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Brussels Briefing n. 31 Geography of food: reconnecting with origin in the food system 15 th May 2013 Lessons learned from.

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Presentation on theme: "Brussels Briefing n. 31 Geography of food: reconnecting with origin in the food system 15 th May 2013 Lessons learned from."— Presentation transcript:

1 Brussels Briefing n. 31 Geography of food: reconnecting with origin in the food system 15 th May Lessons learned from the process of registering a GI in coffee from Mont Ziama, Guinée Marie Antoinette Haba, Ministry of Agriculture, Guinea

2 Support Project for the Implementation of Geographical Indications for OAPI (PAMPIG) ZIAMA-MACENTA COFFEE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN TERMS OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS Presented by: Mrs SANOUSSI Marie Antoinette HABA, focal point Geographical Indications Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

3 I. The importance of GI African countries possess an important agricultural and agrifood biodiversity potential. These products, the quality of which is closely linked to their origins, are identified with the regional names they come from. Our countries’ current vulnerable economy forces us to explore new opportunities in developing their products. Geographical Indication is a tool that allows typical quality products to benefit from legal protection in reference to geographical origin. Bearing in mind all these issues and the important potential of typical quality products abundant in our countries, numerous initiatives have come about in Africa, within the framework of technical partnerships such as the technical support from the African Intellectual Property Organization (OAPI), F AO and other technical partners. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

4 II. Initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa FAO initiatives In 2002, the FAO set up a ‘Trust Fund for Food Security and Food Safety’ and in 2006, the Italian Cooperation, via its Directorate General for Development Cooperation (DGCS), within the framework of this Fund, decided to finance a number of projects on food safety and the valorization of agricultural products via transformation and commercialization in 7 West African countries: Gambia, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Senegal and Sierra Leone. Some results: Setting-up of regional workshops; Development of support tools; Development of 23 case studies in different parts of the world, and in particular 5 in Africa: Tea in Rwanda, Rice in Kovie (Togo), Violet from Galmi (Niger), Shallot from the Dogon Country (Mali), Honey from Casamance (Senegal). Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

5 II. Initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa (continued) Guide for promoting quality linked to origins and sustainable geographical indications: ‘Territories, products, local stakeholders: links to quality’ broadcast in several countries and within workshops. Many projects with the research network SinerGI and technical cooperation projects in North Africa (Morocco, Tunisia) and in Sub-Saharan Africa (Mali, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Republic of Guinea). Another project is under way in Benin. In Guinea Bissau, Mali, Senegal and Sierra Leone and in collaboration with Slow Food, the sub-regional project for the promotion of local products in order to preserve food tradition and biodiversity is being developed. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

6 II. Initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa (continued) OAPI initiatives The African Intellectual Property Organization (OAPI) currently includes 16 countries. To all Member States, OAPI is the common office for Intellectual Property. It is governed by the Bangui Agreement of 1999, which is its common law. Procedure is centralized: all presentation to OAPI bears the value of national presentation in each Member State Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May Mali Burkina Faso Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Ivory Coast Gabon Guinea Guinea Bissau Mauritania Niger Senegal Chad Togo

7 II. Initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa (continued) OAPI possesses a protection framework, specially designed for GI, via its Appendix VI, which defines GI as ‘[...] indications that serve to identify a product as originating from a certain territory in a region or a locality of said territory, in the case whereby a quality, reputation or any other determining characteristic of the product can be essentially attributable to that geographical origin’. OAPI avails these States with a sui generis system, characterized by the producers recording the name, this recording thereby creating exclusive rights to the former to use the name for commercial purposes. The GI is protected as such and from then on, can no longer be used by third parties even if the true origin of the product is used by a counterfeiter, used in another language or yet, slightly distorted by using words relocating said product. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

8 III. Why start a pilot project on GI? Findings: 1. Since the coming into effect of the Bangui Agreement of 1977 revised in 1999, OAPI has not received any application for registration of products originating from its Member States, despite the existence of ‘informal’ African geographical indications that greatly contribute to the socio-economic wealth of the territories where they are anchored; 3. The official recognition of geographical indications (GI) would both recognize and protect their heritage and allow many products to assert their identity, to structure economic organizations and to develop added value; Bearing this in mind, in 2000, the OAPI Member States decided to implement a pilot project on geographical indications as tools for local development. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

9 IV. History Birth of the idea for a pilot project / Conakry Workshop / OMPI,INAO,INPI,OAPI 2. From 2001 to choice of four pilot countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Guinea); - training in France of pilot countries’ managers (INAO); - involvement proposal to Ministries of Agriculture. 3. Framing the Project/INPI, MAE,MAP,OMPI/ seeking OAPI and its Member States via an approach initiation bases on concrete product examples; - Expert mission by INAO and CIRAD in the pilot countries - naming of GI focal points Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May 20139

10 IV. History (continued) 4. Preparation for the Ministerial meeting on the fringes of the CA / OAPI 25 th session in Ouagadougou in 2005 Presentation of focal points; Continued product identifying; Shaping of pilot countries’ focal points; 5. Ministerial meeting on the fringes of the CA / OAPI 25 th session in Ouagadougou in 2005 Adoption of a 4-year plan of action for GI; Adoption of the declaration of Ouagadougou on GI in order to set up National Committees and find the necessary funding 6. Funding request proposal submitted to financial donors in , Signature of PAMPIG funding convention between OAPI/AFD Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

11 V. Support Project to GI Implementation (PAMPIG) General objectives of PAMPIG The purpose of the PROJECT is to support members of OAPI in conquering niche markets through Geographical Indications States, and thus contribute to rural development by improving and securing the earnings of the producers involved. The project specifically aims to: 1. Assist producers of the Member States in an identification and recognition exercise of domestic products eligible for Geographical Indications; 2. Contribute to OAPI capacity building and national public and private partners to ensure the promotion and protection of Geographical Indications. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

12 VI. Components of PAMPIG Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May Component 1 Project management training in developing specifications and procurement; OAPI executives were trained, including the project manager. Component 2 Technical assistance Support for pilot products Call for new products proposal Annual regional workshops Regional actions

13 VI. Components of PAMPIG (continued) COMPONENT 2 1. Technical assistance - recruitment March - April support the starting-up, review of the plan of action, validation and implementation (permanent mission – 4 months); - remote support (remote ad-hoc missions, travelling). 2. Support for pilot products - Oku white honey (Cameroon); - Penja pepper (Cameroon); - Korhogo cloth (Ivory Coast); - Ziama Macenta coffee (Guinea). Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

14 VI. Components of PAMPIG (continued) COMPONENT 2 3. Support for pilot products - identifying stakeholders and sector diagnosis; - raising awareness with producers, building structures; - support in the preparation of specifications, defining the geographical area, development of methods of control, marketing and promotion strategy; - Building a case for GI. 4. Call for new products proposal 110 products reported including 79 with usable data, a dozen (12) providing enough information to possibly justify a more in-depth approach. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

15 VII. Support for Ziama-Macenta Coffee OAPI and CIRAD support mission in August 2010 Structuring of a national system (GI National Committee) Strengthening the capacity of national stakeholders, presentation of PAMPIG action plan and the level of implementation Sector diagnosis and identifying Ziama-Macenta stakeholders and alongside them, validating a plan of action for the recognition of this pilot product in terms of GI. Launch of a tender in 2011 by OAPI Characterization of the sector and the product, raising awareness with the stakeholders, organization of the group representing GI, Organization of missions and work by international experts, Establish a control plan and a marketing strategy, Develop and validate the approach, the specifications, the delimitation, the control system and marketing strategy with the group representative of the GI Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

16 VII. Support for Ziama-Macenta Coffee (continued) Choice by IRAM - Institut de Recherches et d'Applications des Méthodes de Développement (Institute for research and application in development methods) Implementation support in partnership with: MGE- Maison guinéenne de l’entrepreneur (Guinean entrepreneurs association) lRAG- Institut de recherche agronomique de Guinée (Guinean Agricultural Research Institute) ANPROCA- Agence nationale pour la promotion du conseil agricole (National Agency Promoting Rural and Agricultural Consulting) Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

17 VIII. Results Sector stakeholders for Ziama-Macenta coffee are identified Groups representative of the Ziama-Macenta coffee GI are established : ADECAM is created 26 th July 2012 Instructors and producers are trained in running a coffee-plantation and post-harvest treatments; In basic accounting tools, inventory tracking, material tracking; Production zones are determined and characterized A control system is established and validated by the GI Association Ziama-Macenta coffee specifications are established, validated by the GI Association A commercial strategy for the GI Association for Ziama- Macenta coffee is established alongside with, that year, a contract to export 40 tons of coffee to P. Jobin & Cie Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

18 IX. Product characteristics GI applicant ADECAM – Association de défense du café Ziama-Macenta (Association for the defense of Z-M coffee) Address: Macenta President: M. Sidiki CAMARA Product name Café Ziama-Macenta (Z-M coffee) Nature of the product It is a Robusta coffee. The coffee comes from exclusively Robusta clones or hybrids; therefore both traditional varieties and clones (119, 477, 529 et 594) These are plantations with an upper stratum providing shade on all plots Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

19 IX. Product characteristics (continued) Ziama-Macenta coffee has features much closer to those of an Arabica coffee: The prepared drink has a tangy and slightly bitter flavor, a strong, fine and persistent aroma. Grain density is determined at humidity factors of 12%. Due to the slow growth of the berries, the grains are particularly dense. The green coffee is sold in jute bags inscribed with ‘Ziama-Macenta coffee Geographical Indication’ and a label with the name and logo of the GI Association, the reference numbers of the producers and the date of packaging sewn onto the bag. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May State of product ShapeSize and densityColorSmell Green coffee Half- circle Slightly tapered Grade s DensityYellow, green and yellow- green (brown) Green (raw) coffee flavored smell G1700 to 710 g/dm3 0,9 to 1,5 g G20,6 to 1 g

20 X. Geographical area Municipalities found in the geographical area in the immediate vicinity of the forest perimeter of the Ziama mountain, with a strong influence on microclimate through high cloudiness associated with heavy rainfall, cloud cover and high altitude combined with low temperatures; The GI area for Ziama-Macenta coffee is located in the Macenta prefecture and the municipalities of Daro, Fassankoni, Kouankan, Macenta, N'Zébéla, Orémai, Ségbédou, Sérédou and Vassérédou (107 villages). With an elongated shape to the North-South over a length of 78 km and 55 km wide on the East-West side, with longitudes ranging between 9 ° and 10 ° west and between 8 ° and 9 ° north in latitude; Cherry production area is within the scope of influence of the forest of Mount Ziama; Total surface area of 360,200 ha, including the Ziama forest reserve; Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

21 X. Geographical area (continued) Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

22 X. Geographical area (end) Potential arable and farming land, besides forest reserve, is ha; Vegetation dominated by a dense rain forest and/or secondary forest Ferrallitic brown forest soils with a dense canopy resting on a granite substrate with dolerite intrusions Number of days of rain spread over nine months from 260 to 280 days, with a total rainfall of mm / annum; Average temperature of 25 ° C, average relative humidity levels of 80%, altitude = or> to 450 m <. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

23 XI. Links to origins All operations take place within the geographical area (planting, harvesting, sorting, drying, packaging, storage of coffee ‘shells’, hulling, winnowing, sorting commercial coffee, grading, bagging of commercial coffee); Prior commitment from licensed operators in the industry to produce and market Ziama-Macenta coffee with the GI Association and recording with the GI Association and the inspection body; Traceability system to know the volumes produced and sold during the various industry stages according to internal and external audit lists to be kept for two years and be available for consultation at all times; Products placed in 60 kg jute bags, labeled by downstream operators responsible for bagging; Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

24 XII. Product reputation The botanical species Coffea canephora, the Robusta was discovered in West Africa between Uganda and Guinea. Some varieties were discovered in Forest Guinea and the Macenta region and developed during the colonial period. According to the testimony of elders, collectors spent much time in Macenta to increase the quality of their mixture. Macenta Coffee thus acquired a reputation among importers and roasters during this period. To this day, the coffee from this area of Macenta is used to enhance the base note of coffees from other parts of the country and Ivory Coast. Senegalese traders, great Robusta coffee consumers, recognize the superior quality of Macenta coffee, which they place ahead of ‘Ivory Coast’ quality and that of other regions of Forest Guinea. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

25 XIII. Specifications COMMITMENT Operators who have signed a contract with the GI Association can produce, process, sell GI Ziama-Macenta coffee Production plots are those located within the GI defined area Origins: must be coffees deriving from clones or hybrids that are exclusively Robusta and traditional varieties (local cultivars) and introduced clones: clones 119, 477, 529, 588 and 594. Plantations must not, in any case, include the species Excelsa and Liberica. Shading: Plantations are managed under the shade produced by trees in the upper stratum of native species, possibly legumes, providing continuous shading to the entire plot. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

26 XIII. Specifications (continued) Shading: Farmers whose plots do not meet this criterion, have 5 years as of the date of commitment to plant the suitable species of their choice. Maintenance: Regularly pruned Coffea (suckering, pruning, pruning of dead wood) in order to obtain plants that are aerated, balanced and built on 3-4 branches. Weeding: Plots that are cleared regularly in order to obtain a low ground cover by spontaneous vegetation or by the introduction of ameliorative plants. The use of herbicides is prohibited in order to preserve the quality and adhere to the principles of organic soil fertility. Renewal: Renewal of plants that are too old is recommended, either by coppicing or by planting seedlings. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

27 XIII. Specifications (continued) Fertilizer: Organic fertilization is recommended, either from the recycling of vegetation produced on the plot, or from imported organic matter such as manure, various plant waste, compost, etc.... Supplemented with mineral fertilizers is recommended for seedlings Crop Protection: Use of natural insecticides is required, the use of chemical insecticides is prohibited. ADECAM has an obligation to educate and to provide natural insecticides. Crop protection is achieved via preventive measures (phytosanitary pruning, use of saws,...), the use of traps, repellents and the use of natural insecticides such as those listed in Appendix * of the Specifications. Harvest date is set according to the villages and the criteria for defining optimal maturity set by the association must be respected. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

28 XIII. Specifications (continued) Harvest criteria: Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May Only red cherries are picked in several passages. Black, green or those cherries that fell to the ground should never be added to those picked from the tree. Post-harvest sorting: - By immersion where the dense berries fall to the bottom of the water and empty or incomplete berries float to the surface and – manually on racks, green, fermented and over-ripe cherries are eliminated

29 XIII. Specifications (continued) Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May In the sun, on racks during 21 days, with 2 to 3 shakings a day, as per harvesting. For a plantation of one (1) ha, a rack of 20 m². The racks are put away or covered with light plastic sheeting in case of rain or at night. Drying facilities

30 XIII. Specifications (continued) Storage of coffee On the plantation: In husk form or green, in a room protected from the rain, in new nylon bags, with no direct contact with the ground, isolated from products other than coffee, from any contaminants, and protected from insects and rodents. The collector or processor: In husk form or green, in a room protected from the rain and humidity, with no direct contact with the ground or walls in order to allow for proper ventilation. An area demarcated as ‘Ziama Macenta GI Coffee’ is set aside in the room and the floors, walls and ceiling are cleaned regularly. Records of this cleaning must be issued and filed. It is required to record all movement, those of the origins and destination of all consignments. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

31 XIII. Specifications (continued) Transport Transport of coffee husks must never be associated with any other product (chemical, fuel, oil, peanuts, etc....) and must be provided by trucks with waterproof tarpaulin and never transported with passengers or any other products. Cleaning Prior to transportation the truck must be thoroughly cleaned; cleaning must be recorded and the results noting the visual cleanliness and absence of any smells must be documented Processing operations: Any transformation (sorter, cleaner, calibrator...) for Ziama Macenta coffee using facilities must be preceded by a thorough and documented cleaning, and the results filed. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

32 XIII. Specifications (continued) Traceability Registration: Each industry operator must keep a written record of the consignment’s origin, its weight, its recipient, the amount provided to the recipient, the date of entry (or harvest) and the release date Identification: All coffee consignments, as soon as the harvest takes place, should be identified as ‘Ziama Macenta coffee’ and must bear their defined batch number (see below) Number: All batches must have a number allowing to trace back to the origin of any consignment Control system Operators may file a commitment declaration on their own behalf, or as a member of a group with the GI Association. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

33 XIII. Specifications (continued) The Association examines the declaration and should it be incomplete, it is returned within 15 days of reception. The Association then transfers the commitment to an external certification body, which in turn reviews it. After verification, any partial or total refusal must be justified and must allow for the operator, within a period of 1 month, to provide any additional information needed. Upon favorable opinion by the external certification body, any modification in the commitment declaration will entail a new application. the operator is registered on the list of authorized operators (as available from the GI Association, the external certifier and the National GI Committee). Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

34 XIII. Specifications (continued) Control relating to specifications and product control Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

35 XIII. Specifications (continued) Self-monitoring: Any operator must perform self-checks on their activities and keep, for two years, all documents related to these self-checks Internal Control: Conducted by the GI Association staff or internal committees having received an engagement letter from the GI Association. The checklists are kept for two years and must be available for perusal at any time by the certifying body. The minutes must be prepared in two copies, 1 for the operator, 1 for ADECAM. External control: Is conducted by the certifying body and randomly onsite, at the request of importers. If necessary, organoleptic tests are performed according to the protocol defined by the IRAG. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

36 XIV. GI File The file for GI protection must be submitted to OAPI and must include: Protection request from the GI Association GI Specifications Delimitation plan for the production area Control System Marketing Strategy Validation minutes from the National Committee Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

37 XV. PAMPIG Shortcomings 1. Delays in the implementation of institutions and procedures (Member States); 2. Low government involvement in the process of recognition and promotion of products; 3. Lack of technical support (testing and certification, marketing); 4. An impaired product (Korhogo cloth). Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

38 XVI. Suggestions 1. Continued OAPI action in setting up Institutions and procedures; 2. Continued awareness of stakeholders and authorities; 3. More GI visibility in SNL activities; 4. Strengthening the collaboration between SNL and focal points in GI promotional activities at a national level; 5. Training of technicians towards the sustainability of the GI process (structuring groups, process qualification, certification, inspection for certification of products etc.); 6. Research funding support for new products. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

39 XVII. Strategic Outlook 1. Establishment or strengthening in each Member State of a control system for the use of GI protected geographical names; 2. Implementation within the OAPI of an examination system with regards applications for GI registration content; 3. Implementation within the Organization of a biennial training module on GI. Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May

40 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Briefing ‘Reconnecting with origins in the food system’, Brussels 15 May


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