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1 Note to presenters - This file is part of the FS Resources section at: This presentation should be reviewed and revised as needed to match the training objectives and target audience and to insert local images where needed. The Minimum Requirements Analysis training presentations are posted in 6 parts which may be combined and used as needed: Introduction Basis in Law and Policy Definitions Minimum Requirements process Step 1 Step 2 Use of the MRA process Use of Traditional Skills and Tools

2 2-Step Process Step 1: Is it necessary to take action in wilderness? Step 2: What is the minimum tool or activity? MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

3 minimum requirements “Except … as necessary to meet minimum requirements for the administration of the area for the purpose of this Act…” Minimum Requirement == Minimum Tool THE WILDERNESS ACT - SECTION 4 (C): PROHIBITED USES MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

4 Basic Definition Minimum: the least possible action, method, tool, etc. Requirement: a necessity Process Decide if any management action is necessary in wilderness, and, if so, then determining what would be the least amount of an otherwise prohibited use. What is a Minimum Requirements Decision? MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

5 The 2 Step Process Step 1: necessary Determine if any administrative action is necessary.  The minimum requirement Step 2: minimum Determine the minimum activity.  The minimum tool How is a Minimum Requirements Decision made? MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

6 Step 1: Determine if any administrative action is necessary.  Briefly describe the situation that may prompt action and describe why it is a problem or issue. Example: “The trail bridge is out and replacement is needed because…(resource impacts, high use, no safe crossing, etc.)” Avoid: “We need to use a helicopter to fly in a new bridge.” How is a Minimum Requirements Decision made? MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

7 How is a Minimum Requirements Decision made? Step 1: Determine if any administrative action is necessary. A. Options outside of wilderness MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

8 How is a Minimum Requirements Decision made? Step 1: Determine if any administrative action is necessary. B. Valid existing rights/special provisions in wilderness legislation (mining, access, water, grazing, etc.) MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

9 How is a Minimum Requirements Decision made? Step 1: Determine if any administrative action is necessary. C. Requirements of other legislation (ESA, ARPA, NHPA, ANILCA, Dam Safety Act, etc.) MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

10 How is a Minimum Requirements Decision made? Step 1: Determine if any administrative action is necessary: D. Other guidance (policy, plans, agreements, etc.) Federal Tribal State MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

11 Examples: Other guidance (policy, plans, agreements)  FS Policy, forest plan, wilderness, fire, weed treatment plans, species conservation plans, etc. MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

12 How is a Minimum Requirements Decision Made? Step 1: Determine if any administrative action is necessary to: E. Preserve Wilderness Character - untrammeled (uncontrolled, un-manipulated) - undeveloped (removal of a structure or installation) - natural (restoration of natural conditions)  i.e. non-native invasive species treatment, natural role of fire, listed species recovery, etc. - outstanding opportunities for solitude or a primitive and unconfined type of recreation or a primitive and unconfined type of recreation  i.e. trail maintenance

13 How is a Minimum Requirements Decision Made? Step 1: Determine if any administrative action is necessary to support: F. Public Purposes - recreation - scenic - scientific - education - conservation - historical use MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

14 Step 1: Determine if any administrative action is necessary. A. Options outside of wilderness B. Valid existing rights/special provisions in wilderness laws C. Requirements of other laws D. Other guidance (policy, plans, etc.) E. Preserve wilderness character F. Public purposes of wilderness Conclusion: Is any administrative action necessary? How is a Minimum Requirements Decision made? MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

15 Using a two step process:. Step 1: Determine if any administrative action is necessary. Example conclusion: Some type of action is necessary Then: Step 2: Determine the minimum activity. A. Describe alternatives B. Compare alternatives How is a Minimum Requirements Decision made? MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

16 Non-motorized, non-mechanical, no structures, or installations, etc.Non-motorized, non-mechanical, no structures, or installations, etc. Motorized equipment, mechanical transport, structures, installations, etc.Motorized equipment, mechanical transport, structures, installations, etc. Other methods or combination of methods that minimize prohibited usesOther methods or combination of methods that minimize prohibited uses No action (optional)No action (optional) How is a Minimum Requirements Decision Made? Step 2: Determine the minimum activity (the method or tool). A. Describe alternative activities (including mitigation) MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

17 Trail Maintenance Example A. Describe alternative activities (including mitigation) No ActionProposed Action Motorized Alternative Non-motorized Alternative

18 How is a Minimum Requirements Decision Made? Step 2: Determine the minimum activity (the method or tool). B. Comparison of Alternatives Criteria: wilderness character heritage and cultural resources maintaining traditional skills special provisions economics & time safety area-specific factors? MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

19 How is a Minimum Requirements Decision Made? Step 2: Determine the minimum activity (the method or tool). A. Describe alternative actions B. Comparison of Alternatives Decision: W WW What is the minimum activity? The rationale for the decision must be based on law and agency policy. MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

20 Primary Decicion Rationale:  Requirements of applicable federal laws  The Wilderness Act - preservation of wilderness character  Untrammeled, Undeveloped, Natural, Solitude or Primitive Recreation Opportunities  ESA, NHPA, ARPA, NEPA, etc.  Safety  Use and development of traditional skills MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

21 Not Acceptable as the ONLY Rationale:  Cost and time constraints:  “Economics, comfort, convenience or commercial value are not standards of management for wilderness.” (Policy FSM ) Avoid misconceptions about traditional skills  Safety – traditional tools are safer  Efficiency – trained crews nearly as fast  Cost – Comparable to motorized equipment "Examine each question in terms of what is ethically and aesthetically right, as well as what is economically expedient." -Aldo Leopold MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

22 Use a two step process Step 1: Determine if any administrative action is necessary. A. Options outside of wilderness B. Valid existing rights/special provisions C. Requirements of other legislation D. Other guidance E. Wilderness character F. Public purposes of wilderness Conclusion: Is the action necessary? Step 2: Determine the minimum activity. A. Describe alternatives B. Compare alternatives Decision: Decision: What is the minimum activity (method or tool)? Use rationale for the decision based on law and agency policy. How is a Minimum Requirements Decision Made? MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

23 How is a Minimum Requirements Determination Made? Now all that’s left is to get the appropriate review and approval and you’re good to go. MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

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