Presentation on theme: "APPLICATION of Various Techniques for HAZARD n A BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL AGENT THAT IS REASONABLY LIKELY TO CAUSE ILLNESS OR INJURY IN THE ABSENCE."— Presentation transcript:
APPLICATION of Various Techniques for
HAZARD n A BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL AGENT THAT IS REASONABLY LIKELY TO CAUSE ILLNESS OR INJURY IN THE ABSENCE OF ITS CONTROL.
PROCESS HAZARD IDENTIFICATION
HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS SYSTEM DESCRIPTION HAZARD IDENTIFICATION SCENARIO IDENTIFICATION ACCIDENT PROBABILITY ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCE RISK DETERMINATION RISK AND / OR HAZARD ACCEPTANCE MODIFY DESIGN BUILD AND / OR OPERATE SYSTEM
STEPS IN HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PROCESS
PHI & PROJECT LIFE CYCLE
SUITABILITY OF PHI TO DIFFERENT PHASES CONCEPTPROCESSDESIGNCOMMISSIONINGOPERATIONMODIFICATIONDECOMMISSIONING HAZOPNS MS WHAT IFSSMS PHAMS NS S FTASSMS Safety Audit MS FMEANS MS NS – Not Suitable, MS – Most Suitable, S - Suitable
Tools for Process Hazard Identification n What if Analysis? n HAZOP n FMEA n ETA n FTA n Safety Audit n Compliance Audit
STEPS IN PHA & RISK ANALYSIS * HAZARD IDENTIFICATION : I CHEMICAL IDENTITY I LOCATION I QUANTITY I NATURE OF THE HAZARD * VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS : I VULNERABILE ZONES I HUMAN POPULATION I CRITICAL FACILITIES I ENVIRONMENT * RISK ANALYSIS I LIKELYHOOD OF THE HAZARDOUS EVENT OCCURING I SEVIERITY OF THE CONSEQUENCES
ISSUES THAT PHA ADDRESS TO ARE : / HAZARDS OF PROCESS / PREVIOUS INCIDENTS AND NEAR- MISSES. / ENGINEERING & ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS. / CONSEQUENCES OF FAILURE OF THESE CONTROLS. / QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF POSSIABLE EFFECTS ON : – EMPLOYEES. – PUBLIC – ENVIRONMENT / FACILITY & PLANT SITING / HUMAN FACTOR
WHAT IF ANALYSIS u THE WHAT IF ANALYSIS IS AN UNCOMPLICATED HAZARD EVALUATION PROCESS. u IT REVIEWS THE COMPLETE PROCESS FROM RAW MATERIAL TO FINISHED PRODUCT. u IN THIS ANALYSIS THE QUESTIONS COVERING EVERY MODE, COMPONENT OF THE PROCESS ARE ANSWERED TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF COMPONENT FAILURE OR PROCEDURAL ERRORS. u FOR MORE COMPLEX PROCESS THE WHAT IF ANALYSIS CAN BE BEST ORGANISED THROUGH USE OF CHECKLISTS. u THIS METHOD IS VERY USEFULL IN TRAINING OPERATING PERSONAL ON THE HAZARDS OF PERTICULAR OPERATION.
THE TEAM COMPOSITION FOR WHAT IF ANALYSIS n THE TEAM FOR CONDUCTING THIS ANALYSIS COVERS A WIDE RANGE OF DISCIPLINES THAT IS : X PRODUCTION X MECHANICAL X CHEMICAL X SAFETY n THIS PACKAGE INCLUDES INFORMATIONS ON HAZARDS OF : X MATERIALS X PROCESS X TECHNOLOGY X PROCEDURES X EQUIPMENT DESIGN X INSTRUMENTATION CONTROL ETC. n
THE IMPORTANT FEATURES of HAZOP
HAZOP - DEFINITION HAZOP = HAZard and OPerability Study Method for identifying (and assessing) problems that may represent risks to personnel or equipment, or prevent efficient operation Systematic and qualitative method based on the use of Guide words Multi- disciplinary team effort
TYPES of HAZOPs n Process HAZOP – The HAZOP technique was originally developed to assess plants and process systems n Human HAZOP – A family of more specialized HAZOPs – More focused on Human Errors than technical failures n Procedure HAZOP – Review of procedures or operational sequences – Sometimes denoted SAFOP - SAFe Operation Study n Software HAZOP – Identification of possible errors in the development of software
PROCESS HAZOP n Review of complete process through P& IDs and / or flow diagrams n Breakdown of the system into segments Standardized guide- words / parameters Application of guide - words to different process parameters to identify possible deviations
HUMAN HAZOP n Based on some form of task analysis n Other input is procedures, workplace layout schematics, man/ machine interface description Covers a ‘ family’ of specialized HAZOPs: – Errors associated with design and use of computer- based interfaces – Errors associated with the use of interlocks – Function allocation HAZOP: errors associated with determining the role of the operator in the system.
PROCEDURE HAZOP n Can be applied to all sequences of operations n Focus on both human errors and failures of technical systems n Best suited for detailed assessments, but can also be used for coarse preliminary assessments n Flexible approach with respect to use of guide- words
Procedure HAZOP Guide- words (I) n Standard guide - words of Human HAZOP can be applied to the steps in the procedure n In addition a Procedure HAZOP should highlight: – TIMING/ SEQUENCE: The steps are not performed in the correct sequence
Applications of Procedure HAZOP n All operations that are potentially hazardous and that are not identical to operations analyzed before should be subject to a HAZOP n Examples that should be HAZOPed: – Start up and shut down procedures – Purging operations – Maintenance of critical equipments – Complex lifting operations
Success Factors The `right’ composition of the HAZOP team Experienced and contributing team members Properly prepared procedures – Possibly developed using task analysis – Clear and unambiguous work description n Experienced HAZOP leader/ chairman – Familiar with the type of work being analyzed – Sufficient authority to control the discussion – Skills as ‘ catalyst’
Necessary documentation n Description of operations (sequential breakdown, procedure) n Descriptions and drawings of equipment involved in the operations, n Critical data: – Critical values of parameters – Process conditions – Critical controls.
Planning and preparation n Ensure that necessary documentation is prepared n Decide level of detail of the assessment – Depending on documentation available n Set time frame – Depending on level of detail – can be from a few hours to days and even weeks n Compose the HAZOP team n Send call for meeting, including: – time and venue – list of participants – background documentation
HAZOP Team (I) n HAZOP leader/ chairman: – Independent (i. e., no responsibility for performance of the operations) – responsible (together with the HAZOP initiator) for planning and preparation of the HAZOP – Chairing the HAZOP meeting: n trigger the discussion using the guide- words follow- up progress according to schedule/ agenda n ensure completeness of the assessment – Responsible for final reporting HAZOP secretary – Preparing HAZOP work- sheets – Recording the discussion in the HAZOP meeting – Preparation of draft report
HAZOP Team (II) n Representatives of all disciplines/ parties involved in the operations – give input based on their responsibility in the performance of the operations n Ideally, the HAZOP team should consist of persons in order to work effectively
How to be a good HAZOP participant Be active! Everyone’s contribution is important Be to the point. Avoid endless discussion of details Be critical in a positive way - not negative, but constructive Be responsible. He who knows should let the others know
HAZOP MEETING n Proposed agenda: – Introduction and presentation of participants – Overall presentation of operations subject to HAZOP – Description of HAZOP method – Presentation of first logical part of operations – Analysis of first part of operations using the guide- words – Continue presentation and analysis – Coarse summary of findings n Focus should be on potential hazards as well as potential operational problems n Each session of the HAZOP meeting should not exceed two hours
HAZOP RECORDING n The HAZOP meeting is recorded by the HAZOP secretary using work- sheets, either: – Filling in paper copies of the work- sheets, or – Using a PC connected to a projector HAZOP work- sheets may be somewhat different depending on the scope of the study - generally the following columns are included: – Ref. no [Step no.] – Guide- word – Deviation – Potential cause/ source – Potential consequences – Action/ recommendation – Follow- up - responsibility
HAZOP REPORTING There is no ‘ correct answer’ – depends on the experience of the participants – depends on priorities Preliminary findings/ conclusions presented at the end of the meeting Draft work- sheets are issued to all participants for review and comments The HAZOP report is issued when all corrections to the work- sheets have been incorporated
HAZOP RESULTS n Improvement of operations – reduced risk - better contingency – more efficient operations n Improvement of procedures – logical order – completeness n General awareness among involved parties n Team building
FALURE MODE & EFFECT ANALYSIS (FMEA) n FMEA IS A DISCIPLINED DESIGN REVIEW TECHNIQUE THAT FOCUSES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES ON PRIORITIZED ACTIONS TO REDUCE THE RISK OF PRODUCT FIELD FAILURES, AND DOCUMENTS THOSE ACTIONS AND REVIEW PROCESS. n IT : RECOGNIZE & EVALUATE THE POTENTIAL FAILURE OF A PRODUCT/COMPONENT OR PROCESS AND ITS EFFECTS. IDENTIFY ACTIONS WHICH COULD ELIMINATE OR REDUCE THE CHANCE OF POTENTIAL FAILURE OCCURING. DOCUMENT THE PROCESS.
THE FMEA PROCESS Identify Elements of System Identify Functions Identify Failure Modes Identify Possible Causes Identify Effects on the System Identify Effects on other System Final Risk Assessment Take Action to Reduce the Risk
Safety Audit n Regulatory requirement n System Review n Physical Review n Submission of Reports n Implementation of Recommendations n Follow up responsibilities
AUDIT AN AUDIT IS A SYSTEMATIC INDEPENDENT REVIEW TO VERIFY CONFORMANCE WITH ESTABLISHED GUIDE LINES OR STANDARDS. IT EMPLOYS WELL DEFINED REVIEW PROCESS TO ENSURE CONSISTENCE AND TO ALLOW THE AUDITOR TO REACH DEFENSIBLE CONCLUSIONS.
What is Safety Audit Verifying the existence and implementation of elements of occupational safety and health system and for verifying the system’s ability to achieve defined safety objectives
Why Safety Audit n To know the compliance of health and safety policy and management systems. n To find out strengths and weaknesses of safety program. n To identify areas of high risk and vulnerability and recommend for more detailed risk analysis. n To find out potential hazards present in the existing plants.
n To ensure that operation and maintenance are carried out according to the plant manual without any serious deviation. n To rectify and bring forth any design or process deficiency, which has come up during modification. n To ensure the compliance of important statutory requirements. n To check the existing fire fighting, first-aid and training facilities.
n To know the status of emergency preparedness and regular drills. n To know the personal attitudes of employees and public relation both inside and outside the factory. n To study the existing systems, procedures and measures for controlling the hazards besides the provisions of Factories Act 1948 and other legislation enforces the industrial or process units for safety audits.
Manufacture, Storage and import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 n Safety Audit is required to be carried out by by the occupiers of both the new and the existing industrial activities with the help of an expert not associated with such industrial activities. n This is required under Rule No.10-subrule (4) n This has come into effect from 3/10/94
SCOPE OF AUDIT n FIRE AND EXPLOSION; PREVENTION, PROTECTION AND EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT. n WORK INJURY PREVENTION. n HEALTH HAZARDS CONTROL. n CONSEQUENCES OF EMERGENCIES. n ON SITE EMERGENCY CONTROL
n It helps in safeguarding people,plant and the environment from the effects of malfunctioning of the plant. n It ensures the compliance with local, regional and national laws and regulations. n It ensures independent verification, it identifies matters needing attention and provides timely warning to the organisation and management at various levels of potential future problems. Benefits of Safety Audit
n It helps in improving overall safety performance at operating facilities. n Accelerate the overall development of process safety management and control systems. n Improves the risk management system and develops the basis for optimizing safety resources. n Increase employees awareness of safety policies and responsibilities. n Identify potential cost savings by reducing lapses in safety, quality and production. n Provide an information base for use in emergencies and evaluating the effectiveness of emergency response arrangements. n Enables management to give credit of good safety performance.
MANAGEMENT CONCERNS n QUANTITY PRODUCED IN RELATION TO PRODUCTION SCHEDULE AND MARKET REQUIREMENT n PRODUCT QUALITY n PRODUCTION COSTS n INTEGRATING THE STAKEHOLDERS CONCERNS Is Safety Important? Not always
TYPES OF AUDIT n Electrical Audit n Fire Safety Audit n Pressure vessels Audit n Lifting Tackles Audit n Statutory Regulations Compliance Audit n Emergency Communication Audit n Pipe lines Audit
Elements of Occupational Safety and Health System-IS14489 n Occupational Health and Safety Policy n OS&H organizational set up n Education and Training n Employees participation in OS&H Management n Motivational and Promotional measures for OS&H n Safety Manual and Rules n Compliance with Statutory Requirements n New Equipment review and inspection
Elements contd.. n Accident reporting analysis investigation and implementation and recommendations n Risk Assessment including hazard identification n Safety inspections n Health and safety improvement plan/targets n First aid facilities-Occupational health center n Personal Protective Equipment n housekeeping n Machine and general area guarding n Material handling equipment
Elements contd.. n Electrical and Personal safeguarding n Work environment monitoring system n Prevention of occupational diseases including periodic medical examination n Safe operating procedures n Work Permit systems n Fire Prevention, Protection and fighting systems n Emergency Preparedness plans(onsite/offsite) n Process Plant modification procedure
Elements contd.. n Transportation of hazardous substances n Hazardous waste treatment and disposal n Safety in storage and warehousing n Contractor safety systems n Safety for customers(including MSDS)