robotics 9) A(n) __________ is an interface to which a peripheral device attaches to or communicates with the system unit or other peripheral devices. Answer: Port QUICK QUIZZES

36 10) What is plug and play? Answer: This refers to the ability of a computer system to configure expansion boards and other devices automatically. 11) True or False? The higher the CPU generation, the faster and better the processing speed. Answer: True 12) True or False? To improve computer performance dramatically, increase the amount of RAM on your computer. QUICK QUIZZES

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