FE Review http://www.raperkins.net/Presentatio ns/PresentationsIndex.htm Dr. Robert A. Perkins, PE 253 Duckering firstname.lastname@example.org
What is FE Fundamentals of Engineering –AKA “EIT” Tests basic knowledge Prepared by NCEES –National Council of Examiners of Engineering and Surveying –http://www.ncees.org/
Books and Calculators No books Some calculators banned NCEES “Supplied-Reference Handbook Download pdf and print http://www.ncees.org/exams/study_material s/#fehttp://www.ncees.org/exams/study_material s/#fe Will get an identical at exam.
Licensure In order to protect the public health and safety Requires –Education –Experience –Examination
Exam has AM and PM sessions –four hours each 120 multiple choice questions in AM –That’s two minutes each 60 multiple choice in PM –Four minutes each Take home message?
“Your exam results are determined by the number of items you answered correctly for the exam in its entirety. There are no minimum requirements for particular sections or topics within an exam. You are not penalized for incorrect answers.” (NCEES website)
Ethics Specs for AM V. Ethics and Business Practices 7% A. Code of ethics (professional and technical societies) B. Agreements and contracts C. Ethical versus legal D. Professional liability E. Public protection issues (e.g., licensing boards)
Econ Specifications for AM VI. Engineering Economics 8% A. Discounted cash flow (e.g., equivalence, PW, equivalent annual cash flow, FW, rate of return) B. Cost (e.g., incremental, average, sunk, estimating) C. Analyses (e.g., breakeven, benefit-cost) D. Uncertainty (e.g., expected value and risk)
For EE and ME Ethics and Econ first Then a little contracts Then construction, a little
A. Code of ethics (professional and technical societies) See FE book, pages 121-122 –Read Number 1, paramount, first and foremost, etc., obligation is to…….. Codes and Standards Conflict of Interest Don’t lie
C. Ethical versus legal D. Professional liability E. Expert witness F. Public protection issues (e.g., licensing boards)
Let’s do AM Econ A. Discounted cash flow (e.g., equivalence, PW, equivalent annual cash flow, FW, rate of return) Go to Overheads Must use formulas and tables
You estimate your new generator will require a major overhaul at five and 12 years after it is installed. Each overhaul cost $85,000. Assume it will be junked at the end of year 15, before a third overhaul is needed. What is the equivalent annual cost of the two overhauls if i=8% ?
(On board) All needed factors are in Handbook An relevant tables. With that, all should be direct, except finding Rate of Return –don’t try to inverse formulae Solve for factor, then work backwards in tables –Linear interpolation is fine, if you need it.
B. Cost (e.g., incremental, average, sunk, estimating) Incremental two meanings –Means the difference between alternatives –Which is all we have to analyze –As we have done in 450, or The cost of the next unit –one more unit, relates to next Average –Fixed versus variable
Fixed vs. Variable Costs Fixed –Many overhead costs, boss, rent, etc. –Must pay no matter how many units you make Variable –per unit extra cost For Average –Divide the fixed by the number of units and add the unit cost –Duh
43 Public Construction Contracts History Federal –CFRs – 41CFR41CFR –FARsFARs State – Title 36Title 36 Local
44 The Public Contracting Process Advertise Receive Proposals Open Proposals (Bids) Evaluate and Award Work Changes Completion Warrantee
45 Private Contracting Not controlled by law, except –subcontracts or suppliers on public works Corporate rules –SEC –Accounting and Auditing Biggest difference is that private can select bidders
46 Mechanics Liens and Bonding Common law situation: Bank lends money to project –Secured creditor A/Es, laborers, material suppliers –Not secured Builder goes belly up –Bank gets value in building –Others get nothing
47 Mechanics Liens and Bonding Mechanics lien laws give laborers and others the right to get paid. Lenders and owners often require “payment bonds” of contractors. Different than: –Bid bonds –Performance bonds. Most public construction requires all three.
48 “Construction Documents” Agreement Drawings General Conditions Special Conditions Technical Specifications –Reference specifications and technical documents Hierarchy statement
49 Bid Documents Many formalities for public construction “Front end” plus Construction Documents Bid form Bid bond Many miscellaneous forms, see ADOT “Non-responsive” vs. “Informalities”
B. Allocation of Resources Direct vs. Overhead See Excel WBS
52 What is a “Contract?” A contract is “an agreement, enforceable by law”
53 Rules of formation Competent parties Legal subject matter Meeting of the minds Consideration Form
54 Competent Parties Charters of municipalities Principal - agent Licensed “Foreign” corporations Charters of corporations –u–ultra vires
55 Legal Subject matter Can’t be contrary to statutes, common law, or public policy Must be incapable of being performed legally at time of agreement in order for courts to set aside. If only one party intended illegal actions it still valid contract “adhesion contracts” What if law changes?
62 Why Project Management? Most engineers spend most of their work careers working on projects. Some organizations work only on projects. Other organizations work on delivering a product or service, –that is the organization’s function –Power plant But projects are how these functional organizations grow and change –Projects need special management techniques, different than the functional organization.
63 What is a project? One-of-kind undertaking Definite objective Start and end points
64 Project Characteristics Temporary Use scarce resources Specific objectives Unique outcomes Special budget One person has responsibility
70 Activity on Arrow Method Each Activity has tail on beginning node and head at end node. 52 Dig foundation Node or Event
71 18 Ship Swings Finish foundation Set Anchors Erect Swings Test Swings All activities that enter a node must be complete before any of the activities leaving the node can start. Each activity will have a unique start and end node
72 Pencil Method Activity name Duration ES EF LFLS
73 Forward Pass Take Early Start of each activity and add duration, this is the Early Finish of that activity Take largest number (latest date) of the all the Early Finishes entering a node, this is the earliest any activity can leave the node Work through until you get an EF for the project.
74 Backward Pass Take the EF of the Project, this is also the LF of the Project. Subtract the duration, this is the LS of that activity. Which is the LF of all the activities entering that node Take the smallest number (earliest date) of the LS of the activities leaving the node, this is the LF of the activities entering the node.
75 Critical Path and Float On the critical path, the ES and LS are equal, as are the EF and LF. Other paths have float or slack MS Project gives –“free slack,” until next activity is delayed –“total slack,” until job is delayed –We are only interested in TOTAL SLACK.
76 CPM Example Machine A makes part, Machine B finishes part, ABProduct
T E = (O + 4M + P) ÷ 6 T expected = Optimistic time, plus 4 times the most likely time, plus Pessimistic time Divided by six 78
79 CPM as Management Tool Delays on critical path delay job Document delays Delay on activities with float will not delay job, up to the amount of float Experiment with different allocations of overtime, “crashing” activities
Project Management, Safety Who is responsible for job site safety? Whose who at the zoo? –Who do you work for? –Who is your contract with? –What does the contract say?
Construction Estimating Home office vs. Project Etc. Quantities?