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Reverse Logistics Association

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Presentation on theme: "Reverse Logistics Association"— Presentation transcript:

1 Reverse Logistics Association
Welcome Reverse Logistics Association Amsterdam Seminar June 25, 2007

2 Reverse Logistics Association
The Request for Information and Quote, Contracts & The Statement of Work Gailen Vick President Reverse Logistics Association

3 Agenda Welcome and introductions
OEM outsource decisions and building the RFQ Exercise and break 3PSP responding to the RFQ Outsourcing/Service best practices Contract requirements and RL components Understanding the Statement of Work Exercise Close

4 “Real knowledge is to know the extent of one's ignorance.”
Confucius

5 Workshop Objective: Offer both a client/service provider perspective
Cover key points of success and failure Opportunity to share best practices Provide a reference point while building agreements

6 Supply Chain - After Market Services Product Life Cycle
FORWARD LOGISTICS Supply Chain END USER / CONSUMER REVERSE LOGISTICS Aftermarket Supply Chain New Product Development Material Management Manufacturing & Distribution Aftermarket Customer Services •Design Development •Technology Roadmaps •ASIC Development •Mechanical Design •PCB Layout •Prototyping •New Product Introduction •Vendor Relations •Planning •Procurement Inventory Planning •Component Fabrication •PCB Assembly •Box Assembly •Volume Manufacturing •Integration •Configuration •Final Testing •Distribution to Customer •Customer Fulfillment •Transportation •Customer Service •Contact Centers (helpdesk, call centers) •Depot Repair •Field Service •End-of-life Manufacturing •Fulfillment Services •IT Process Management •Recycling •Refurbishment/ Screening •Replacement Management •Returns Authorization Management •Spare Parts Management •Transportation/Warehousing •Warranty Management Customer Service Contact Centers (helpdesk) Depot Repair Service Logistics Field Service Transportation/Warehousing Spare Parts Management RMA Management Replacement Management End-of-life Manufacturing Fulfillment Services IT Process Management Recycling Refurbishment/ Screening Warranty Support Our definition of RL is anything that happens after the sale of the product. However, another way to define RL is the aggressive management of assets or products. After all, isn’t the objective to make the fullest use of the product, to reduce the total program cost while ensuring the total satisfaction of the customer. So we are really talking about asset management in the broadest sense. * "In other words, anytime money is taken from a company's Warranty Reserve or Service Logistics budgets, that is a Reverse Logistics operation" - Gailen Vick, President RLA

7 Winning at Reverse Logistics
Good relationships equal success Management participation at all levels Clear measurable objectives Agreement on business requirements Commitment to mutually solve problems Metrics performance vs. expectations Continuous communication/Improvement Trusting, open and honest relationship True Partnership: It is critical to the relationship that it is perceived as a mutual benefit to both parties. Honesty and a focus towards a mutual success is paramount The ability to openly discuss issues and resolution openly and awareness of of strengths & weaknesses affords innovation and a competitive edge Management Participation: It is important for both sides to know the thoughts of the each other. Typically, 3rd Party execs are more involved than the OEM executives, but it is important for the 3rd Party to “hear the words” of OEM executives. A high level exchange of ideas and plans is beneficial to both parties. Business Requirements: A thorough understanding of what is required by the scope of the business – this takes discussion by multiple departments and should be detailed through the formal documents of the business (contract and SOW). Both sides need to ensure everyone down and up the organization knows the requirements. Long Term relationship: There will be problems and issues and a strong commitment on both sides makes it easier for both sides to work through the issues. If the term of the business is ending or short in nature that should be discussed so that both sides can prepare Common Measuring: An agreed set of metrics concerning the business allows a common language to discuss the performance of operations and the overall business. Continuous Communication: Regular and constant communications, through Quarterly Business reviews, and conference calls of appropriate frequency, reviewing the metrics and giving each side a chance to exchange information. If not done there is not the chance to bring up those little incidentals or to ask the “oh, by the way…” questions which can lead to an important information exchange. *

8 Course Contents, Expected Results
Developing the Outsourcing Model Internal vs outsource true cost relationships What the 3rd Party Service Provider Needs in the RFQ RFP the key components, What the 3PSP needs to know RFP selecting the 3PSP RFP the 3PSP response Best Practices in building a long term relationship Unique components of a reverse logistics contract Components of the SOW

9 Outsourcing Documents
RFI - Request for Information RFQ Request for Quote Statement of Work RFI RFQ Contract SOW Relationship Partnership

10 Cross-departmental outsourcing investigation team
The Outsource Decision Executive Operations Manager Finance Manager Development Facilities Purchasing HR Prod Prod IT Logistics Acct. Legal Labor Cross-departmental outsourcing investigation team Sponsorship Understand business objectives Quantify scope/schedule/resources of investigation Establish a decision process

11 The Outsource Decision
Department Item Business Fund. Functional Issues Weight Cost Tracking Invoicing Problem Resolution Process Control Reporting Real Time Data Repair Tracking Transaction Capability Returns Mgt. Purchasing Inventory Control Import/Export Scrap Control Process Doc Control Engineering Repair Expertise Test Expertise ESD Control Organization Practices Meterology Document Control Training/Documentation Warehouse Environment Power Stability Expansion Senior Mgt. Operations Mgt. Operations Flexibility Cost Reduction Efforts Production Flexibility Quality Facilities Management Accounting IT Materials Process Eng. Risks Outsourcing Decision Matrix Cost MULTIPLE COPIES Know the true cost of current in-house (or outsourced) operation. Not knowing the true internal costs will then cause very painful discussions when the program is outsourced. (Integral example of HDD costs $45 vs folding in material handling, purchasing, etc.) Use the same philosophy as cost-of-quality analysis – 3PSP’s should review the RFQ in light of “are all the costs considered by the OEM in the RFQ?” Does the OEM discuss all the price components, if not they may be making assumptions about their internal costs, or not correctly rolling up those costs that then make the outsourced price look out of whack. *

12 Single vs. Multiple Suppliers
The Outsource Decision Single vs. Multiple Suppliers OEM/Retailer 3rd Party Program Mgt. 3rd Party Location 3rd Party Location 3rd Party Location 3rd Party Location NEXT  CLICK THE BUTTON What are some of the advantages/disadvantages of each horizontal relationship? + Benchmarking between different providers may be advantageous. - Large Service Providers may have their own agenda. Vertical vs Horizontal What Criteria would you use to determine which method to use. OEM resources to management the 3PSP’s Track record Geographic location Quality of the 3PSP’s Cost model/margins and contracts OEM/Retailer 3rd Party 3rd Party 3rd Party 3rd Party 3rd Party

13 Business objective statement Contract & Statement of Work definition
Building the RFI/RFQ Business objective statement Contract & Statement of Work definition Operations history and forecasts Process flowchart and process times IT Requirements and reporting Material handling requirements Product specifications/BOM if pertinent Business objective statement. What are the key objectives of the RFQ. What are the high priority items for the OEM? Contract & Scope of Work definition. The OEM supplying these documents up front (if they exist) allows the 3PSP to completely review the project and to a better discussion during the RFQ period. Operations history and forecasts/future capacity plannin. Past volumes for shipments and receivables is good but that doesn’t predict the future Selection Process Event, Requirements, Date Communicate to internal management Distribute RFQ with deadline for response Determine which 3PSP’s potentially qualify based on info Select a first pass list and announce to 3PSP Site visits, non-disclosure statements, contracts/sow’s

14 ******Exercise*******
Building the RFI/RFQ Create a 3PSP selection team Outline the selection/RFQ process Understand the 3PSP RFQ requirements Develop a ranking matrix Same information is available to all 3PSP candidates Outline and offer due diligence to sensitive information Ensure the RFQ process is published to 3PSPs ******Exercise******* Build a vendor selection list *

15 Beginning OEM RFQ Process
Selecting a Service Provider Who are the service providers? Where are they located? Can they meet our immediate needs? Are they reliable? Can they grow and stay competitive?

16 Beginning OEM RFQ Process
RL Quote dramatically simplifies access for Reverse Logistics Services Create Detailed RFP/I/Q Register as an RLA User RL Quote is a powerful sourcing tool for access to the Reverse Logistics world RFI ed to 3PSPs Sourcing service providers with RL Quote is free for OEMs Receive Quotes from 3PSPs Simple; just complete the quick registration process Feedback to 3PSPs Global exposure, feedback for 3PSPs

17 Beginning OEM RFQ Process
RFIs are Released by OEMs & Retailers OEMs & Retailers Find 3PSP for Free 3PSPs Receive the RFIs

18 Corporate business strategies and objectives
Outsourcing Matrix Department Item Business Objective Critical Issues Risks Cost Tracking Invoicing Problem Resolution Process Control Reporting Real Time Data Repair Tracking Transaction Capability Returns Mgt. Purchasing Inventory Control Import/Export Scrap Control Process Doc Control Engineering Repair Expertise Test Expertise ESD Control Organization Practices Meterology Document Control Training/Documentation Warehouse Environment Power Stability Expansion Senior Mgt. Operations Mgt. Operations Flexibility Cost Reduction Efforts Production Flexibility Quality Facilities Management Accounting IT Materials Process Eng. Corporate business strategies and objectives NOW YOU START LOOKING FOR A SUPPLIER!!! Assemble a cross-departmental team to develop a project plan. Establish Objective Desired results of the project Roles and responsibilities (communication, formats, timelines Critical success factors for the project Completion criteria Establish risk/contingency plans Sponsorship: Getting participation and buy-in by other departments is extremely important to the overall outsourcing effort. Take the same opportunity to think about the added cost of outsourcing Travel, Startup costs (!), IT costs Transition cost Outline what the desired result is (objective), the critical things that need to happen (critical issues) and the challenges (risks) *

19 3PSP Ranking Matrix Weighing the RFQ results – using the pre-RFQ matrix. Have the team give weight to each category for points (and major sub-categories). Matrix can offer a first pass of evaluation validation later by site visits. Price can be built into the Matrix or evaluated separately. Have team members develop their ratings separately and then have the team discuss their individual ratings to arrive at a conclusion. *

20 Building the RFQ OEM Outsourcing Expectation Adjustments
Managing the Service Provider takes a different set of management skills Lines of Communication are different & more difficult Understanding and measuring the performance of the Service Provider Extra expense due to startup/transfer costs and follow-up costs 3PSP “has its own priorities,” perceptions, business objectives Market allegiance, security, strategic direction Managing the Service Provider takes a different set of management skills. Lines of Communication are different & difficult. Social & Interactive skills – how do the teams match up? How is the cultural, personal, business fit and relationship? Understanding the performance of the Service Provider. Extra expense due to startup/transfer costs and follow-up costs 3PSP “has its own priorities” Lack of “clout” compared to the OEM *

21 Building the RFQ Response
Service Provider RFQ Response Know the critical issues behind the RFQ Know the product/service roadmap: History & Future Eliminate boilerplate/sales jargon in the presentation Prepare a project plan to describe the startup plan Provide a statement on security operations Know the critical issues of the RFQ – Why is the OEM changing vendors/outsourcing? The RFQ may not reveal this – ask probing questions It’s not always price!!! Look for Differentiators you can leverage and where you can add value . Look for other factors: - Do you have technical capabilities required by the OEM and somewhat unique? - Is your physical location advantageous to the OEM? - Are you in a position of being able to invest in new technologies in the future? - Is the OEM looking to off-load an older product and move on to new product? OEM’s are not always looking for the lowest price solution. – highlight what you do well - VALUE important to explain areas of technical and operational expertise. Emphasize what value your company brings to the proposal. Technical roadmap: history & future – Forward thinking presentation Provide a short history of capabilities that have been added over the last 5 years Discuss the plans for future capabilities – including equipment, new products, processes, certifications This will give the customer insight into future capabilities and win the business. Eliminate boilerplate and sales presentation. Big complaint. Many people will review the document. Some technical (peaked in the industry, some not) OEM’s want solid, tailored info Be concise, specific, and focus on the objectives and critical issues of the RFQ Prepare a project plan to describe the startup plan Show them that you’ve seriously considered their project by developing a project plan – including Scope, Schedule, and resources. Milestones for OEM deliverables, communication and reporting plans. Presenting a well thought out project plan allows the OEM to test the assumptions & understanding. Provide a statement on Security operations. Facilities, transportation, *

22 3PSP understands the business
OEM Expectations 3PSP understands the business Understanding of the price components and assumptions Creative solutions Cost reduction possibilities IT integration & reporting capability Program management and headcount Commitment to Continuous Improvement UNDERSTANDS THE BUSINESS NEXT  3PSP understanding of the business A brief concise statement to show that the 3PSP understands the requirements of the RFQ and the business conditions. Confirms to the OEM that the 3PSP has grasped the main points of the RFQ. Understanding of the price components and assumptions. Presenting one price per unit, even if that is what is asked for in the RFQ is not the best approach. It doesn’t help the OEM compare pricing, As an example……….. *

23 The 3PSP RFQ Response The first ten pages – what are they about
Your Company, the Business, or the Client Executive Summary – 3 to 5 reasons why your service is the best solution for the Client Don’t be passive: don’t say “We can do this” – be definitive in your statements Let the Client know your process on the first page Don’t forget the things you don’t know The first ten pages – what are they about? Your Company? Or the Business of the Client? Executive Summary – 3 to 5 reasons why your solution is the best solution. Don’t be passive: don’t say “We can do this” – be definitive in your statements. Let the OEM know your process on the first page. Don’t forget the things you don’t know. *

24 The 3PSP RFQ Response The Service Provider must present he understand the business: Experience in performing the service, or the talent to create the business The financial capability to invest in the future, to grow and to build infrastructure It has unique capabilities in technical knowledge or the expert knowledge to carry the project forward There is the skilled personnel available and a formal training plan to grow & train the workforce to be flexible Solid Reputation in the market, references from current clients. Active participation in the industry The Service Provider has experience in performing the service, or the talent to create the business The financial capability to invest in the future, to grow and to build infrastructure It has unique capabilities in technical knowledge or the expert knowledge to carry the project forward There is the skilled personnel available and a formal training plan to grow & train the workforce to be flexible. Necessary certifications are in place Certify and Un-certify personnel training Solid Reputation in the market, references from current clients. Active participation in the industry. keeping an eye on the future. *

25 Program Management Model
Call Center 3rd Party Program Mgt. Logistics 3rd Party Program Mgt. 3rd Party Location 3rd Party Location Repair Location OEM Repair 3rd Party Location 3rd Party Location Need to present how Supplier or Program Management will work. Who is responsible for overall management of the process, the individual players and the headcount assigned to the task, May not want to provide the detailed head count, but tell how the program will be managed. * Fulfillment Horizontal Relationships Vertical Relationships

26 OEMs agree – IT is a big deal
The Importance of IT OEMs agree – IT is a big deal Prepare a 3-5 page overview of IT capabilities and reporting Describe in-depth all current IT operations Describe the IT Strategy with a 2-3 year plan Respond in detail with the IT options available to the OEM Provide sample reports OEM’s agree – IT is a big deal. IT and real time data is becoming more prevalent in all RL projects. Take the time to prepare a detailed description of the IT methodology you would use to report/provide information. Give a detailed description of how you are doing it for a current client. Express methods and opportunities for data exchange. Common part #’s, tracking at the component level, Scrap and excess inventory management./history Describe in-depth all current IT operations - data transfer methods and capabilities (existing and possible) - can you do confirmation of shipments? - can you do auto-follow-up on issues? Have the IT guys write it and the sales guys re-write it. Prepare a 3-5 page overview of IT capabilities and reporting requirements along with a 3-5 year IT development plan Respond in detail with the IT options available to the OEM. Provide sample reports.*

27 Continuous Improvement
Continuous effort on Cost Reduction & Cost Control OEM Executives push their organization Pro-Active 3rd Party actions are very positive OEM expects vendor efficiency over time Repair costs must be related to the retail sales price How ? Look to reduce Touch Time and indirect labor Improve the process, improve quality, increase yields Reduce scrap, improve asset management Meet or exceed future environmental regulations Continuous effort on Cost Reduction & Cost Control OEM Executives push their organization year after year If you are the result of a push for better solutions, then you need to assure them and be prepared to be the improvement for next year. Pro-Active 3rd Party actions are very positive OEM expects vendor improvement efficiency over time Repair costs must be related to the retail sales price How ? Look to reduce Touch Time and indirect labor Improve the process, improve quality, increase yields Reduce scrap, improve asset management *

28 Project Startup Best Practices
Communicate often Metrics: Before, regularly, and final Acknowledge the difference between qualification units and high volume units Plan on follow up visits & audits Self audits, Client audits, executive on-site reviews. Sponsor and publish success stories Communicate often Scheduled reviews of the startup progress creates those informal discussions, side issues that may point out where attention is need to be. Track the before and after metrics Tracking the failure causes, repairs, parts usage or shipment %, can give clues to the process that is not operating like it should, start tracking from hour one. There’s difference between qualification units and high volume units. Technical capable line qualification, followed by first articles does not equal high volume success. Have a plan in place that qualifies the 3PSP through the complete range of volume and products. Plan on follow up visits & audits first article, Initial process audits. Plan a follow up visit after volume production has been reached & before “bad habits” set in. Even the best training program not everything get absorbed by the new team. Be sure its in the budget. Measure performance often and report on it (next…..> ) *

29 On-Going Best Practices
Maintain/Push the idea of Partnership Communication between all levels of the organization Single point of contact for business escalation process Insist on regular Communication (QBRs, Pricing reviews, audits and weekly performance reports) Partner in Goals and Objectives in 1, 2, 3 years in the future Be up front about problems / mistakes and be pro-active in suggesting corrective action Maintain / Push the idea of Partnership. Communication between all levels of the organization. Single point of contact for business and as an escalation point. Weekly Performance Report Example is on the next page

30 On-Going Best Practices
Defined 3 year Business Plan and Strategy Defined program for Employee Training, skill development and technical advancement Continuous review of cost competitiveness when measured against: Other client or provider internal programs Other regional vendors OEM new product cost Overall return costs (warranty mgt & logistics) Offshore / Worldwide Vendors Analyze the returns and suggest process changes or changes in product management rules Defined 3 year Business Plan and Strategy. Defined program for Employee Training, skill development and technical advancement. Continuous review of cost competitiveness when measured against: Analyze the returns and suggest process changes or changes in product management rules. *

31 New Service - RL Forum www.reverselogisticstrends.com/forum/
RL Professionals can Ask a Question Other Professionals can help Answer

32 Contract Management *

33 Outsourcing Documents
RFI - Request for Information RFQ Request for Quote Statement of Work RFI RFQ Contract SOW Relationship Partnership

34 The Services Contract Business services to be provided and the process of service(s) What is the definition, how will it be done and who is responsible? Original Product Warranty determination What will happen if there is a design issue? On-going analysis of design improvements Responsibility for Asset Management Scrap decisions, when and how scrap is determined What is the definition of BER (Beyond Economic Repair). Record keeping and archiving. Contracts are typically written for 1-3 years. The contact should deal with items that are unlikely to change. Business services to be provided -- if subject to change maybe it should go in the SOW The component parts of the process the 3PSP is responsible for, and what the OEM is responsible for. - Original Product Warranty determination – how will Original Warranty be determined? - What will happen if there is a design issue that causes a high rate of rework? - On-going analysis of the product and design improvements (FA samples to the OEM) - Responsibility for Asset Management – sale to secondary markets, sales of used materials - Scrap decisions, when and how scrap is determined - What is the definition of BER (Beyond Economic Repair). - Record keeping and archiving. * Process changes – no changes without approval vs. ability to change Specify the borders underwhich the 3PSP can modify the process, some want not change without approval, others want to black box the process. Minimize performance numbers in the contract in most cases its better to put metrics in the SOW which can be modified easier. Resolution of performance issues What will be the process to address performance issues Invoicing, payment terms and problem invoice resolution Invoice terms & how to deal with problem invoices – partial payment of non-disputed amounts or total hold back until resolution.

35 Process changes – no changes without approval vs. ability to change
The Services Contract Process changes – no changes without approval vs. ability to change Resolution of performance issues Material/Product/Equipment Ownership Special Material / Chemical requirements Document handling and security Invoicing, payment terms and problem invoice resolution Process changes – no changes without approval vs. ability to change Resolution of performance issues Minimize performance numbers in the contract Material/Product Ownership Define the transfer point, the handling of excess materials, management of equipment Special Material / Chemical requirements related to requirements of WEEE, RoHS and country/regional Green Laws Document handling and security Invoicing, payment terms and problem invoice resolution Data recovery, in transit loss, *

36 Repair Warranty Statement Cost Reductions Property # 1
The Services Contract The Relationship A definition of the business relationship Repair Warranty Statement A statement of the warranty offered Cost Reductions How to divide the “spoils” of cost reduction Property # 1 Define the use and 3rd Party responsibilities Property #2 (Test Equipment) Define who is responsible for maintenance Inventory Loss What happens when there is an inventory loss Within your Seminar book there is a section on Contract Language for your review and use. Most of these are written from the OEM point of view, but 3PSP’s should consider using similar language or, at least, address these issues I have selected these few items because I have seen a number of contracts that do not address, or weakly addresses these issues. Not properly delineating responsibilities can lead to problems later. The Relationship: I like this statement as it defines that the 3rd Party is an independent entity and the responsibility of the 3PSP. Repair Warranty Statement: An exact definition of what the 3PSP’s Warranty is – in this case the 3PSP’s warranty is only on the actual repair performed and the materials under its control, this may or may not include consigned materials. Cost Reductions: If the 3PSP has the purchasing power or discovers a lower cost supplier for an approved part, or the 3PSP’s engineering team invents a new process, or equipment – how should be cost savings be divided (the OEM would know as it, most likely has to approve of the change). Property #1: Fairly simple statement on the obligations of the 3PSP to protect the OEM’s property (fairly common). Property #2 (Test Equipment): Much more complex statement about the 3PSP and OEM’s responsibility to maintain, repair and calibrate equipment – covering loss, upgrades, performance to requirements Inventory Loss: What happens when there is a discrepancy in inventory, what is the liability of the 3PSP – this is one way to define it. Plug in your own percentages. *

37 EOL & Bufferstock Purchases by 3rd Party Excess Materials (Scrap)
The Services Contract Epidemic Failure Dealing with Failures outside the expected failure profile EOL & Bufferstock Purchases by 3rd Party Obligations related to the purchase of inventory Excess Materials (Scrap) Method of disposal by required regulations Disengagement Operational statement on handling products, equipment and materials Termination of the Agreement Statement on termination for cause Epidemic Failure Dealing with Failures outside the expected failure profile EOL & Bufferstock Purchases by 3rd Party: These statements are designed to assign responsibility in the event that the 3PSP owns or purchases the OEM inventory in a repair setting and “re-sells” the inventory at the time of shipment. In some cases the 3PSP must purchase EOL components to support the on-going demand for the assembly, thus must have some protection for conducting these activities. Excess Materials (Scrap): Language to say that the 3PSP will not dispose of any material without the Company’s agreement. And that disposal will be in accordance with governmental regulations. Disengagement Oriented towards handling products, equipment and materials upon termination of an agreement Termination of the Agreement: Discusses notification of issues, remedy times, termination for cause and the responsibilities of each party. *

38 The Statement of Work Should be a flexible document, not within the Contract Receiving, Order fulfillment, Shipping processes & accuracy Metrics and reporting methods Transaction timing & accuracy Repair Process & Equipment Business coverage requirements Security & Environmental Requirements In your Seminar book there is a list of subjects that may be included in the Statement of Work, some of these items do overlap with what should be in the contract – where you place it depends on the individual circumstances of the contract. Flexible Document Signed and dated by both parties, but not in the contract body itself – just referred to by the contract. The SOW should be modified as circumstances warrant – including the pricing. operational details should be changing, for the better, with some frequency, Receiving, Order fulfillment, Shipping processes & accuracy Detail the receiving, fulfillment, shipping processes Metrics and reporting methods Don’t lock into the contract performance metrics as processes do change and systems change Transaction timing & accuracy Time between action and transaction, the accuracy of the transactions such as 999 out of 1000 (99.9%). Repair Process & Equipment Processes change and equipment changes all the time Business coverage requirements When open for business – holiday coverage, after hours response time. Requirements for short term and long term problem resolution. Security & Environmental Requirements *

39 RL in Your Finance Calculations
Product After tax Profits Are They Measured Right Returns Take Away From Bottom Line Profits Product Production Cost Reverse Logistics Management Your Company Manufacturers 1 Million Units Per Year Revenue per Unit is $1 or $1,000,000 Profit per unit is 5% After Tax or $50,000 Return Rate Average is 10% or 100,000 units Returns Represents $100,000 of Sales or $50,000 negative to bottom line Reverse Logistics Recovers 80% of the Returns or $80,000 to company bottom line Company’s After Tax Profit is $30,000 So who is most important, the VP of Marketing/Sales that took $50K from your Company or the Reverse Logistics Professional that gave you $30K of After Tax Profit?

40 Thank You


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