2 Key Provisions Of The Revised Subpart R Standard Requires fall protection at 15 feetException: Connecting and Decking ZoneIncludes a Multiple Lift Rigging Procedure for up to five structural membersRequires that shear connectors be installed after the structural member is erectedRequires that decking holes and openings not be cut until essential to the construction processRequires a minimum of four anchor rods (anchor bolts) on all columns
3 Key Provisions Of The Revised Subpart Standard (cont) Requires controlling contractors to notify steel erectors of repairs or modifications to anchor rods (anchor bolts)Addresses “double connections,” installation of steel joists, and landing of loads to avoid collapses during steel erectionAddresses slippery surfaces on beams and deckingContains a separate section on Systems Engineered Buildings
4 Phase-In of Certain Requirements Building Construction:Building Permit obtained prior to January 18, 2001Where Steel Erection began on or before September 16, 2001Bridge Construction:Bridge Project has a contract date before January 18, 2001Steel Erection began before September 16, 2001
5 Key Provisions Of The Revised Subpart R Standard Requires controlling contractors to provide adequate site access and adequate storage space to the steel erectorRequires a stabilizer plate on columns for tie joist (TJ) and joist girders to provide an attachment point for guying or plumbing up of cablesProvides guidelines for a non-mandatory site specific erection plan
6 Key Provisions Of The Revised Subpart R Standard Requires fall protection training for all employees exposed to fall hazardsAllows a Controlled Decking Zone for decking installations at heights of feetRequires controlling contractor to provide overhead protection or not allow construction underneath steel erection activities
7 Subpart R - Final RuleThe Steel Erection Rule was published on January 18, 2001.Effective date January 18, 2002
8 Scope:This subpart sets forth requirements to protect employees from the hazards associated with steel erection activities involved in:Construction, alteration, and/or repair of single and multi-story buildings, bridges, and other structures where steel erection occurs.
12 1926.750 Scope and Application (cont) HoistingConnectingWeldingGuying/BracingBoltingPlumbing/RiggingSteel joists and metal buildingsInstalling metal deck, curtain walls, window walls, siding systemsMiscellaneous metalsOrnamental ironSimilar metalsMoving point to point
13 Ironworker using rope grabs to make tower connection. Scope (cont.)Does not include:Electrical transmission towers,communication and broadcast towers,TanksIronworker using rope grabs to make tower connection.
14 Duties of Controlling Contractor under this subpart Written notification to the steel erector:Concrete in piers/walls is cured re ASTM specModifications/repairs to anchor bolts approved by project engineer (.752(a); .755(b))Adequate on-site access roads (.752(c))Preclude work below steel erection unless there is overhead protection (.759(b))Choose whether to accept responsibility for maintaining fall protection equipment left by steel erector (otherwise must be removed) (.760(e))
15 1926.752 Site Layout, Erection Plan and Construction Sequence Approval to begin steel erection:Curing of concrete 752(a)Repairs/modifications to anchor bolts 755(b)Site layoutAdequate roads into and through the site 752(c)(1)Adequate space for the safe storage of materials 752(c)(2)Pre-plan hoisting operations 753(d)Modifications made to site-specific plan if equivalent protection is provided.Safety latches on hooks activated 753(c)(5)Landing decking on steel joists (.757(e)(4))
16 §1926.750 (c) Specific Controlling Contractor Duties Written notification to the steel erector:Concrete in piers/walls is cured re: ASTM specAnchor belt modifications/repairs approved by project engineer (.752(a) and .755(b)
17 §1926.750(c) Specific Controlling Contractor Duties Adequate on-site access roads [.752(c)]Before and after photos
18 §1926.750(c) Specific Controlling Contractor Duties Preclude work below steel erection unless there is overhead protection [.759(b)]Choose whether to accept responsibility for maintaining fall protection equipment left by erector (otherwise it must be removed) [.760(e)]
19 Competent PersonMeans one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.
20 ConnectorAn employee who, working with hoisting equipment, is placing and connecting structural members and/or components.
21 Controlling Contractor Means a prime contractor, general contractor, construction manager or any other legal entity which has the overall responsibility for the construction of the project -- its planning, quality and completion.
22 Qualified personOne who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.
23 Shear ConnectorHeaded steel studs, steel bars, steel lugs, and similar devices which are attached to a structural member for the purpose of achieving composite action with concrete.
24 Site-Specific Erection Plan Requires pre-planning of key erection elements, including coordination with controlling contractor before erection begins, in certain circumstances.
25 Steel ErectionConstruction, alteration or repair of steel buildings, bridges and other structures, including the installation of metal decking and all planking used during the process of erection.
26 §1926.752 Site Layout, Erection Plan and Construction Sequence Certification of:Proper curing of concrete in footings, piers, etc. for steel columnsAnchor bolt repairs, modificationsPre-plan hoisting operations
27 Hoisting and RiggingProvisions of apply to hoisting and rigging (except (g)(2) (note: OSHA adopted 1994 ANSI B-30.5 for subpart R only)Pre-shift visual inspections of cranes 753(c)Working under loads 753(d)Multiple lift rigging procedures 753(e)Maximum of five members hoistedOnly beams and similar structural members liftedEmployees trained in accordance with 761(c)(1)No lift if contrary to manufacturer’s specifications and limitations
28 Multiple lift rigging (cont) Rigging must be specifically designed with a 5 to 1 safety factorMultiple lift rigging assembly must be rigged with members at their center of gravity and maintained reasonably levelRigged from top to bottom and rigged at least 7 feet apartMembers must be set from the bottom up
29 1926.754 Structural Steel Assembly Provides specific work practices for:Maintaining structural stability 754(b)Landing deck bundles 757(e)(4)Minimizing fall hazards in interior openings 754(b)(3)Walking/working surface requirements:Tripping hazards: shear connectors (and similar projections) generally prohibited until decking is down 754(c)(1)(ii)Slip resistance: criteria for painted structural steel members (effective 5 years after the rest of standard) 754(c)(3)
30 Structural Steel (cont) Roof and floor holes and openings:Framed metal deck openings must have structural members turned down to allow for continuous deck installationElevator shafts, stair wells, etc., must be decked over or employees must be protected in accordance with 760(a)(1)Metal decking holes and openings must not be cut until immediately prior to being permanently filledGaps around columns must be covered
31 Structural Steel (cont) Metal decking:Metal decking must be laid tightly and secured immediately upon placement except as provided in 760(c)Derrick floor must be decked and/or planked and the steel member connections completed to support the intended loadLoads placed on the derrick floor must be distributed over the underlying support members to prevent local overloading
32 §1926.754 Structural Steel Assembly Covers for floor or roof openings shall be secured and marked with the word HOLE or COVERNo securement or marking to indicate the opening.Cover marked and secured
34 1926.755 Column Anchorage Minimum of 4 anchor rods (anchor bolts) Set on level finished floor, pre-grouted leveling plates, leveling nuts, or shim packsCompetent person will determine whether guying or bracing is neededEngineer of record will approve all repairs/replacements or modifications of anchor rods (anchor bolts)
35 Column AnchorageColumn would not align with the j-bolts so the steel erector cut holes and welded tabs to hold column.
36 Beams and ColumnsTwo bolts per connection prior to releasing hoisting line (competent person will determine if more than two are needed)Diagonal bracing (solid web) will be secured by at least one bolt per connectionSafe procedures/devices for making double connections at columnsRequirements to facilitate quick installation of perimeter safety cables:Column attachments or holes in columns for perimeter safety cablesColumn splice height and strength specified
37 § Beams and ColumnsOne bolt is installed wrench tight.Two will be installed. The spud wrench holds the beam until the other connector can make his initial connection.
38 § Beams and ColumnsRequires one bolt to remain connected for double connections unless seat or equivalent usedSeats for double connections shall be designed for the load during the double connection process
39 Open Web Steel JoistsAddresses proper joist end attachment, erection proceduresGeneral requirements for the erection of steel joistsStabilization of joists (vertical stabilizer plate)Holes in joists/bolting required for joists in 40’+ baysRequirements for landing and placing loads on joistsSome requirements may be modified through a site-specific erection plan
40 Workers making initial connection from two arial lifts. § Open Web Steel JoistsHoisting cables not be released until field bolted.A vertical stabilizer plate required for each column for steel joists.Workers making initial connection from two arial lifts.
41 1926.758 System-Engineered Metal Buildings All requirements of this subpart apply to erection except 755 (column anchorage) and 757 (open web steel joists)Minimum of 4 anchor rods (anchor bolts) for structural columnsRigid frames will have 50 percent of their bolts or the number of bolts specified by the manufacturer (which ever is greater) installed and tightened before the hoisting equipment is released
42 System-Engineered Metal Buildings (cont) Loads being placed on structural steel prior to bolting or weldingGirt and eave strut-to-frame connectionsSteel joists/cold-formed joistsUsing purlins as walking/working surfacesLoad placement within 8 feet of support member
43 1926.759 Falling Object Protection Secure loose items aloftControlling contractor to bar other operations below steel erection unless falling object protection provided
44 Ironworkers have material secured in aerial lift § Falling Object Protection (does not apply to materials being hoisted)Ironworkers have material secured in aerial lift
45 Fall ProtectionAll must be protected at heights greater than 2 stories or 30 feet, including connectors and deckersBetween 15 and 30 feet: Fall protection required for all with exceptions for:Deckers in controlled decking zone (CDZ) andConnectorsConnectors must be provided and wear equipment necessary to be able to be tied-off, or be provided with other means of fall protection
46 1926.760 Fall Protection (cont.) Controlled decking zone:Max Dimensions 90’ by 90’For leading edge decking worklimited accessdesignated boundaries by control linesWork practices for attaching deck:install safety attachments from leading edge backno final attachments allowed in CDZup to 3000 SF of unsecured deckingspecific training requirements
47 1926.760 Fall Protection (cont.) Perimeter cables requiredMust be installed “as soon as the metal decking has been installed”Custody of Fall Protection Equipment:Controlling contractor must choose to either:accept responsibility for maintaining fall protection equipment left by erector,OR ensure that it is removed (.760(e))
48 Ironworker using the “beemer”system of fall arrest. § Fall ProtectionIronworker using the “beemer”system of fall arrest.
49 §1926.760 Fall Protection (cont.) Guardrails and nets used at opening in backNote: ladder not long enough
50 § TrainingQualified person to train workers in use & operation of fall protection equipmentQualified person to train workers engaged in specific activities:“christmas-treeingconnectingCDZ procedures
51 OSHA’s Web SiteThe complete standard can be obtained from our web site at
52 Appendices A-Guidelines for site-specific erection plan (NM) B-Slip-resistance test methods (NM)C-Illustrations of bridging terminus points (NM)D-Control lines for controlled decking zones (NM)
67 Diagonal bracingSolid web structural members used as diagonal bracing must be secured by at least one bolt per connection drawn up wrench tight or the equivalent as specified by the project’s structural engineer on record.
72 Systems-Engineered Metal Buildings Rigid frames will have 50% of their bolts or the number of bolts specified by the manufacturer (whichever is greater) installed and tightened before the hoisting equipment is released