8HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS SYSTEM DESCRIPTIONHAZARD IDENTIFICATIONSCENARIO IDENTIFICATIONACCIDENT PROBABILITYACCIDENT CONSEQUENCERISK DETERMINATIONRISKAND / OR HAZARD ACCEPTANCEMODIFY DESIGNBUILD AND / OR OPERATE SYSTEM
13SUITABILITY OF PHI TO DIFFERENT PHASES CONCEPTPROCESSDESIGNCOMMISSIONINGOPERATIONMODIFICATIONDECOMMISSIONINGHAZOPNSMSWHAT IFSPHAFTASafety AuditFMEANS – Not Suitable, MS – Most Suitable, S - Suitable
14Tools for Process Hazard Identification What if Analysis?HAZOPFMEAETAFTASafety AuditCompliance Audit
15STEPS IN PHA & RISK ANALYSIS HAZARD IDENTIFICATION :CHEMICAL IDENTITYLOCATIONQUANTITYNATURE OF THE HAZARDVULNERABILITY ANALYSIS :VULNERABILE ZONESHUMAN POPULATIONCRITICAL FACILITIESENVIRONMENTRISK ANALYSISLIKELYHOOD OF THE HAZARDOUS EVENT OCCURINGSEVIERITY OF THE CONSEQUENCES
16ISSUES THAT PHA ADDRESS TO ARE : HAZARDS OF PROCESSPREVIOUS INCIDENTS AND NEAR- MISSES.ENGINEERING & ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS.CONSEQUENCES OF FAILURE OF THESE CONTROLS.QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF POSSIABLE EFFECTS ON :EMPLOYEES.PUBLICENVIRONMENTFACILITY & PLANT SITINGHUMAN FACTOR
17WHAT IF ANALYSISTHE WHAT IF ANALYSIS IS AN UNCOMPLICATED HAZARD EVALUATION PROCESS.IT REVIEWS THE COMPLETE PROCESS FROM RAW MATERIAL TO FINISHED PRODUCT.IN THIS ANALYSIS THE QUESTIONS COVERING EVERY MODE, COMPONENT OF THE PROCESS ARE ANSWERED TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF COMPONENT FAILURE OR PROCEDURAL ERRORS.FOR MORE COMPLEX PROCESS THE WHAT IF ANALYSIS CAN BE BEST ORGANISED THROUGH USE OF CHECKLISTS.THIS METHOD IS VERY USEFULL IN TRAINING OPERATING PERSONAL ON THE HAZARDS OF PERTICULAR OPERATION.
18THE TEAM COMPOSITION FOR WHAT IF ANALYSIS THE TEAM FOR CONDUCTING THIS ANALYSIS COVERS A WIDE RANGE OF DISCIPLINES THAT IS :PRODUCTIONMECHANICALCHEMICALSAFETYTHIS PACKAGE INCLUDES INFORMATIONS ON HAZARDS OF :MATERIALSPROCESSTECHNOLOGYPROCEDURESEQUIPMENT DESIGNINSTRUMENTATION CONTROL ETC.
20HAZOP - DEFINITION HAZOP = HAZard and OPerability Study Method for identifying (and assessing) problems that may represent risks to personnel or equipment, or prevent efficient operationSystematic and qualitative method based on the use ofGuide wordsMulti- disciplinary team effort
22TYPES of HAZOPs Process HAZOP The HAZOP technique was originally developed to assess plants and process systemsHuman HAZOPA family of more specialized HAZOPsMore focused on Human Errors than technical failuresProcedure HAZOPReview of procedures or operational sequencesSometimes denoted SAFOP - SAFe Operation StudySoftware HAZOPIdentification of possible errors in the development of software
23PROCESS HAZOPReview of complete process through P& IDs and / or flow diagramsBreakdown of the system into segmentsStandardized guide- words / parametersApplication of guide - words to different process parameters to identify possible deviations
24HUMAN HAZOP Based on some form of task analysis Other input is procedures, workplace layout schematics, man/ machine interface descriptionCovers a ‘ family’ of specialized HAZOPs:Errors associated with design and use of computer- based interfacesErrors associated with the use of interlocksFunction allocation HAZOP: errors associated with determining the role of the operator in the system.
25PROCEDURE HAZOP Can be applied to all sequences of operations Focus on both human errors and failures of technical systemsBest suited for detailed assessments, but can also be used for coarse preliminary assessmentsFlexible approach with respect to use of guide- words
26Procedure HAZOP Guide- words (I) Standard guide - words of Human HAZOP can be applied to the steps in the procedureIn addition a Procedure HAZOP should highlight:TIMING/ SEQUENCE: The steps are not performed in the correct sequence
27Applications of Procedure HAZOP All operations that are potentially hazardous and that are not identical to operations analyzed before should be subject to a HAZOPExamples that should be HAZOPed:Start up and shut down proceduresPurging operationsMaintenance of critical equipmentsComplex lifting operations
28Success Factors The `right’ composition of the HAZOP team Experienced and contributing team membersProperly prepared proceduresPossibly developed using task analysisClear and unambiguous work descriptionExperienced HAZOP leader/ chairmanFamiliar with the type of work being analyzedSufficient authority to control the discussionSkills as ‘ catalyst’
29Necessary documentation Description of operations (sequential breakdown, procedure)Descriptions and drawings of equipment involved in the operations,Critical data:Critical values of parametersProcess conditionsCritical controls.
30Planning and preparation Ensure that necessary documentation is preparedDecide level of detail of the assessmentDepending on documentation availableSet time frameDepending on level of detailcan be from a few hours to days and even weeksCompose the HAZOP teamSend call for meeting, including:time and venuelist of participantsbackground documentation
31HAZOP Team (I) HAZOP leader/ chairman: Independent (i. e., no responsibility for performance of the operations)responsible (together with the HAZOP initiator) for planning and preparation of the HAZOPChairing the HAZOP meeting:trigger the discussion using the guide- wordsfollow- up progress according to schedule/ agendaensure completeness of the assessmentResponsible for final reportingHAZOP secretaryPreparing HAZOP work- sheetsRecording the discussion in the HAZOP meetingPreparation of draft report
32HAZOP Team (II)Representatives of all disciplines/ parties involved in the operationsgive input based on their responsibility in the performance of the operationsIdeally, the HAZOP team should consist of persons in order to work effectively
33How to be a good HAZOP participant Be active! Everyone’s contribution is importantBe to the point. Avoid endless discussion of detailsBe critical in a positive way - not negative, but constructiveBe responsible. He who knows should let the others know
34HAZOP MEETING Proposed agenda: Introduction and presentation of participantsOverall presentation of operations subject to HAZOPDescription of HAZOP methodPresentation of first logical part of operationsAnalysis of first part of operations using the guide- wordsContinue presentation and analysisCoarse summary of findingsFocus should be on potential hazards as well as potential operational problemsEach session of the HAZOP meeting should not exceed two hours
35HAZOP RECORDINGThe HAZOP meeting is recorded by the HAZOP secretary using work- sheets, either:Filling in paper copies of the work- sheets, orUsing a PC connected to a projectorHAZOP work- sheets may be somewhat different depending on the scope of the study - generally the following columns are included:Ref. no [Step no.]Guide- wordDeviationPotential cause/ sourcePotential consequencesAction/ recommendationFollow- up - responsibility
36REF. DIAGRAM / DRAWING NO : DATE: System/ Equipment : Executed By:REF. DIAGRAM / DRAWING NO :DATE:Protection MeasuresParameter
37HAZOP REPORTING There is no ‘ correct answer’ depends on the experience of the participantsdepends on prioritiesPreliminary findings/ conclusions presented at the end of the meetingDraft work- sheets are issued to all participants for review and commentsThe HAZOP report is issued when all corrections to the work- sheets have been incorporated
38HAZOP RESULTS Improvement of operations reduced risk - better contingencymore efficient operationsImprovement of procedureslogical ordercompletenessGeneral awareness among involved partiesTeam building
39FALURE MODE & EFFECT ANALYSIS (FMEA) FMEA IS A DISCIPLINED DESIGN REVIEW TECHNIQUE THAT FOCUSES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES ON PRIORITIZED ACTIONS TO REDUCE THE RISK OF PRODUCT FIELD FAILURES, AND DOCUMENTS THOSE ACTIONS AND REVIEW PROCESS.IT :RECOGNIZE & EVALUATE THE POTENTIAL FAILURE OF A PRODUCT/COMPONENT OR PROCESS AND ITS EFFECTS.IDENTIFY ACTIONS WHICH COULD ELIMINATE OR REDUCE THE CHANCE OF POTENTIAL FAILURE OCCURING.DOCUMENT THE PROCESS.
40Identify Elements of System THE FMEA PROCESSIdentify Elements of SystemIdentify FunctionsIdentify Failure ModesIdentify Possible CausesIdentify Effects on the SystemIdentify Effects on other SystemFinal Risk AssessmentTake Action to Reduce the Risk
41Safety AuditRegulatory requirementSystem ReviewPhysical ReviewSubmission of ReportsImplementation of RecommendationsFollow up responsibilities
42AUDITAN AUDIT IS A SYSTEMATIC INDEPENDENT REVIEW TO VERIFY CONFORMANCE WITH ESTABLISHED GUIDE LINES OR STANDARDS. IT EMPLOYS WELL DEFINED REVIEW PROCESS TO ENSURE CONSISTENCE AND TO ALLOW THE AUDITOR TO REACH DEFENSIBLE CONCLUSIONS.
43What is Safety AuditVerifying the existence and implementation of elements of occupational safety and health system and for verifying the system’s ability to achieve defined safety objectives
44Why Safety AuditTo know the compliance of health and safety policy and management systems.To find out strengths and weaknesses of safety program.To identify areas of high risk and vulnerability and recommend for more detailed risk analysis.To find out potential hazards present in the existing plants.
45To ensure that operation and maintenance are carried out according to the plant manual without any serious deviation.To rectify and bring forth any design or process deficiency, which has come up during modification.To ensure the compliance of important statutory requirements.To check the existing fire fighting, first-aid and training facilities.
46To know the status of emergency preparedness and regular drills. To know the personal attitudes of employees and public relation both inside and outside the factory.To study the existing systems, procedures and measures for controlling the hazards besides the provisions of Factories Act 1948 and other legislation enforces the industrial or process units for safety audits.
47Manufacture, Storage and import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 Safety Audit is required to be carried out by by the occupiers of both the new and the existing industrial activities with the help of an expert not associated with such industrial activities.This is required under Rule No.10-subrule (4)This has come into effect from 3/10/94
48SCOPE OF AUDITFIRE AND EXPLOSION; PREVENTION, PROTECTION AND EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT.WORK INJURY PREVENTION.HEALTH HAZARDS CONTROL.CONSEQUENCES OF EMERGENCIES.ON SITE EMERGENCY CONTROL
49Benefits of Safety Audit It helps in safeguarding people,plant and the environment from the effects of malfunctioning of the plant.It ensures the compliance with local, regional and national laws and regulations.It ensures independent verification, it identifies matters needing attention and provides timely warning to the organisation and management at various levels of potential future problems.
50It helps in improving overall safety performance at operating facilities. Accelerate the overall development of process safety management and control systems.Improves the risk management system and develops the basis for optimizing safety resources.Increase employees awareness of safety policies and responsibilities.Identify potential cost savings by reducing lapses in safety, quality and production.Provide an information base for use in emergencies and evaluating the effectiveness of emergency response arrangements.Enables management to give credit of good safety performance.
51Is Safety Important? Not always MANAGEMENT CONCERNSQUANTITY PRODUCED IN RELATION TO PRODUCTION SCHEDULE AND MARKET REQUIREMENTPRODUCT QUALITYPRODUCTION COSTSINTEGRATING THE STAKEHOLDERSCONCERNSIs Safety Important? Not always
52TYPES OF AUDIT Electrical Audit Fire Safety Audit Pressure vessels AuditLifting Tackles AuditStatutory Regulations Compliance AuditEmergency Communication AuditPipe lines Audit
53Elements of Occupational Safety and Health System-IS14489 Occupational Health and Safety PolicyOS&H organizational set upEducation and TrainingEmployees participation in OS&H ManagementMotivational and Promotional measures for OS&HSafety Manual and RulesCompliance with Statutory RequirementsNew Equipment review and inspection
54Elements contd..Accident reporting analysis investigation and implementation and recommendationsRisk Assessment including hazard identificationSafety inspectionsHealth and safety improvement plan/targetsFirst aid facilities-Occupational health centerPersonal Protective EquipmenthousekeepingMachine and general area guardingMaterial handling equipment
55Elements contd.. Electrical and Personal safeguarding Work environment monitoring systemPrevention of occupational diseases including periodic medical examinationSafe operating proceduresWork Permit systemsFire Prevention, Protection and fighting systemsEmergency Preparedness plans(onsite/offsite)Process Plant modification procedure
56Elements contd.. Transportation of hazardous substances Hazardous waste treatment and disposalSafety in storage and warehousingContractor safety systemsSafety for customers(including MSDS)