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FE Review ns/PresentationsIndex.htm Dr. Robert A. Perkins, PE 253 Duckering

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2 FE Review ns/PresentationsIndex.htm Dr. Robert A. Perkins, PE 253 Duckering

3 What is FE Fundamentals of Engineering –AKA “EIT” Tests basic knowledge Prepared by NCEES –National Council of Examiners of Engineering and Surveying –

4 Books and Calculators No books Some calculators banned NCEES “Supplied-Reference Handbook Download pdf and print s/#fe s/#fe Will get an identical at exam.

5 Licensure In order to protect the public health and safety Requires –Education –Experience –Examination

6 Exam has AM and PM sessions –four hours each 120 multiple choice questions in AM –That’s two minutes each 60 multiple choice in PM –Four minutes each Take home message?

7 “Your exam results are determined by the number of items you answered correctly for the exam in its entirety. There are no minimum requirements for particular sections or topics within an exam. You are not penalized for incorrect answers.” (NCEES website)

8 Not to worry No one gets 100% You only need 70%

9 Ethics Specs for AM V. Ethics and Business Practices 7% A. Code of ethics (professional and technical societies) B. Agreements and contracts C. Ethical versus legal D. Professional liability E. Public protection issues (e.g., licensing boards)

10 Econ Specifications for AM VI. Engineering Economics 8% A. Discounted cash flow (e.g., equivalence, PW, equivalent annual cash flow, FW, rate of return) B. Cost (e.g., incremental, average, sunk, estimating) C. Analyses (e.g., breakeven, benefit-cost) D. Uncertainty (e.g., expected value and risk)

11 Civil PM No econ, but 10% is:

12 For EE and ME Ethics and Econ first Then a little contracts Then construction, a little

13 A. Code of ethics (professional and technical societies) See FE book, pages 121-122 –Read Number 1, paramount, first and foremost, etc., obligation is to…….. Codes and Standards Conflict of Interest Don’t lie

14 C. Ethical versus legal D. Professional liability E. Expert witness F. Public protection issues (e.g., licensing boards)

15 Let’s do AM Econ A. Discounted cash flow (e.g., equivalence, PW, equivalent annual cash flow, FW, rate of return) Go to Overheads Must use formulas and tables

16 You estimate your new generator will require a major overhaul at five and 12 years after it is installed. Each overhaul cost $85,000. Assume it will be junked at the end of year 15, before a third overhaul is needed. What is the equivalent annual cost of the two overhauls if i=8% ?

17 (On board) All needed factors are in Handbook An relevant tables. With that, all should be direct, except finding Rate of Return –don’t try to inverse formulae Solve for factor, then work backwards in tables –Linear interpolation is fine, if you need it.

18 Problems Board and Overheads.

19 B. Cost (e.g., incremental, average, sunk, estimating) Incremental two meanings –Means the difference between alternatives –Which is all we have to analyze –As we have done in 450, or The cost of the next unit –one more unit, relates to next Average –Fixed versus variable

20 Fixed vs. Variable Costs Fixed –Many overhead costs, boss, rent, etc. –Must pay no matter how many units you make Variable –per unit extra cost For Average –Divide the fixed by the number of units and add the unit cost –Duh

21 Sunk

22 Estimating No idea Common sense Nothing in Handbook

23 C. Analyses (e.g., breakeven, benefit-cost) Benefit Cost, see book Breakeven –Bear Air –Consulting firm

24 D. Uncertainty (e.g., expected value and risk) You are familiar with expected value Just multiply the probabilities by there value Probabilities must add to one.

25 PM General IV. Engineering Economics 10% A. Cost estimating We’ve done that

26 B. Project selection Compare alternatives, a la, PW or EACF Sometimes Find project with greatest rate of return one pot of money –pick project with greatest return –then second –until pot is empty.

27 C. Lease/buy/make Just breakeven by another name Fixed vs. variable costs

28 D. Replacement analysis (e.g., optimal economic life Find life that EACF is minimum Did in 450 But too complex for FE

29 Civil PM No econ, but 10% is:

30 A. Procurement Methods

31 30 Engineering Contracts A/E = Architect/Engineer Owner ContractorA/E

32 31 A/E contract Sophisticated vs. non-sophisticated –Many are non-sophisticated Often lack clear definition at start

33 32 Design Phases Preliminary –Planning –Programming Design –10, 35, 75, 95% –Bid documents Construction

34 33 A/E Construction Phase May vary greatly between owners and projects Frequent source of litigation and problems “Inspection” Shop drawings Job site safety Agency Progress payments

35 34 A/E fees Fixed fee Percentage of construction cost Expenses plus fee Hourly (“Billing Rate”)

36 35 Standard A/E Contracts AIA NSPE ASCE others All have “sub-consultant” (subcontractor) forms

37 36 Construction Contracts Traditional Owner ContractorA/E

38 37 Design-build Owner Contractor A/E OR

39 38 Construction (Project) Management Owner ContractorA/E C M

40 39 Turnkey Fast track End result CMAR

41 40 Construction Contract Payment Fixed price Unit price Cost plus

42 41 200,000 CY of ? Fixed price Unit price Cost plus rock Cut line Borehole 1 mile

43 42

44 43 Public Construction Contracts History Federal –CFRs – 41CFR41CFR –FARsFARs State – Title 36Title 36 Local

45 44 The Public Contracting Process Advertise Receive Proposals Open Proposals (Bids) Evaluate and Award Work Changes Completion Warrantee

46 45 Private Contracting Not controlled by law, except –subcontracts or suppliers on public works Corporate rules –SEC –Accounting and Auditing Biggest difference is that private can select bidders

47 46 Mechanics Liens and Bonding Common law situation: Bank lends money to project –Secured creditor A/Es, laborers, material suppliers –Not secured Builder goes belly up –Bank gets value in building –Others get nothing

48 47 Mechanics Liens and Bonding Mechanics lien laws give laborers and others the right to get paid. Lenders and owners often require “payment bonds” of contractors. Different than: –Bid bonds –Performance bonds. Most public construction requires all three.

49 48 “Construction Documents” Agreement Drawings General Conditions Special Conditions Technical Specifications –Reference specifications and technical documents Hierarchy statement

50 49 Bid Documents Many formalities for public construction “Front end” plus Construction Documents Bid form Bid bond Many miscellaneous forms, see ADOT “Non-responsive” vs. “Informalities”

51 B. Allocation of Resources Direct vs. Overhead See Excel WBS

52 C. Contracts and Contract Law

53 52 What is a “Contract?” A contract is “an agreement, enforceable by law”

54 53 Rules of formation Competent parties Legal subject matter Meeting of the minds Consideration Form

55 54 Competent Parties Charters of municipalities Principal - agent Licensed “Foreign” corporations Charters of corporations –u–ultra vires

56 55 Legal Subject matter Can’t be contrary to statutes, common law, or public policy Must be incapable of being performed legally at time of agreement in order for courts to set aside. If only one party intended illegal actions it still valid contract “adhesion contracts” What if law changes?

57 56 Meeting of minds Offer and acceptance

58 57 Termination of offer Acceptance Revocation by offeror Time, expiration Various rules, mail box rule, dates and times, etc. Rejection by offeree Counter offer

59 58 Acceptance Never silence Some overt act Unless previous dealing indicate otherwise Conditions precedent and subsequent Mistakes Lies, fraud, duress

60 59 Consideration Must Have value, Be legal Be possible Present or future Estopple or injurious reliance

61 60 Form Statue of Frauds Certain things must be in writing, state law –Terms more than one year –Transfer of real property –Sale of goods more than $500 –But not services

62 D. Scheduling

63 62 Why Project Management? Most engineers spend most of their work careers working on projects. Some organizations work only on projects. Other organizations work on delivering a product or service, –that is the organization’s function –Power plant But projects are how these functional organizations grow and change –Projects need special management techniques, different than the functional organization.

64 63 What is a project? One-of-kind undertaking Definite objective Start and end points

65 64 Project Characteristics Temporary Use scarce resources Specific objectives Unique outcomes Special budget One person has responsibility

66 65 Project Life Cycle

67 66 Three aspects of P.M Schedule –time Cost –budget Production –performance, specification –Chapters 3 and 4

68 67 Bar Chart Schedules Most common Simple (Excel) Gantt chart

69 Gantt

70 69 CPM Critical Path Method PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) –uses statistical methods

71 70 Activity on Arrow Method Each Activity has tail on beginning node and head at end node. 52 Dig foundation Node or Event

72 71 18 Ship Swings Finish foundation Set Anchors Erect Swings Test Swings All activities that enter a node must be complete before any of the activities leaving the node can start. Each activity will have a unique start and end node

73 72 Pencil Method Activity name Duration ES EF LFLS

74 73 Forward Pass Take Early Start of each activity and add duration, this is the Early Finish of that activity Take largest number (latest date) of the all the Early Finishes entering a node, this is the earliest any activity can leave the node Work through until you get an EF for the project.

75 74 Backward Pass Take the EF of the Project, this is also the LF of the Project. Subtract the duration, this is the LS of that activity. Which is the LF of all the activities entering that node Take the smallest number (earliest date) of the LS of the activities leaving the node, this is the LF of the activities entering the node.

76 75 Critical Path and Float On the critical path, the ES and LS are equal, as are the EF and LF. Other paths have float or slack MS Project gives –“free slack,” until next activity is delayed –“total slack,” until job is delayed –We are only interested in TOTAL SLACK.

77 76 CPM Example Machine A makes part, Machine B finishes part, ABProduct

78 77 On board

79 T E = (O + 4M + P) ÷ 6 T expected = Optimistic time, plus 4 times the most likely time, plus Pessimistic time Divided by six 78

80 79 CPM as Management Tool Delays on critical path delay job Document delays Delay on activities with float will not delay job, up to the amount of float Experiment with different allocations of overtime, “crashing” activities

81 Project Management, Safety Who is responsible for job site safety? Whose who at the zoo? –Who do you work for? –Who is your contract with? –What does the contract say?

82 Construction Estimating Home office vs. Project Etc. Quantities?

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