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Unit 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia

2 Political Map of Southwest Asia

3 Physical Map of Southwest Asia

4 Physical SW Asia Anatolian Peninsula Arabian Peninsula

5 Map of North Africa

6 Waterways of SW Asia Black Sea Red Sea

7 Waterways of SW Asia Jordan River: natural boundary b/w Israel and Jordan Dead Sea: so salty you cannot sink

8 Cradle of Civilization - Mesopotamia
Euphrates River Tigris River

9 Deserts, Oasis’, & Salt Flats
Salt Flat: Dasht-e Lut & Dsaht-e Kavir in Iran Rub al-Khali: Empty Quarter. “place no one comes out”, most of SW Asia is Arid & Semiarid

10 Ethnic and Religious Groups
Ethnic Groups

11 Climates & Ecosystems Ecosystems of SW Asia Climates of SW Asia

12 Physical Characteristics of N. Africa
Mediterranean coastal climates--- hot, sunny summers, cool, rainy winters Need to live near a water source Ppl along coast have easier contact with ppl than those in the interior No connecting navigable rivers

13 Sahara Desert Largest desert in the world, 3,000 miles
134 degrees in the day and below freezing at night 20% sand Camels can go up to 17 days without water Rely on aquifers and oasis’

14 Ottoman Empire

15 European Influence on N. Africa
French Colonies: Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco. English Colonies: Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, Iraq, Palestine

16 European Influence on SW. Asia

17 Early Movement The Berbers were the original inhabitants of N. Africa & were farmers and herders Camels were introduced during Roman rule from Central Asia & were very well adapted to desert climate 1st time reg. trade was est. crossed desert in caravans

18 Settlement Patterns ½ of pop lives in rural villages
Sm. Houses of sun-dried brick rise at dawn, nap midday b/c too hot, work until dusk still use wooden plows

19 Settlement Patterns: Desert Nomads in Africa
Tuareg --- speak own language, only Berber language with a written form, means “free men”, severe drought has caused some to resort to farming, mostly located in Burkina Faso and Libya

20 The Water Solution Iceberg Project abandoned in 1981
National Water Carrier Project in Israel– carries water from N. to central & S. Desalination Plants: removes salt from ocean water, very expensive, still too salty for irrigation so used for sewage systems Fossil Water: old water from deep underground aquifers

21 Water Systems Irrigation Canal: deliver water to arid regions, evaporates quickly, used in Oman Noria: waterwheel run by flow water or animal power used to lift water from the river to the fields (Syria) Drip Irrigation: reduces evaporation, used in the Negev Desert in Israel Qanat: system of underground brick-lined tunnels and wells that collect runoff water from the mountains


23 Nile River World’s longest river – 4,160 miles, flows North
Empties into Nile Delta (extremely fertile) The Fellaheen (Egyptian peasants) grow impressive crops without modern machinery Population – 68 million (99% live along Nile R.) High population density (2,700 ppl per sq mi) 2 major cities: Cairo & Alexandria

24 Controlling the Nile Basin Irrigation: long walls built around fields to trap water and silt (didn’t work yr round) Reservoir: Lake Nasser (300 mi.) on the Aswan Dam, caused an increase in Malaria, but provides steady water supply Perennial Irrigation System

25 Aswan High Dam - stopped flooding of Nile, 35 % of Egyptian farmland have a high salt content, but increased farmland by 50%. However, b/c flooding stopped so did the deposit of new silt

26 Suez Canal links Med. Sea and Red Sea opened in 1869 – made Egypt vital link About 105 mi long Reduces the 12,300 mi long trip between London and Mumbai to 7,200 mi

27 Oil from the Sand Petroleum = Oil Discovered in SW Asia in 1920s
World’s largest oil field is al-Ghawar in Saudi Arabia in the Rub al-Khali desert and contains ¼ of Saudi Arabia’s oil reserves OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Counties

28 Processing Petroleum Drills pump out the crude oil into storage tanks
Natural gas, water, and sediments are removed and oil is sent to a pumping station Crude oil is sent to refineries either in tankers or by pipelines At the refinery crude oil is converted into useful products like gasoline Products are transported worldwide

29 More Oil Facts Oil Producers Oil Consumers

30 Oil: A Strategic Commodity
64 % of world’s oil deposits 34% of natural gas reserves 44.5 million barrels a day – 50% of world’s demand Oil prices unstable Use oil profits to modernize and industrialize Use oil profits to diversify economy Kuwait: free public education

31 Economies Oil, hydroelectricity, natural gas, minerals, need for other resources Subsistence Farming and Nomadic Herding

32 Islam Muhammad as 1 true prophet, but belief in other prophets
Qur’an – words of God; Hadith – words of Muhammad 5 pillars of Faith 6 Articles of Faith

33 Effects of Islam on SW Asia
Major religion for Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Syria, Lebannon, Jordan, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Yemen – many are theocratic govts. Mecca: holiest city of Islam (where Muhammad spend much of his life) 5 Pillars of Faith: (Faith, Prayer 5x a day, Charity, Fasting- Ramadan, Pilgrimage to Mecca) Mosques: Muslim place of worship

34 Islam in North Africa Most N. Africans are Muslim
1st brought to Africa in 632 CE All N. African coast Muslim by 750 CE By 1500 extended through the Sahara Mostly Sunni

35 Jerusalem: Holy for 3 Religions

36 Basic Beliefs of Judaism
One God, no form, creator, pray to him alone Moses as chief prophet Torah as Law from God, passed down through Moses, can’t be changed Coming of the Messiah Rewards good, punishes bad Food must be Kosher

37 Jerusalem: Holy for Jews
Capital of Israel Temple Mount: site of King Solomon’s 1st temple and the spot where Abraham was prepared to sacrifice his son to God Site of the 2nd temple Western Wall: Wailing Wall- last pieces of the 2nd wall that was destroyed by Romans in 70 CE

38 Christianity Breakaway sect of Judaism, followers of Jesus Christ
12 disciples, Virgin Mary, son of God, original sin Bible – Old (before Jesus) & New (after Jesus) Testament Beliefs: 1. God 2. Trinity 3. Bible 4. Death & Resurrection of Jesus 5. Return of Jesus 6. Salvation & Punishment

39 Jerusalem: Holy for Christians
Crusades: Christians fought for control of the city from Muslims – lost Site of Jesus’ crucifixion

40 Jerusalem: Holy for Muslims
Dome of the Rock: houses the spot where Muhammad ascended to heaven, located on the Temple Mount Al-Aqsa: mosque

41 Creation of the State of Israel
Balfour Declaration: UN divides Palestine into 2 states: 1 for the Jews and 1 for the Arabs Arabs did not agree, but Israel was formed anyway in 1948 Surrounding Arab nations launched war against Israel and lost b/c Israel was supported by the UN (aka USA & UK)

42 Palestinian Mandate

43 Who does the land belong to?
Ottoman Empire: 1520 – 1922, Muslim based, Turkish govt., fell at the end of WWI, lands split between France and England French: Syria (1946) & Lebanon (1943) British: Israel & Jordan (called Palestine) Zionism: goal to create a Jewish homeland By 1914: 12% of Palestine was Jewish Jews poured into Palestine to escape the Holocaust British stopped immigration in 1939

44 Palestinian Loss of Land

45 West Bank and the Gaza Strip
The West Bank and Gaza Strip were under Israeli control until 1960s Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was formed to regain the land for the Arabs West Bank and Gaza Strip are now under Arab control and are a safe zone for Palestinian Arabs

46 Palestinian Refugees In 1949 the UN created 53 Palestinian refugee camps They were supposed to be temporary Each camp holds b/w 35,000 – 50,000 people Israeli govt. controls all movement in and out of the camps Education, money, food, health care provided by the UN

47 Life in Israel Today School from 5-15 years
At 15 choose b/w tech school or academic school or the workforce Drive & get married at 17 yrs Enter the military at 18: 3 yrs for men; 2 years for women, but women no active combat Some restaurants have separate dining areas for men and women (Arab) Most ethnically diverse country in the world

48 Kurds Stateless nation
1988 Iraq dropped mustard gas bombs on Kurdish settlements killing 5,000 ppl Kurdistan: in parts of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria Kurds make up 20% of Turkey are majorly repressed

49 Sunni vs Shi’ite Sunni: 83 % of Muslims Shi’ite: most Iranians

50 Persian Gulf War War for control over the oil fields
1990 Iraq (under Saddam Hussein) invaded Kuwait US and 32 other countries fought to expel Iraq Iraq set fire to 700 oil wells US and UN won

51 Cyprus Inhabited since 6000 BCE
Has been occupied by Phoenicians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Ottoman Turks, and Great Britain Independence in 1960 Tensions b/w Greek-Cypriot majority and Turkish-Cypriot minority Only Turkey recognizes Northern Cyprus as the independent country – the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

52 Arab vs. Muslim (they are NOT synonymous!)
Arabic is a cultural group. Muslims are a religious group

53 Characteristics of an Arab
Arabic is a language of many dialects Many, NOT ALL, are Muslim They feel a responsibility to care for the poor Strong family loyalty Use heavy spices when cooking and many meals feature wheat or rice Tend to be VERY conservative Reject Western culture because of the fear they will loose their values

54 Terrorism Taliban- held Afghanistan from 1996-2001
Launched 9/11 attacks Believe in VERY strict Sharia Law TV, internet & music banned Men MUST wear a beard Osama bin Laden and al-Queda

55 Taliban Control of Women
Women cannot go to school Women may not work outside of the home Women may not leave their homes without a male escort Women must be fully covered by a Burka Women may not wear fingernail polish All of this was to safeguard women’s honor

56 Women in North Africa most women are housewives
In Tunisia it is illegal to have more than 1 wife, divorce is possible, no more arranged marriage before 13, equal pay

57 Rai 1st used to communicate Algerian resentment of the French govt.
Islamic fundamentalists have tried to ban Rai Still used in rebellion especially by women against Islamic fundamentalism

58 Protest Music project Directions:
Choose a song from the last 30 years (1980 – present) that you feel is a protest song. It can be protesting anything, but you must identify what the song is protesting. You must provide: Name of the song and artist of the song (15 points) Provide the lyrics of the song (school censored please!) (35 points) Write at least one paragraph explaining what the song is protesting and if you agree or disagree with what the song is protesting. (50 points)

59 Afghanistan Conflict Wanted by Russia and the UK – UK won, but USA also had interest Taliban took over in 1990s – Bin Laden in control 2001 – 9/11 attacks on the US – go to war with USA 2011- Bin Laden found and killed

60 Egyptian Revolution 1. Jan. 2011: protest against poverty, unemployment, government corruption and the rule of president Hosni Mubarak, who has been in power for three decades. 2. Internet, cell service, schools, stock market – all shut down. 3. Feb – Hosni resigns – new democratic elections are in play

61 The Sudan North – desert, Muslim Arabs
South – clay plains & a lg swamp called “The Sudd”, diff. ethnic groups, practice animalism or Christianity N & S cont. at war since independence in 1956 Millions in danger of starvation

62 Sudan Today George Clooney and the Enough Project
Darfur Discrimination In July 2011 – Sudan officially split into North Sudan and South Sudan Future is uncertain – world maps have not been updated and most countries do not yet recognize the split

63 Libya Goal: equal distribution of wealth
Oil is 99% of exports, imports 2/3 of its food Muammar Gaddafi est. unique form of socialism that combines with strict Islam fundamentalism Goal: equal distribution of wealth Goal: root out Western influence Banned jeans for men and any pants or short skirts for women

64 Libyan Revolution Revolution to oust Gaddafi
NATO attacks Libya (US is a member of NATO) Oct 2011 – Gaddafi is killed Democratic elections of a new Prime Minister

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