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University of Limerick Ollscoil Luimnigh 12 May 2007, Session D4Eileen Humphreys, HSyRC, Dept. Sociology, UL Social capital, governance and local communities.

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Presentation on theme: "University of Limerick Ollscoil Luimnigh 12 May 2007, Session D4Eileen Humphreys, HSyRC, Dept. Sociology, UL Social capital, governance and local communities."— Presentation transcript:

1 University of Limerick Ollscoil Luimnigh 12 May 2007, Session D4Eileen Humphreys, HSyRC, Dept. Sociology, UL Social capital, governance and local communities SAI 34 th Annual Conference University of Limerick May 2007

2 University of Limerick Ollscoil Luimnigh 12 May 2007, Session D4Eileen Humphreys, HSyRC, Dept. Sociology, UL Research on social capital Study (2003 fieldwork) …. 1.Test / develop means of measurement 2.Types and variations in social capital.. urban neighbourhoods Civic perspective … spatial … contested The stocks of social trust, norms and networks which people can draw on to solve common problems (Putnam, 1995)

3 University of Limerick Ollscoil Luimnigh 12 May 2007, Session D4Eileen Humphreys, HSyRC, Dept. Sociology, UL Policy context & interest Policy interest …. –EU, World Bank, OECD … –NESF 2003, TF on Active Citizenship 2006 … NDP Themes …. –Social capital, prosperity …. Good governance Social capital in public policy … –Direct (NGOs & volunteering).. –Indirect (conditions) Socio-economic / structural factors … Planning …. neighbourhoods … Institutional arrangements (decentralised structures …) Institutional ….. community development …. partnerships Targeting disadvantage, coordination, fast tracking funding.. Local governance … Cohesion structures … county level

4 University of Limerick Ollscoil Luimnigh 12 May 2007, Session D4Eileen Humphreys, HSyRC, Dept. Sociology, UL Dimensions Elements Bonding Strong, homogeneous Bridging Weak, horizontal, heterogeneous Linking Weak, vertical, heterogeneous ValuesSocial trust Reciprocity Cohesion (2) Inclusion Trust community leaders Trust in community organisations Trust in institutions (7) Community efficacy Local governance (3) NetworksKnow neighbours Network density Interaction See enough of family & friends? In vol orgs-passive In vol orgs-active Religious services (Reasons for non- involvement) Aware of SC linking organisations Involved in SC linking organisations Intermediate outcomes Doing & accepting favours Social support Civic interest (news media) Civic action (voting, action on nhood problems)

5 University of Limerick Ollscoil Luimnigh 12 May 2007, Session D4Eileen Humphreys, HSyRC, Dept. Sociology, UL Study neighbourhoods 2002 (CSO) AreaClassification (GAMMA) Social classEducationCD & policy Tipperary Town (part) (2,130 pop., 760 households) Disadvantaged – disimprovement Overall mixed27% low qualification Long history, organic development Moyross (4,100 pop., 1,110 households) Very disadvantaged – improvement Lower socio- economic classes 40% low qualification Policy support 1990s (strong, externally focused) Kings Island (2,760 pop., 972 hholds) Extremely disadvantaged – much worse Lower socio- economic classes 46% low qualification Policy support 1990s (fragmented) Thurles (part), 1,900 pop., 729 households Below average – disimprovement Overall mixed21% low qualification Limited & very recent support

6 University of Limerick Ollscoil Luimnigh 12 May 2007, Session D4Eileen Humphreys, HSyRC, Dept. Sociology, UL

7 University of Limerick Ollscoil Luimnigh 12 May 2007, Session D4Eileen Humphreys, HSyRC, Dept. Sociology, UL

8 University of Limerick Ollscoil Luimnigh 12 May 2007, Session D4Eileen Humphreys, HSyRC, Dept. Sociology, UL

9 University of Limerick Ollscoil Luimnigh 12 May 2007, Session D4Eileen Humphreys, HSyRC, Dept. Sociology, UL

10 University of Limerick Ollscoil Luimnigh 12 May 2007, Session D4Eileen Humphreys, HSyRC, Dept. Sociology, UL

11 University of Limerick Ollscoil Luimnigh 12 May 2007, Session D4Eileen Humphreys, HSyRC, Dept. Sociology, UL

12 University of Limerick Ollscoil Luimnigh 12 May 2007, Session D4Eileen Humphreys, HSyRC, Dept. Sociology, UL Dependent variables Predictors 1. Social Capital 2. Bonding3. Bridging4. Linking Context - Place Neighbourhood -Moyross** -Kings Isl.* +Tipperary T.* -Moyross* +Kings Isl** -Tipperary T.* -Moyross* -King Isl +Tipperary T. -Moyross** -Kings Isl.*** +Tipp. T.*** Composition Individuals & households +Education** -Single parent / alone* +Residence* -Single parent/alone* -Renting*** +Education** -Single parent / alone +Education -Single parent/alone* Contextual conditions Facilities, services, quality, problems +Comm.Inf.*** +Quality** +Identity*** -Problems* +Comm.Inf.*** +Quality* +Identity*** -Problems** +Comm.Inf.*** +Quality** +Identity*** +Comm.Inf.*** +Quality** +Identity** +Services* Adjusted R sq F stat *** *** *** *** Cases

13 University of Limerick Ollscoil Luimnigh 12 May 2007, Session D4Eileen Humphreys, HSyRC, Dept. Sociology, UL Dependent variables Predictors ValuesNetworksIntermediate Outcomes (social & civic) Context - Place Neighbourhood -Moyross*-City***-City Composition Individuals & households -Renting +Education* -Single parent/alone -Renting* +Education -Single parent / alone** +Residence* -Renting -Single parent / alone* Contextual conditions Facilities, services, quality, problems +Comm.Inf.*** +Quality** +Identity*** +Services** -Problems*** +Comm.Inf.*** +Quality +Identity*** +Services +Problems +Comm.Inf.*** +Quality +Identity +Services +Problems** Adjusted R sq F stat *** *** *** Cases

14 University of Limerick Ollscoil Luimnigh 12 May 2007, Session D4Eileen Humphreys, HSyRC, Dept. Sociology, UL Conclusions Bridging & linking SC … weak Policy-induced structures may help but … –Well-connected get better connected.. –Grass-roots … remain unconnected.. Not embedded.. Attitudes of trust.. –Some very distant … disadvantaged areas More affluent areas.. structures More of the same wont work… Cohesion … more confusion but good for some … Identity & profile of LDSIP (partnership) structures Focus on conditions –Facilities / services in communities … –Political opportunity structure (decentralised)

15 University of Limerick Ollscoil Luimnigh 12 May 2007, Session D4Eileen Humphreys, HSyRC, Dept. Sociology, UL Implications Evidence of institutional void in local governance –Revisit notions of participative & representative democracy Dependency on small elite group … overused and.. Tinkering v. addressing issue.. weak democratic local structures… Delivering into local communities (LA / local agency competence)… –Planning function… –Housing … How to achieve a wider range of participation? –Changing structures … embed in wider social networks … –What incentives for participation.. What changes for local communities and when? What issues? –Structures + culture of participation –Information & expertise –The 1% solution (Demos, UK; TF Active Citizenship)??


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