Presentation on theme: "Brussels Briefing n. 31 Geography of food: reconnecting with origin in the food system 15 th May 2013 Promoting agrobiodiversity:"— Presentation transcript:
Brussels Briefing n. 31 Geography of food: reconnecting with origin in the food system 15 th May 2013 http://brusselsbriefings.net Promoting agrobiodiversity: leveraging GI potential in the use of underutilised species Stefano Padulosi, Bioversity International
Leveraging Geographical Indications potentials to enhance the use of underutilized species Stefano Padulosi, Bioversity International 15 June 2013
3 Neglected and Underutilized Species (NUS) Nutritional value appreciated by people Hardiness, good adaptability, versatility in use Rich associated food culture and traditions Poor economic competitiveness with commodity crops Lack of improved varieties & enhanced cultivation practices Drudgery in value addition Disorganized or non-existent market chains Perception of being “food of the poor” Cultivated and utilized relying on Indigenous Knowledge (IK) Scarcely represented in ex situ collections
4 Nutritional benefits of NUS Case of African leafy vegetables Per 100 gm Amaranth (leaf) CleomeNightshadeCabbage Iron mg 8.96.01.00.7 Calcium mg 41028844247 ß carotene ųg 5716104523660100
5 National Geographic 2011 Study conducted in 1983 by the Rural Advancement Foundation International gave a clue to the scope of the problem. It compared USDA listings of seed varieties sold by commercial US seed houses in 1903 with those in the US National Seed Storage Laboratory in 1983. The survey, which included 66 crops, found that about 93% of varieties had gone extinct. GENETIC EROSION Loss of genetic & cultural diversity Genetic Erosion
6 Improved nutrition, incomes and other livelihood benefits from NUS Holistic NUS Promotion: from Farm-to-Fork Genetic diversity Selection cultivation HarvestValue addition Marketing Final use Rescued diversity Map diversity IK Documentation Conservation (ex situ/ in situ) Better varieties Best practices High Quality Seed Improved technology Novel food items Recipes (old/new) Quality standards Efficient value chains Commercialization Branding Multi-stakeholders Platforms of Cooperation Nutrition awareness Enabling Policies Promotions Education GI
India: empowerment of vulnerable groups through establishment of associations (SHG), skill enhancement and introduction of simple technology
8 Bolivia: marrying income generation and better nutrition in one goal Joint venture with private sector ( Sobre la Roca ) led to more attractive food products targeting particularly children Outcome: popularization of nutritious food among children and inclusion of amaranth-based food items in school meals (Sucre and Serrano) Impact: Estimated income of at least 3 mil Bs /year for amaranth value chain sector in 2010 as a result of amaranth school meal policy in Chuquisaca Department alone.
10 Role of GI in promoting underutilized species GI utilize traditional practices and endemic resources Argan Oil (Morocco) – The Argan Tree is endemic to Southwest Morocco – Prevents desertification and soil erosion – UNESCO declared the Argan forest region a biosphere site – Positive effects on local economy and welfare: women cooperatives (13 certified PGI coop, 123 awaiting certification)
11 Role of GI in promoting underutilized varieties of major crops Maiz Blanco Gigante de Cuzco (Peru) – Ancient variety, which is part of Peruvian cultural patrimony, is grown in the Sacred Valley of the Incas – The local agriculture and this specific crop were at risk – Relevant stakeholders considered that the GI scheme was the most effective response available
Lessons and Challenges GI play significant role in recovery and valorization of Agrobiodiversity/NUS Successful recovery of Genetic Resources through GI (management of germplasm involving producers, Governing Body, and regional institutions) Strong link with IK and culture justifies GI protection, contribute to rural development IK (seed selection, recipes, food conservation etc) can be used for GI development and protected from biopiracy Increasing involvement of supermarkets in origin and tradition-based products. Opportunities Landrace promotion & risks of loss of genetic diversity Economically and geographically small GI & challenge of designing Governing Bodies with low transaction costs Vulnerability of small producers in national/export markets Unclear distribution of benefits along value chain in developing countries Possible exclusion of local and poor people in high-end niche markets Labeling, safety, traceability regulations for small organizations. Challenges (Source: J. Larson 2007)
Assessment of GI potentials for NUS as livelihood instruments: more studies needed GI development/implementation: capacity building of different actors needed Bridging conservation with use: stronger linkages between conservation and marketing agencies (including those involved with GI).
15 Enhancing Capacities of NUS among young scientists