I. The historical evolution of the Status of Women in Europe A)The status of women until the 20th century 1) The inheritance The weight of tradition and culture in the development of the social role of women. 2) Modernities Cultural developments, social, political and the emancipation of women.
B) The emergence of feminism 1) The role of European women The three waves of feminism in Europe 1900-1914, "golden age" of feminism focuses on civil and political equality 1920-1930, the "crazy years" which raise the question of sexual identity and homosexuality 1970-1980, the years of the Movement for the Liberation of Women (Women's Lib or MLF), centered on human body, contraception, abortion. 2) The great figures of feminism in Europe Women who have devoted a large part of their lives to the defense of the feminist cause will be mentioned in the last part of this presentation
II. The framing the Status of Women in European law A)The right of the European Convention on Human Right (ECHR) According to Article 14 of the Convention, "The enjoyment of rights and freedoms set forth in this Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, color, language, religion, political opinion or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or other status ".
B) The right of the European Union Since 2000, the European Social Agenda sets out "equality between men and women" as a priority for all actors of social policy. The European Institute for Equality between men and women was established in December 2006 in Vilnius (Lithuania). Its missions are - to collect, analyze, disseminate reliable and comparable data, - to develop methodological tools to promote gender equality / women - to promote dialogue at EU level and the exchange of good practices - to enable citizens of EU to have easier access to achievements and prospects in this field.
III. The framing on Status of Women by national laws in the seven countries of the partnership WYN For each country the final text will present the main characteristics of the condition of women, key data and statistics
Concepcion Arenal 1820-1893 is a journalist, poet, novelist, and dramatic author. She was the first woman to study at a Spanish university, and to be a law graduate. Mayor María Fernández de la Cámara María Pita 1560-1643 "Joan of Arc" of Galicia is a heroine who in 1589 saved the city La Coruna after a famous battle against the troops of the corsair Francis Drake of the English navy.
Lili Alvarez 1905-1998 was a Spanish multi- sport competitor, an international tennis champion, an author, and a journalist. Federica Montseny 1905-1994 is an intellectual and a militant anarchist. She is the first Spanish woman to become minister ( minister of Health between 1936 and 1937)
Goliarda Sapienza 1924 -1996 was an actress and a writer. Her novel The Art of Joy, considered to be a major work of contemporary Italian literature, provoked a lot of reticence for its feminist aspects. It was published in Italian in 1998, after the death of its author. Elena Belotti Giannini born in Rome on 2 December 1929, is an author and feminist pedagogue. Director of Centro Montessori since1960 until 1980, she is the author of the bestseller As for girls, published in 1973.
Maria Eugenia Roccella Cavallari born in1953 in Bologna is an Italian politician, Secretary of State between 2008 and 2011. Since she was 18 years old, she belonged to women's liberation movement, becoming the voice of feminist battles in Italy. Angela Diana Di Francesca born in Cefalu, Palermo in 1954 is a writer and a poet. She brought a significant contribution to the discussion on feminine cause by drawing attention of the most important Italian newspapers and radio stations on the topic of gender discrimination.
Pálné Veres (1815–1895) was a teacher and feminist, known for promoting women's rights. She opened the first secondary school for women in Hungary and founded the Hungarian National Association for Women's Education. Rosika Schwimmer (1877–1948) She was born in a Jewish family in Budapest in Austria- Hungary. In 1897, she founded the Hungarian Feminist Association, helped to found Hungarian National Council of Women, later organized the first Women's Trade Union in Hungary. In 1913 she became a corresponding secretary of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance.
Orshi Drozdik born in 1946 is a Hungarian feminist artist, based in New York. Her work consists in series of installations exploring connected themes, sometimes over many years. Enikő Bollobás born in 1952 is Professor of the department of American Studies at Budapest university. Her professional interests range from theories of modernism and postmodernism, feminist theories and criticism.
Maria Rosetti (1819 -1893) was a Romanian political activist, journalist and feminist. She played an active part in the Wallachian Revolution of 1848. Sarmiza Bilcescu (1867-1935) was a Romanian lawyer, the first European woman to obtain a license and a PhD in Law from the University of Paris, and the first one in her country to practice law.
Izabela Sadoveanu-Evan (1870 -1941) was a literary critic, educationist, opinion journalist, poet and feminist militant. Mihaela Miroiu born in 1955 in Hunedoara, is a political theorist and East Europe’s most prominent feminist philosopher.
Halide Edip Adıvar (1884-1964) was a novelist and feminist political leader. She was best known for her novels criticizing the low social status of Turkish women and what she saw as the lack of interest of most women in changing their situation. Nezihe Muhiddin (1889 -1958) was an Ottoman and Turkish women's rights activist, journalist, writer and political leader. She is the founder of the People’s Party of Women in July 1923. This party was founded for the political and social rights of women.
Sabiha Derviş Sertel (1895- 1968 ) was the first professional feminine journalist and one of the first feminist writers in Turkey. She began writing essays at the age of sixteen on women's rights and social issues. Konca Kuris (1960–1999) She contested the orthodox Islamic teachings on women, and defended that the rights of women had a place in Islam. She was murdered in Konya, on the 20 July 1999.
Marie-Olympe de Gouges (1748-1793) was a French writer. She became a politician and polemicist. She was killed during the Revolution. Author of the Declaration of the Rights of Women, she has left many writings in favor of civil and political rights of women and on the abolition of slavery. Simone de Beauvoir (1908 - 1986) was a philosopher and novelist. She has shared the life of the philosopher Jean Paul Sartre. Simone de Beauvoir is an important theorist of feminism and she participated in the women's liberation movement in the 70’s.
Simone Veil, born in 1927. Survivor of the Holocaust, she was named Minister of Health in 1974. In this role, she enacted the "Veil Law", promulgated in 1975, that decriminalizes the abortion. From 1979 to 1982, she was the first woman to chair the European Parliament. She was elected to the French Academy in March 2010. Fadela Amara, born in 1964 is a politician. President of the association « Ni putes ni soumises » which defence the rights of women, promoting respect, secularism and equality.