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MRS. CONTRERAS Language Arts 9 th Grade – Eng I IGCSE Honors Room C209 Welcome Braddock Bulldogs!!! 2006-2007.

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1 MRS. CONTRERAS Language Arts 9 th Grade – Eng I IGCSE Honors Room C209 Welcome Braddock Bulldogs!!!

2 Weekly Forecast 4/30/07 – 5/4/07 Monday – "To Kill a Mockingbird" (1930s) Ch & "To Kill a Mockingbird" (1930s) Ch Tuesday – "To Kill a Mockingbird" (1930s) Ch Quiz (Pride & Prejudice). Wednesday – "To Kill a Mockingbird" (1930s) Ch 29-end. Study & take quiz on grammar rules (hdts ). Thursday – Introduction to "The Siege" Chpts 1-4 (1941) & "The Siege" (1941) Chpts 5-7 Friday – Class Filing/return essays. Independent study for final.

3 Home Learning By Monday, 5/7: Read The Siege Ch Study grammar rules (hdts ) for quiz this Wednesday. Bring grammar hdts next week to class for Finals Review! Print out slides from 3rd & 4th grading periods or notes to study next week during class. Revised essays due. Have a great week!

4 Extended Home Learning Assignment (Due 5/7/07). In an effort to enhance student writing skills and performance, all students are to rewrite (retype) all essay writing samples editing flaws and incorporating feedback provided. This assignment includes all hand-written essays in class as well as both research paper(s). Staple updated final draft on top of previous drafts. Recap Sheets must be updated and placed on top of all drafts which must be compiled in date order. A student reflection must be attached to the top evaluating your written work this year. Obviously this should take into consideration the feedback that has been provided throughout the course of the year.

5 Class Response… Wednesday Please answer the following questions using the text of To Kill A Mockingbird. 1.A good novel moves us both emotionally and intellectually. Write one paragraph in which you identify those elements in this novel that caused you “to feel.” Write a second paragraph in which you identify those elements in this novel that got you “to think”. 2.In a paragraph, explain the significance of the repeated phrase “It is a sin to kill a mockingbird.” 3.In one paragraph, explain the primary theme of the novel.

6 Chapters Presented by : Manny Perez Period 6

7 Nelle Harper Lee She was born in Monroeville, Alabama on April Her home town only had 7,000 people living in it. She had four brothers and sisters; she was the youngest. Her father was a former newspaper editor and proprietor, who served as a state senator and practiced to be a lawyer in Monroeville. She attended Huntingdon College from , She then studied law at the University of Alabama from 1945 to 1949, and spent a year at Oxford University as an exchanged student. Six months before she finished her studies, she went to New York to pursue a literary career. While she was going to school in NY she worked as a reservation clerk with Eastern Air Lines and BOAC in New York City. Harper Lee was 34 when she published her book in 1960.To kill a Mockingbird became a bestseller world wide and was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in The book had such a major sucsess that the state legilatior of alabama personally congradulated her and invited her and her familly to dinner. Then a year later it was made into a movie. He has received about 4 docterates in her life time. In June of 1966, Harper Lee was one of two persons named by President Johnson to the National Council of Arts. She only wrote one book but she wrote several different articles and has accomplished many things in her life. She is still living today

8 Themes Racism Prejudice Tolerance Patience Influence Generations Loss of innocence

9 Influence on the text Harper Lee grew up in the early 1900’s where racism had its major impact on the world. So Harper Lee though it would be great to write a story about how racism affects many people in different ways.

10 Characters Scout Finch - She’s the narrator through out the story. she lives with her father, Atticus, her brother, Jem, and Scout Atticus Finch - He’s Scout and Jems father, he defended Tom Robinson in his case for rapping a white women. This case angered everyone in the white community because a white man had defended a black man in a law-suit case. Jem Finch- He’s Scout’s brother and her constant playmate towards the beginning of the story. Jem is a typical American kid, he always refusing to back down from dares and he’s good a football. Tom Robinson - The black man accused of raping a white women. He is one of the symbols of innocence in the story. Calpurnia The Finches’ black cook. Show the children the differences of the black and white community. Mayella Ewell- is the women in love with Tom Robinson. She is the women Tom got accused of rapping. Dill Harris- He’s Jem and Scouts summer neighbor and friend. He has a broad imagination. He can be said to be the symbol of childhood innocence in the story.

11 Vocabulary Glimpsed- a very brief, passing look, sight, or view. Acquit- to relieve from a charge of fault or crime; declare not guilty. Exhilarate- to enliven; invigorate; stimulate. Reverend- used as a title of respect applied or prefixed to the name of a member of the clergy or a religious order. Gnawing- to bite or chew. Stolid- not easily stirred or moved mentally. Wrathful- very angry; ireful. Astonished- To fill with sudden wonder or amazement. Vague- not clearly or explicitly stated or expressed. Apprehension- anticipation of adversity or misfortune; suspicion or fear of future trouble or evil Immorality- Sexual misconduct; wickedness; evilness. Affliction- a state of pain, distress, or grief; misery.

12 Chapter 21Summary Calpurnia gives Atticus a note saying that his kids haven’t been home since noon. Then Mr. Underwood claims that Jem and Scout were in a colored balcony and that they’ve e been there for several hours. Later on Atticus tells them to go home and have supper. Scout and Jem beg to be allowed to hear the verdict of Toms case; but Atticus tells them as soon as they finish eating supper they would be able to go, even though they know the jury will have returned before. So then Calpurnia takes Jem, Scout, and Dill home and they ate quickly and returned to the court room to find the jury still out, and the courtroom still full. Then night time comes in, and the jury continues to come to a conclusion. Jem is confident that Tom will win the case. Finally, after eleven at night, the jury enters, and she notices that the twelve men do not look at Tom Robinson as they file in and deliver a guilty verdict. When Scout noticed that he remembered that when the jury looks at the convict that men they found him guilty. The courtroom starts to empty out, and as Atticus goes out, everyone in the colored balcony rises in a gesture of respect.

13 Analyzing Chapter 21 In this Chapter Atticus gets worried and is concerned when he finds out his kids are in the colored balcony, he gets angry but he notices how anxious the kids were to see what was going to happen. So he takes them back to the court room to hear the verdict. This chapter shows love, guilt, and anger.

14 Chapter 22 As the night went on Jem was crying because of the injustice of the verdict. The next day, all the black people that lived in Maycomb brought food to the Finches house. Then there was a group of people gossiping about the tral and went to Jem and Scout to ask them about it but Ms. Maudie saved them by inviting them over for cake because she noticed they were put in a uncomfortable position. Jem begins to complain of the people in Maycomb because he noticed how everyone was acting in the court room and he says his thoughts of everybody in Maycomb being the best people in the world are shattered. Ms. Maudie pointed out to the kids that people who tried to help, for example Judge Taylor, who appointed Atticus to the case instead of the regular public defender. Then as the kids were leaving, Ms Stephanie tells them that that Bob Ewell talked to their father and that he had spat on him, and swore revenge. Atticus potrays such a good defense Jem is positive that theyre going to find tom guilty.

15 Analyzing Chapter 22 Atticus potrays such a good defense Jem is postive that theyre going to find tom guilty. This event is very important because it shows how non-racist Atticus is to defend Tom so well, that Tom a black man might win a case. It shows how caring Atticus is when is when it comes to something he cares about.

16 Chapter 23 Bob Ewell’s threat worried everyone except Atticus. Atticus made Ewell look like a fool so Ewell needed to get revenge. During all this, Toms been sent to another prison seventy miles away. Atticus felt his client had a good chance of being forgiven. Then Scout had asked what would happen if Tom lost the case, Atticus responded that Tom would be put on electric chair, for rape which is a major offense in Alabama. Atticus tells Jem that in an Alabama court of law, a white man’s word always beats a black man’s, and that Tom is really lucky to have the jury out so long. one man on the jury wanted to acquit—amazingly, it was one of the Cunningham's. Jem reveals to Scout that he is going to try out for the football team in the fall. They started to talk about it and they agreed but during that they started to think why their aunt hates the Cunningham's.

17 Analyzing Chapter 23 Atticus used Bobs threat as a tool to educate his kids on how cruel the world can be. His kids were so worried on their dad getting hurt but Atticus wasn't worried because he knew he was bluffing. This chapter shows the different lessons their father teaches them for future refrence.

18 Chapter 24 Jem and Scouts aunts invited her missionary to a tea party. Scout, helped Calpurnia bring in the tea, Scouts was asked by her auntto stay and drink tea with them. Scout started to listen in on the ladies conversation and she was angered by what they were saying on how all their African American servants were misbehaving ever since Tom Robinsons trial. Then Atticus called Alexandra to the kitchen. He tells Scout, Calpurnia, and Miss Maudie that Tom attempted to escape from jail and was shot seventeen times. He then later takes Calpurnia with him to tell the Robinson family of Tom’s death. They return to drink tea with the missionary circle, pretending as if nothing is wrong.

19 Analyzing chapter 24 This chapter shows the maturity of the Jem and Scout because Aunt Alexandra notices how mature they’ve become and decides to invite them to have tea with her missionary.

20 Critics Christopher Wallace: “To kill a “mockingbird is life teaching story.” Anita Schmaltz: “To Kill A Mockingbird leaves you with a much- needed belief in hope, ignited anew by the eyes of children.”Anita Schmaltz Steven Snyder: “The film is honest about a time in this country when happy endings were few and far between.” John Williams: “ Great book, is very straight out on how the time was when she wrote”. Mark Bourne: “ Racism is portrayed great in the book it doesn't over due the theme of racism”

21 Outline I.Thesis: Innocence is something that many kids have and something found in certain adults. But it can be lost due to society or the fact that you are becoming more mature and older. II.1. Jem and Scout lose their innocence and become more mature through out the story. a. In the beginning of the story it shows their innocence's portrayed by them reminiscing their memories of the dumb things they’ve done in the past, etc. b. Jem and Scout ran off to the court house to hear Toms verdict. This shows innocence and maturity. c. Aunt Alexandra found that Jem and Scout we’re mature enough to attend the missionary gathering. III. Conclusion: In the beginning of the story they start off as innocent children thinking of all the fun things they’ve done and then through out the story they mature more and more and by the end they’re being invited to missionary gatherings.

22 Bloom. Questions 1.Why do you think Tom wasn't found guilty right away? Why did his case last such a long time? 2.From prior knowledge what differences exist between Jem and Scouts personality? 3.Why did the African American balcony rise as Atticus left the court room? 4.In your opinion, is the fact that Jem is becoming more like his father a good or bad thing? 5.Why do you think the guard exaggerated the number of shots, shot ar Tom when he was running out of prison? Why didn’t the guard shot him once or twice to warn him? 6.Do you know another instance where someone has exaggerated a punishment when you know it could have been solved differently?

23 Work cited Petrius Barbosa “The Ultimate review” August of 192 Rotten Tomato April Christopher Wallace “The Ultimate review” August of 1990 Rotten Tomato April Charles Bryant “The Ultimate review” July of 198 Rotten Tomato April Lewis Barboso “The Ultimate review” March of 2000 Rotten Tomato April Anita Schalmatz “The Ultimate review” April of 1993 Rotten Tomato April Steven Snyder “The Ultimate review” June of 2005 Rotten Tomato April John Williams “The Ultimate review” August of 2001 Rotten Tomato April Mark Bourne “The Ultimate review” November of 2002 Rotten Tomato April

24 Courtesy of Google Images Chapters 1-4 Massiel Lescano

25 Helen Dunmore Born December 12, 1952 in Beverly, Yorkshire Born December 12, 1952 in Beverly, Yorkshire She has lived in Bristol for 30 years She has lived in Bristol for 30 years Studied English at York University Studied English at York University Taught in Finland for 2 years before publishing her first book Taught in Finland for 2 years before publishing her first book She has worked as a writer, reader, performer and teacher of Poetry and Creative Writing, tutoring residential writing courses for the Arvon Foundation and taking part in the Poetry Society's Writer in Schools scheme. She has worked as a writer, reader, performer and teacher of Poetry and Creative Writing, tutoring residential writing courses for the Arvon Foundation and taking part in the Poetry Society's Writer in Schools scheme. Has taught at the University of Glamorgan, The University of Bristol's continuing education department and for the open college of the arts. Has taught at the University of Glamorgan, The University of Bristol's continuing education department and for the open college of the arts. Courtesy of Google Images

26 BACKGROUND  The Siege of Leningrad by German forces during World War II lasted from Sept. 8, 1941, to Jan. 27, There were many deaths, up to thousands of deaths of Soviet Union civilians. There is a an operation called Barbarossa which is an invasion of the Soviet Union that began on June 22, 1941 but during three months the German forces and their allies had surrounded Leningrad which is now St. Petersburg. Since the city was surrounded, its capture was immanent, therefore they were captured and around three million inhabitants had artillery and bombs. But the Soviets were able to keep a route open to the north across the frozen Lake Ladoga. They brought food and fuel and evacuating 500,000 civilians. Although they were captured they were still capable of manufacturing tanks, and ammunition. The Soviet Union had breached part of the German line in January But the German grip was completely ended on January 27, 1944 when a soviet offensive drove the Germans away from the city.

27 It is a top secret letter from the naval staff in Berlin. Adolf Hitler had decided that he wanted to have Leningrad removed from the face of the Earth. He explained that the existence of their town was in no interest to anyone once the Soviet Union was overthrown. Finland was also in the same position. The demands of the navy were that the shipyard, harbor, and other installations vital to the navy be preserved and are to be known as the “Armed Forces High Command”. But since Leningrad is in a position that they might not exist anymore, Leningrad is not complying with them. The intention is to close in on the city and blast it to the ground by continuous air attacks.

28 They requested that the city be handed over, because they have no food and supplies because they are stopping everyone and everything from going into the city. The last thing mentioned is that they have no interest in even keeping part of this great cities population.

29 Fuehrer: leader such as Adolf Hitler Leningrad: a seaport in northwest Russian Federation in Europe, in the gulf of Finland, off the Baltic sea Courtesy of Dictionary.com

30 Starts talking about Spring and how it is a very late spring that is still clinging on to winter. She mentions what people used to do during the winter and how it turned into spring. People leaned on the balcony of the Dvortsovy Bridge to watching the ice pass under the bridge. People there of course wanted Spring more than anything, they longed for the sun. But those were hard times, you couldn’t trust anyone not even yourself. And the people were scared of Spring and the black vans. But its is June and there is a line of young men walking arm in arm not wanting to go home or they’ll be separated.

31 CHAPTER 1 (continued)  These are the nights of Leningraders baptism.  But Anna is not in Leningrad tonight, she is actually in the dacha with her father and Koyla.  Anna is not a student, she takes care of Koyla, has her job at the nursery, and her responsibilities.  Then, she starts dreaming about student life.  Anna lives with Koyla and her dad in a bedroom separated in two, 1 half for her dad and the other half for her and Koyla.  The dacha belongs to her grandmother and they go there every summer.  Anna gives grammar and hand writing lessons to the Sokolov children in exchange for berries or honey or goat’s cheese, etc… which is good for asthmatic children like Koyla.  Anna doesn’t know how she has made it through the 2 winters since there are food shortages and her father cant get his work published, now he only does translations.  Her father had gotten in trouble for knowing French and German very well and had been accused of having foreign contacts.

32 CHAPTER 1 (continued) Her father had tried to publish his works but they were turned down because it failed to deliver the message: Life has become better, comrades, life has become more cheerful. And that all that story would do is damage his reputation. But he continued to submit stories but they kept getting rejected. Anna’s father would always try to see some humor in things he says but Anna never sees it. Anna’s father then tells her about a dream he had that Koba was holding on to his nose so he couldn’t breathe and then when he tried to shake him off he pressed so hard that blood came out. Her dad’s income is a fifth of what it used to be 3 years ago so she increased her vegetable plot at the dacha. Then Anna starts remembering her mother and the rose bushes she had planted

33 CHAPTER 1 (continued) Anna remembered the time when she went sledging with her mother, and while they were going to the park, a lady stopped them and asked for Misha. Anna remembered the time when she went sledging with her mother, and while they were going to the park, a lady stopped them and asked for Misha. Anna’s mom stayed there firm and told The lady that Anna couldn’t be standing in the cold so they kept on walking. Anna’s mom stayed there firm and told The lady that Anna couldn’t be standing in the cold so they kept on walking. Anna’s mom then sat Anna on the sledge and wrapped around the shawl around Anna. Anna’s mom then sat Anna on the sledge and wrapped around the shawl around Anna. Anna remembered when her mother had Koyla and when her mother died right after she had him and instead of freeing Anna, she placed a child into her arms. Anna remembered when her mother had Koyla and when her mother died right after she had him and instead of freeing Anna, she placed a child into her arms. Her friends always wondered why she died that way because she knew everything about it. Her friends always wondered why she died that way because she knew everything about it.

34 Chapter 1 Vocabulary  Parapets: balcony  Dacha: country house  Koba: a nickname for Stalin Courtesy of Dictionary.com

35 Anna began digging holes in order to put in the seeds, while her little brother Koyla played. Anna let him play so later on he’ll help her plant. She planned the way she was going to plant the seeds. Anna had 4 days of holiday vacation there, and she was planning of planting seeds all the time. Her dad had told her not to be late because Marina Petrovna will refuse to see her if she is. Then later on in the day, she went to the bread queue, and Oyla (a friend of her mother) tapped her on the shoulder and started talking to her. Oyla told Anna that she had lost her job, and that her mother was lucky that she had died before everything had started. She mentioned the Stalin’s speech to the Central Committee, and wondered if it was just a mask.

36 CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY Appeasers: to bring to a state of peace, quiet, ease, calm, or contentment Mongrels: An animal or a plant resulting from various interbreeding Queue: A line of waiting people Saboteurs: One who commits sabotage Courtesy of Dictionary.com

37 Anna’s dad leaves her a note with directions on where to go. Anna’s dad leaves her a note with directions on where to go. She follows them carefully. She follows them carefully. While she is getting to Marina’s Petrovna’s place she remembers what her dad had sent to her and that Marina wanted her to paint a picture of her. While she is getting to Marina’s Petrovna’s place she remembers what her dad had sent to her and that Marina wanted her to paint a picture of her. She also remembers her mother and what she use to say to Anna when she was little and that was:” She’s one of your father’s friend. He’s known her for a long time.’ I daresay. But friendship doesn’t work like that.’” She also remembers her mother and what she use to say to Anna when she was little and that was:” She’s one of your father’s friend. He’s known her for a long time.’ I daresay. But friendship doesn’t work like that.’” She also remembers when she was at work and Elizabeta would give her the same lecture 3 times a month. She also remembers when she was at work and Elizabeta would give her the same lecture 3 times a month.

38 CHAPTER 3 VOCABULARY Bolstering: To support or prop up with or as if with a long narrow pillow or cushion. Bolstering: To support or prop up with or as if with a long narrow pillow or cushion. Courtesy of Dictionary.com

39 Anna was going to Marina Petrovna’s house and the path was too narrow so she left her bike inside a wall were it won’t be seen. Anna was going to Marina Petrovna’s house and the path was too narrow so she left her bike inside a wall were it won’t be seen. Anna was excited because she was going to paint Marina Petrovna and she was trying to separate the Marina that she was going to paint and the Marina her parents knew. Anna was excited because she was going to paint Marina Petrovna and she was trying to separate the Marina that she was going to paint and the Marina her parents knew. Then she reads the instructions and they say: “Follow the path to the second gate….” which is older than the first. Then she reads the instructions and they say: “Follow the path to the second gate….” which is older than the first. Anna thought that there had to be an easier way to get to the dacha and her father suggested that maybe Marina is testing her. Anna thought that there had to be an easier way to get to the dacha and her father suggested that maybe Marina is testing her. Then she got to her house early and Marina mentioned to her that she looked older, but Anna said that she was only and amateur. Then she got to her house early and Marina mentioned to her that she looked older, but Anna said that she was only and amateur.

40 CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY Bramble: the common blackberry Bramble: the common blackberry Clematis: any of numerous plants or woody vines,, variously colored flowers Clematis: any of numerous plants or woody vines,, variously colored flowers Ramshackle: loosely made or held together; rickety; shaky Ramshackle: loosely made or held together; rickety; shaky Dissociating: to withdraw from association Dissociating: to withdraw from association Enigmatic: perplexing; mysterious Enigmatic: perplexing; mysterious Scrutiny: a searching examination or investigation; minute inquiry Scrutiny: a searching examination or investigation; minute inquiry Courtesy of Dictionary.com

41 Themes Family Female Identity Guilt Lost Memory Politics Art

42 Outline Thesis Statement: Helen Dunmore’s book “The Siege” has many issues; one in particular is the importance of remembering. This issue is shown by the main character, Anna remembering her mother Vera. Anna linked the things she does to what her mother would have done. Anna always remembers the way her mother was always there for her and spent time with her in the countryside. I. Before Anna’s mother had died, they spent 18 summers together and did many things, like for example, and they cultivated a rose garden. A. Helen Dunmore in the beginning of “The Siege,” she gives many flash backs pertaining to Anna’s mother, and the way they relate to each other. 1. Anna’s father Mikhail had never actually spent time with his daughter due to the fact that he was a very accomplished writer. 2. Vera knew about bodies and hospitals, health was her job but she was fortunate enough to get holidays and two weeks in the summer off allowing her to spend time with Anna. 3. Also, Anna was an only child and her mother had not gotten pregnant with Koyla until Anna was seventeen.

43 Outline (continued) II. Anna had to do many things since her mother had died, she had now the weight of her family on her shoulders because her father barely ever got paid and her brother was too young to get paid. A. Anna at one time had to baby sit her little brother when he didn’t go to school, but when she took care of him she also was cultivating a garden because her family needed food. 1. Anna always remembered her mother and everything she had done with her, like for example, Anna and Vera went sledging one time and also cultivated a rose garden while they were in the dacha. 2. While Anna took care of Koyla, she was cultivating her garden and Koyla was in the dirt playing with himself games. But they were war games, but what could she do about it, he was only five years old and he was exposed to the war. 3. Vera used to read to Anna at night and also sleep with her too because they only had one bed.

44 III. Anna now since her mother had died; Anna had more chances to spend time with her father. A. Since she spent more time with her father, she also had to spend time with Marina Petrovna who was an actress and knew her mother. 1. Mikhail had taken pictures that Anna has drawn to Marina, and she liked them so much that she asked Anna to draw a picture of her. 2. For quit a while Marina had sent letters to Mikhail, but he never read them in fact he always gave them to Vera and she read them. 3. Anna one time asked her mother: “Isn’t she your friend as well, Mammy? ‘Not really. She’s your father’s friend. He’s known her for a long time.’ ‘But she wants to be your friend, or she wouldn’t write to you.’ ‘I daresay. But friendship doesn’t work like that.” IV. Anna can’t think of the troubles going on in Leningrad because she’s trying to keep her dad from getting too depressed and keeping rabbits out of the cabbages and that Koyla is growing out of his shoes. A. Anna mentioned this to Marina, when Marina tried to talk to her about the issues going on. 1. Anna remembers the way her mother would talk to her as if nothing would have happened. 2. Now Anna is trying to be like her mother and trying to talk to Koyla in that way. Concluding Statement: The importance of memory is that it gives you a way to make what you do better. Everything people do has consequences and only when you something will you learn that it is wrong or right. This is the way people learn, in this case with Anna, she has learned to do everything from her mother and that is how she is, exactly like her mother.

45 Critique by: Book World “I loved The Siege by Helen Dunmore, despite it inducing levels of anxiety and panic comparable only to those previously experienced during my reading of Crime and Punishment. It tells the story of Anna, her family and lover Andrei, during the Second World War when the German army blockaded Stalingrad and tried to starve the population into submission.” Critiques Critique by Book Reporter “I had to make supper the night I was reading the last few chapters of THE SIEGE. I found myself using large quantities of everything --- rice, butter, pecans, apples, and onions --- perhaps to reassure myself that we had plenty. But I also felt ashamed that we had so much, for this is, essentially, a novel of starvation.”

46 Critiques Critique by Powell's “Dunmore is at her best when portraying a horrifying scene in lyrical tones, whether it be a dead man's face covered by scintillating frost or a starving family consuming a pot of jam with drunken bliss. She wisely chooses to keep the war just beyond the novel's fringes, having it lay siege to her story without ever invading the action. Only occasionally does she indulge in commonplaces, most notably with the kindhearted whore Evgenia and the steely-eyed bureaucrat in charge of rationing the city's dwindling food, Pavlov.” Critique by Amazon.com “The Siege is one of those novels that is as redemptive as it is shattering, and they don't come much more shattering than this. The year is 1941, and the good people of Leningrad are squeezed between fear of Stalin's secret police and rumors that the Germans, despite the incredulity of military experts, are rapidly advancing on their great city.”

47 Critiques Critique by Penguin Readers Written with elegance and simplicity, The Siege movingly conveys the horrors that war can bring. Dunmore's touch is light. She delicately portrays the intimacies of family life and the emotional conflicts that new and old loves can bring. Simultaneously, she conveys the wider picture of the extraordinary deprivation and fear occasioned by warfare. Balancing historical deftness and detail with an expansive emotional vista, the novel avoids labouring the political tensions occasioned by the Stalinist regime. Critique by Robert McCrum Observer: What made you want to write about the siege of Leningrad? Helen Dunmore: It came out of a broader preoccupation with Russia. Obs: Where does that come from? HD: From school and from years of personal interest. Finland was my starting point. I feel about Russia rather differently having lived in Finland. That was the Soviet era. I liked the landscape and the extremes.

48 Questions Why do you think Anna remembers so much about her mother? When did Anna’s mother die? Who is Marina Petrovna? Why does she send letters to Anna’s father even when he was married? Where did Anna work? What did she do there?

49 WORK CITED "Leningrad, Siege of." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia Grolier Online. 27 Apr

50 The Siege Chapters 5-7 Karen Cortina April 4, 2007 English I IGCSE Honors

51 About the author Helen Dunmore was born December 12, 1952 in Yorkshire. Helen was the second child born out of four. Her father was a manager, and therefore here family was frequently relocated. She taught in Finland for two years before writing her first book. Courtesy of ask.com

52 Continued… She has also taught at several universities such as the University of Glamorgan. Helen Dunmore has become an accomplished author, poet, teacher and reader throughout her life. She won the first Orange Prize for fiction for her book A Spell of Winter in 1996 as well as the McKitterick Prize in Courtesy of ask.com

53 Main Characters 1.Anna: a twenty-three year old who has to support her small brother and father 2.Kolya: Ana’s smaller 5 year old brother 3.Vera: Anna and Kolya’s deceased mother 4.Mikhail: the father, a blacklisted author 5.Marina Petrovna Berezovskaya: a friend of Anna’s father, who Vera never liked. She is a legend that no one talks about. She has currently asked Ana to paint her.

54 Vocabulary 1.guttering- wearing out 2.clichés- a phrase that has been overused, so it loses meaning. 3. trebling- at the highest, and getting higher. 4. Neva- a river in Russia. 5. blunder- a serious mistake. 6. muddle- a confusion, a mix of things. 7. black crows-the police who are still in the streets arresting people. 8. elated- proud and joyful. 9. latrines- a type of bathroom used at camps or barracks. 10. queue- a line of waiting people.

55 Chapter Five She returns from painting Marina and is exhausted. Her father and brother still aren’t home when she’s done cooking (Dunmore 35). Once they get home they have to big fish. Anna decides that instead of saving them for the next day, they would have a feast (35). –“If she’d known at the time how important every detail of that evening was going to be (35).” Foreshadowing of what’s going to happen in the future. After dinner Anna and her father stay outside on the verandah. When he finally leaves to bed he’s reflecting what has occurred over the time passed and how much time has changed things (36).

56 Continued… Anna falls asleep and dreams that her father is reading her a bedtime story about a war when the French invaded Russia (36-39). –Two generals, Hunger and Winter, argue about which one is better and all the damage they can do and all the people they can kill (36-38). –At the end they mention how none of this could be possible without the armies (38). –They decide to join forces and act together in order to kill more (39). The nex morning Koya´s friend, Mitya, comes over to play. A while later his mother comes over screaming to pick him up. She tells Anna that all the panick is due to the fact that the Germans had started to bomb them (40). Mitaya informs her that she won´t s able to sell her honey this year because she needs it all for her family. Anna realizes that she has to go out to town to buy food, if there is any left (42).

57 Analysis Foreshadowing that what is to come will be devastating. Foreshadowing that what is to come will be devastating. “if only she’d known at the time how important every detail of that evening was going to become.” (35) “if only she’d known at the time how important every detail of that evening was going to become.” (35) Mikhail feels depressed because his wife has passed on (36). Mikhail feels depressed because his wife has passed on (36). The war has started (40). The war has started (40).

58 Chapter six Written in diary format. Mikhail has no funds in the bank to buy food (45). Parents are sending their kids out of the city so they can be safe, but Mikhail refuses to do so because he is sure that something will inevitably go wrong and he doesn’t want Kolya to get stuck in the middle of it (45). People are disappearing and no one can talk about it and still be safe (45). People from apartment blocks have to stay lookout on fire-watch. Anna is the one in charge for their apartment block (46). People sleep in their cloths in case a raid happens in the middle of the night (46).

59 Continued… No one knows what’s going on because nothing is going on. All they can do is wait, although it feels like nothing Is going to happen and that nothing will change (45). Mikhail walks through the city and it feels as if it was vulnerable to anything that going to happen. Like if need protection, the people’s protection (46). He remembers how Kutuzov drove back the Napoleon army along with the two generals Hunger and Winter. He felt like screaming out to the statue and asking what was their fate, but he couldn’t because the police was still around and watching, do they would arrest him if he acted like a insane person (46-47). When he gets home he tells Anna that he’s going to join the People’s Volunteers at the Luga Line. –The Luga Line is a huge tank-trap were they are to hold back the Germans (47).

60 Analysis There is so much desperation in the city, that Mikhail feels as if it was better that they didn’t have money in the bank so he wouldn’t be obliged to push every one out of the way and bang on the bank doors so they would open (44). There is so much desperation in the city, that Mikhail feels as if it was better that they didn’t have money in the bank so he wouldn’t be obliged to push every one out of the way and bang on the bank doors so they would open (44). Everyone is tense about the war, but nothing seems to happen. Everyone is tense about the war, but nothing seems to happen. Police still lurk the streets in search for anything that might be out of the ordinary. Police still lurk the streets in search for anything that might be out of the ordinary. The city longer feels fierce or proud, but vulnerable of what was to come. It was asking the people for protection (46). The city longer feels fierce or proud, but vulnerable of what was to come. It was asking the people for protection (46). People feel scared of the future, mostly because they don’t know what’s coming next. But at the same time they feel strength to protect their city. People feel scared of the future, mostly because they don’t know what’s coming next. But at the same time they feel strength to protect their city.

61 Chapter seven The people are being forced to dig trenches and tank- traps no matter their age or physical condition (49). –If they can’t hold the Germans at the trenches, then nothing will stop them. Anna remembers how she and Vasya, a childhood friend, tried to build a dam to stop the water from flowing. (49-50) Katya is introduced as a fifteen year-old who is digging with Anna. She always looks scared and tries not to draw attention to herself. Evgenia is introduced as a hardcore girl who is the best at what digging.

62 Continued… Kids are being packed into trains and carriages in order to be taken back to Leningrad because where they had been evacuated to at the end of June was straight into the German’s path (54). Anna tells Evgenia that Kolya was staying with a friend of theirs back in Peter. While they’re tearing down a brick wall, Katya doesn’t see it, and therefore doesn’t get out of the way. She dies. –Anna and Evgenia wrap her in a curtain and put her somewhere where the kids can’t see her. –They ask her to understand that they can’t give her a proper burial because they have to finish digging the tank-trap by the end of the night.

63 Analysis Things have gotten so bad that everyone is forced to work. Things have gotten so bad that everyone is forced to work. They are the only hope for their town and what lies beyond it. They are the only hope for their town and what lies beyond it. They have been doing this for so long now, that it seems as if they had been doing it their whole lives (53). They have been doing this for so long now, that it seems as if they had been doing it their whole lives (53). The beauty of nature and what makes it seem as if there was no war going on mixes with the reality of what they are doing, and it contradicts itself. The beauty of nature and what makes it seem as if there was no war going on mixes with the reality of what they are doing, and it contradicts itself. People start to die more and more often until that too will become a casualty. People start to die more and more often until that too will become a casualty. When someone dies there is so much to do and no time to waste. They can’t even wrap them up, and don’t even have time to burry them. When someone dies there is so much to do and no time to waste. They can’t even wrap them up, and don’t even have time to burry them.

64 Themes Family Family Female identity Female identity Loss Loss Memory Memory War War

65 Criticism 1.“She conveys the wider picture of the extraordinary depravation and fear occasioned by warfare.” -Penguin 2.“Helen Dunmore Conjures up a hearth’s- eye view of the horrors of war in The Siege. -Michael Williams 3.“Quite depressing but also compelling reading; made you wonder how they survived and why they would want to.” -Skircoat Library Readers’ Group 4.“The author had conveyed a sense of desolation and hardship endured by all the people of Leningrad but underneath that there was a sense of hope and endurance as we followed the lives of the main characters.” -Sowerby Bridge Library Afternoon Readers’ Group 5.“A small knot of people fight to survive the Nazi siege of Leningrad in a book that feels more like history than a novel.” -Kirkus Reviews 6.“Dunmore demonstrates a talent for telling details.” -Cynthia Simmons and Nina Perlina

66 Bloom’s Taxonomy Questions 1. Why should Anna remember every detail of the time she spends with her brother and father? 2. How does her dad feel when he says goodnight to her? 3. What is the significance of Anna's dream? 4. Why do you think her neighbors won’t sell her any honey this year? 5. What is the plus side Mikhail sees to not having any money in the bank?

67 Continued… 6. Do you think it’s safe to send off the kids due t the war, or might that plan have any flaws? 7. How would you describe a condition in which the dead can not be properly buried? 8. Why are people of all ages working on digging trenches and tank-traps? 9. What does this say about what the society has become? 10. Do you think the trenches and tank-traps will work? Why?

68 Works Cited : Dunmore, Helen. The Siege New York: Penguin Books, Destiney.dadehools.net Find.galegroup.com Readers.penguin.co.uk Books.guardian.co.uk Wzus.ask.com


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