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Introduction to animals

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1 Introduction to animals
Copyright cmassengale copyright cmassengale

2 Traits copyright cmassengale

3 Characteristics of Animals
All multicellular (metazoans) Eukaryotes (cells with nucleus & organelles) Ingestive heterotrophs (take in food and internally digest it) Store food reserves as glycogen copyright cmassengale

4 Lions Feeding (Ingestion)
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5 Support Systems Have some type of skeletal support
Endoskeleton inside and made of cartilage &/or bone Exoskeletons found in arthropods Cover the outside of the body Limit size Must be molted making animal vulnerable to predators copyright cmassengale

6 Cicada Molting Exoskeleton
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7 Support Systems Worms and echinoderms (starfish) have fluid-filled internal cavities giving them support Called hydrostatic skeletons copyright cmassengale

8 Movement Animals such as sponges may be sessile (attached & non-moving) Animals that move very little are said to be sedentary (clam) Animals that can move are motile Have muscular tissue to provide energy for movement copyright cmassengale

9 SESSILE SEDENTARY Chiton Sponge MOTILE Cheetah copyright cmassengale

10 Reproduction in Animals
All animals are capable of sexual reproduction Some animals like sponges and earthworms are hermaphrodites producing both eggs and sperm Hermaphrodites may exchange sperm and NOT fertilize their own eggs copyright cmassengale

11 Leeches Exchange Sperm During Mating
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12 Reproduction in Animals
Females of some animals produce eggs, but the eggs develop without being fertilized Called Parthenogenesis New offspring will be all female Parthenogenesis occurs in some fishes, several kinds of insects, and a few species of frogs and lizards copyright cmassengale

13 Parthenogenesis in the Komodo Dragon
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14 Mating and Mating Behaviors
Female Beetles Mating Young Courtship Male Mating and Mating Behaviors copyright cmassengale

15 Levels of Organization
Sponges are the ONLY animals that have just the cellular level All other animals show these levels – cell, tissue, organ, and system Cells may specialize (take own different shapes and functions) Cells are held together by cell junctions to form tissues copyright cmassengale

16 Levels of Organization
Molecule or compound Atom Organelle Levels of Organization CELL Life begins Tissue Organ Organ system Organism copyright cmassengale

17 Invertebrate groups copyright cmassengale

18 Characteristics of Invertebrates
Simplest animals Contain the greatest number of different species Most are aquatic (found in water) Do NOT have a backbone Includes sponges, cnidarians, flatworms, roundworms, annelids, mollusks, arthropods, and echinoderms copyright cmassengale

19 Sponge - Porifera Osculum of Sponge copyright cmassengale

20 Sea Anemone - Cnidaria Tentacles of Sea Anemone copyright cmassengale

21 More Cnidarians Brain Coral Red jellyfish copyright cmassengale

22 Flatworms - Platyhelminthes
Marine Flatworm Planarian copyright cmassengale

23 Roundworms (Nematoda) and Segmented Worms (Annelida)
Nematode Leech (segmented worm) copyright cmassengale

24 Mollusca (With and Without Shells)
snail scallop octopus nudibranch nautilus copyright cmassengale

25 Arthropoda (insects, spiders, crustaceans, horseshoe crab)
crayfish Horseshoe crab Dung beetle copyright cmassengale

26 Echinoderms starfish Sea fan (crinoid) Brittle star Sand dollar
Sea cucumber copyright cmassengale

27 Vertebrate Groups copyright cmassengale

28 Vertebrata More complex animals
Most have a backbone made up of individual bones called vertebrae From simplest to most complex, the phylum includes: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals copyright cmassengale

29 Vertebrate Backbone copyright cmassengale

30 Vertebrata Vertebrates have endoskeletons (internal)
Some vertebrates have skeletons of cartilage (sharks, rays, and skates) Other vertebrates have skeletons of bone and cartilage (reptiles, birds, & mammals) copyright cmassengale

31 Bone & Cartilage in Fetus
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32 Fish lancelet ray damselfish anglerfish copyright cmassengale

33 Amphibia salamander toad frog newt copyright cmassengale

34 Reptilia Turtle Snake Lizard Alligator copyright cmassengale

35 Birds - Aves hummingbird ostrich lovebirds copyright cmassengale

36 Mammalia copyright cmassengale

37 Body Areas copyright cmassengale

38 Surfaces Dorsal – back or upper surface
Ventral – belly or lower surface Anterior – head or front end Posterior – tail or hind end opposite the head Oral surface (echinoderms) – is where the mouth is located (underside) Aboral surface (echinoderms) – is opposite the mouth (top side) copyright cmassengale

39 Surfaces (Most Animals)

40 Surfaces (Echinoderms)
ORAL ABORAL mouth copyright cmassengale

41 Symmetry copyright cmassengale

42 Body Symmetry copyright cmassengale

43 Body Symmetry Symmetry is the arrangement of body parts around a central plane or axis Asymmetry occurs when the body can’t be divided into similar sections (sponges) copyright cmassengale

44 Body Symmetry Radial symmetry occurs when body parts are arranged around a central point like spokes on a wheel (echinoderms) Most animals with radial symmetry are sessile (attached) or sedentary (move very little) copyright cmassengale

45 copyright cmassengale

46 Body Symmetry Bilateral symmetry occurs when animals can be divided into equal halves along a single plane Organisms will have right and left sides that are mirror images of each other More complex type of symmetry copyright cmassengale

47 Body Symmetry Animals with bilateral symmetry are usually motile
Animals have an anterior and posterior ends Show cephalization (concentration of sensory organs on the head or anterior end) copyright cmassengale

48 copyright cmassengale

49 Segmentation copyright cmassengale

50 Segmentation Occurs whenever animal bodies are divided into repeating units or segments Found in more complex animals Earthworms show external segmentation Humans show internal segmentation (backbone) Segments may fuse (cephalothorax) copyright cmassengale

51 Segmentation cephalothorax copyright cmassengale

52 Tissues copyright cmassengale

53 Tissue Development Zygote (fertilized egg) undergoes rapid cell divisions called cleavage Forms a hollow ball of cells called the blastula copyright cmassengale

54 Blastula The blastocoel is the center cavity of the blastula with 1 germ layer (blastoderm) copyright cmassengale

55 Tissue Development The blastula INVAGINATES (folds inward at one point) Called Gastrulation The opening is called the blastopore The center is the primitive gut or Archenteron Archenteron blastopore copyright cmassengale

56 Tissue Development Blastopore may become the mouth (Protostome) or anus (Deuterostome) Protostomes (mollusks, arthropods, & annelids) Deuterostomes (echinoderms & vertebrates) Some animals form a middle germ layer called mesoderm copyright cmassengale

57 Embryonic Development
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58 Germ Layers Form tissues, organs, & systems NOT present in sponges
Ectoderm (outer) – forms skin, nerves, sense organs Endoderm (inner) – forms liver and lungs Mesoderm (middle) – forms muscles & other systems copyright cmassengale

59 Body Layers Sponges have NO tissues or organs, only specialized cells
Cnidarians like jellyfish & coral have only two body layers & one body opening (mouth/anus) into gastrovascular cavity Cnidarians have outer epidermis & inner gastrodermis with jelly-like mesoglea between the layers copyright cmassengale

60 copyright cmassengale

61 Body Layers All worms, mollusks, arthropods, echinoderms, and vertebrates have three cell layers Ectoderm Endoderm mesoderm copyright cmassengale

62 Embryonic Cleavage copyright cmassengale

63 Cleavage Cleavage – rapid mitosis (cell division) of zygote
Radial Cleavage – cells divide parallel or perpendicular to axis to each other copyright cmassengale

64 Cleavage Spiral Cleavage – cellular divisions occur diagonally, in a twisting pattern copyright cmassengale

65 copyright cmassengale

66 Stages of Development copyright cmassengale

67 Larval Forms Animals with Indirect development
Go through immature (larval) forms Larva does NOT resemble adult Cnidarian (jellyfish, coral, & sea anemone) larva called Planula copyright cmassengale

68 Larval Forms Mollusk (squid & octopus) larva called trochophore
Echinoderm (starfish) larva is called Dipleurula copyright cmassengale

69 Metamorphosis Usually found in arthropods
May be complete or incomplete Incomplete Metamorphosis: egg nymph adult Complete Metamorphosis: egg larva pupa adult copyright cmassengale

70 Metamorphosis COMPLETE INCOMPLETE copyright cmassengale

71 Body Cavities copyright cmassengale

72 Coelom - Body Cavity Internal body cavity fully lined with mesoderm
Body organs suspended in this cavity copyright cmassengale

73 Coelom - Body Cavity Acoelomate animals have solid bodies filled with cells Acoelomate animals include sponges, cnidarians, & flatworms copyright cmassengale

74 Coelom - Body Cavity Pseudocoelomate animals (roundworms) have a functional body cavity NOT fully lined with mesoderm copyright cmassengale

75 Animal Systems copyright cmassengale

76 Support Systems Spongin & spicules (sponges) Limestone cases (corals)
Exoskeletons of Chitin (arthropods) Limits size Must be shed or molted to grow Animal vulnerable to predators during molting copyright cmassengale

77 Support Systems Hydrostatic skeleton – fluid filled body cavity (worms) Inner Calcium plates or Test (echinoderms) Bone and/or cartilage endoskeleton (vertebrates) copyright cmassengale

78 Exoskeletons Must Be Molted

79 Endoskeletons Grow with the Animal

80 Digestive Systems All animals are ingestive heterotrophs
Choanocytes (specialized cells) capture & digest food for sponges Gastrovascular cavity with one opening in cnidarians and flatworms for food to enter & leave; called two-way digestive system copyright cmassengale

81 Gastrovascular Cavity with Mouth Only (Cnidarians)

82 Two-Way Digestion copyright cmassengale

83 Digestive Systems Animals with a one-way digestive system have a mouth and an anus Food enters the mouth, continues in one direction through the digestive tract, and wastes leave through the anus Includes annelids, arthropods, & vertebrates copyright cmassengale

84 One-Way Digestion Mouth anus copyright cmassengale

85 Circulatory Systems Transports oxygen & nutrients to cells
Carries away wastes & carbon dioxide from cells Sponges, cnidarians, & flatworms do NOT have circulatory systems copyright cmassengale

86 Circulatory Systems In closed circulation, blood remains inside blood vessels until it reaches cells (annelids & vertebrates) In open circulation, blood is pumped out of blood vessels to bathe tissues in the body cavity or hemocoel (arthropods & mollusks) copyright cmassengale

87 Open Circulation Closed Circulation
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88 Respiratory System Taking in O2 & releasing CO2
Gases can diffuse across moist surfaces (earthworms) Gills filter O2 from water (aquatic animals) Lungs take O2 from air (terrestrial animals) copyright cmassengale

89 Skin breather Gills Lungs copyright cmassengale

90 Nervous System Coordinates the activities of the animal’s body
Neurons – nerve cells that transmit electrochemical signals Nerve net - network of neurons, very little coordination Ganglion – clusters of neurons; may serve as a simple brain Brain – control center at anterior end copyright cmassengale

91 copyright cmassengale

92 Excretory System Excretion is the removal of nitrogen wastes from the body Diffusion is used by simple aquatic animals Flame cells remove wastes in flatworms copyright cmassengale

93 Excretory System Coiled tubules called nephridia remove nitrogen wastes in arthropods Terrestrial animals remove wastes with Kidneys May be paired (most vertebrates) May be single as in birds copyright cmassengale

94 copyright cmassengale

95 Reproductive System Reproduction is the process by which organisms make more of their own kind All animals reproduce by sexual reproduction (produce eggs and sperm) Some animals also use asexual reproduction creating identical offspring copyright cmassengale

96 Types of Animal Asexual Reproduction
Regeneration or Fragmentation is the breaking off of pieces and the re-growth of a new organism Found in simple animals like Sponges and Flatworms copyright cmassengale

97 Budding occurs in hydra whenever a growth on the parent is released
Creates a clone copyright cmassengale

98 Komodo dragon is an example
Parthenogenesis – females produce eggs that develop unfertilized into female organisms Komodo dragon is an example copyright cmassengale

99 Most hermaphrodites do NOT fertilize their own eggs
Hermaphrodite are animals like earthworms that produce BOTH eggs and sperm Most hermaphrodites do NOT fertilize their own eggs Mate to exchange sperm copyright cmassengale

100 Fertilization External – sperm and eggs are released into water where they are fertilized Internal – sperm and egg are fertilized inside the female animal’s body copyright cmassengale

101 copyright cmassengale

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