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Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY"— Presentation transcript:


2 CONTENT Overview of Bluetooth History The Bluetooth Specifications
25 March, 2017 CONTENT Overview of Bluetooth History The Bluetooth Specifications Typical Bluetooth Scenario Protocols Profiles Security Comparison with other technologies Future of Bluetooth Summary

3 One of the first modules (Ericsson)
What is Bluetooth? “Bluetooth wireless technology is an open specification for a low-cost, low-power, short-range radio technology for ad-hoc wireless communication of voice and data anywhere in the world.” One of the first modules (Ericsson) A recent module

4 Ultimate Headset

5 Cordless Computer

6 Bluetooth Goals & Vision
Originally conceived as a cable replacement technology Short-Range Wireless Solutions Open Specification Voice and Data Capability Worldwide Usability Other usage models began to develop: Personal Area Network (PAN) Ad-hoc networks Data/voice access points Wireless telematics

7 Overview of Bluetooth History
What is Bluetooth? Bluetooth is a short-range wireless communications technology. Why this name? It was taken from the 10th century Danish King Harald Blatand who unified Denmark and Norway. When does it appear? 1994 – Ericsson study on a wireless technology to link mobile phones & accessories. 5 companies joined to form the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) in 1998. First specification released in July 1999.

8 Timeline 1994 : Ericsson study complete / vision
1995 : Engineering work begins 1997 : Intel agrees to collaborate 1998 : Bluetooth SIG formed: Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia & Toshiba 1999 : Bluetooth Specification 1.0A SIG promoter group expanded: 3Com, Lucent, Microsoft & Motorola 2000 : Bluetooth Specification 1.0B, adopters 2001 : First retail products released, Specification 1.1 2003 : Bluetooth Specification 1.2 2005 : Bluetooth Specification 2.0 (?)

9 Special Interest Group

10 Technical features Connection Type
Spread Spectrum (Frequency Hopping) & Time Division Duplex (1600 hops/sec) Spectrum 2.4 GHz ISM Open Band (79 MHz of spectrum = 79 channels) Modulation Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying Transmission Power 1 mw – 100 mw Data Rate 1 Mbps Range 30 ft Supported Stations 8 devices Data Security –Authentication Key 128 bit key Data Security –Encryption Key 8-128 bits (configurable) Module size 9 x 9 mm

11 Bluetooth FHSS Employs frequency hopping spread spectrum
Reduce interference with other devices Pseudorandom hopping 1600 hops/sec- time slot is defined as 625 microseconds Packet 1-5 time slots long

12 Time-Division Duplex Scheme
Channel is divided into consecutive slots (each 625 s) One packet can be transmitted per slot Subsequent slots are alternatively used for transmitting and receiving Strict alternation of slots between the master and the slaves Master can send packets to a slave only in EVEN slots Slave can send packets to the master only in the ODD slots

13 Classification Classification of devices on the basis of Power dissipated & corresponding maximum Range. POWER RANGE CLASS I 20 dBm 100 m CLASS II 0-4 dBm 10 m CLASS III 0 dBm 1 m

14 Typical Bluetooth Scenario
Bluetooth will support wireless point-to-point and point-to-multipoint (broadcast) between devices in a piconet. Point to Point Link Master - slave relationship Bluetooth devices can function as masters or slaves Piconet It is the network formed by a Master and one or more slaves (max 7) Each piconet is defined by a different hopping channel to which users synchronize to Each piconet has max capacity (1 Mbps) m s s m

15 Piconet Structure All devices in piconet hop together.
Master Active Slave Parked Slave Standby All devices in piconet hop together. Master’s ID and master’s clock determines frequency hopping sequence & phase.

16 Ad-hoc Network – the Scatternet
Inter-piconet communication Up to 10 piconets in a scatternet Multiple piconets can operate within same physical space This is an ad-hoc, peer to peer (P2P) network

17 Bluetooth Protocol Stack

18 Baseband

19 Baseband Addressing This MAC address is split into three parts
Bluetooth device address (BD_ADDR) 48 bit IEEE MAC address Active Member address (AM_ADDR) 3 bits active slave address all zero broadcast address Parked Member address (PM_ADDR) 8 bit parked slave address This MAC address is split into three parts The Non-significant Address Part (NAP) Used for encryption seed The Upper Address part (UAP) Used for error correction seed initialization & FH sequence generation The Lower Address Part (LAP) Used for FH sequence generation

20 Packet Structure Access Code Header Payload No CRC ARQ FEC (optional)
Voice No CRC Data CRC header ARQ FEC (optional) 72 bits 54 bits bits Access Code Header Payload


22 Connection State Machine
Standby Inquiry Page Connected Transmit data Park Hold Sniff

23 Channel Establishment
There are two managed situations A device knows the parameters of the other It follows paging process No knowledge about the other Then it follows inquiring & paging process Two main states and sub-states Standby (no interaction) Connection (working) Seven more sub-states for attaching slaves & connection establishment Connection State Machine

24 Channel Establishment (contd.)
Seven sub-states Inquiry Inquiry scan Inquiry response Page Page scan Master response Slave response

25 Link Manager Protocol

26 Link Manager Protocol The Link Manager carries out link setup, authentication & link configuration. Channel Control All the work related to the channel control is managed by the master The master uses polling process for this The master is the first device which starts the connection This roles can change (master-slave role switch)

27 L2CAP Service provided to the higher layer:
L2CAP provides connection-oriented and connectionless data services to upper layer protocols Protocol multiplexing and demultiplexing capabilities Segmentation & reassembly of large packets L2CAP permits higher level protocols and applications to transmit and receive L2CAP data packets up to 64 kilobytes in length.

28 Middleware Protocol Group
Additional transport protocols to allow existing and new applications to operate over Bluetooth. Packet based telephony control signaling protocol also present. Also includes Service Discovery Protocol. RF Baseband Audio Link Manager L2CAP Data SDP RFCOMM IP Control Applications Middleware Protocol Group

29 Middleware Protocol Group (contd.)
Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) Means for applications to discover device info, services and its characteristics. TCP/IP Network Protocols for packet data communication, routing. RFCOMM Cable replacement protocol, emulation of serial ports over wireless network.

30 IP Over Bluetooth IP over Bluetooth v 1.0

31 IP Over Bluetooth IP over Bluetooth v 1.1

32 File Transfer Profile Profile provides:
Enhanced client-server interactions: - browse, create, transfer folders - browse, pull, push, delete files

33 Headset Profile Profile provides:
Both devices must provide capability to initiate connection & accept/terminate calls. Volume can be controlled from either device. Audio gateway can notify headset of an incoming call.

34 Core Bluetooth Products
Notebook PCs & Desktop computers Printers PDAs Other handheld devices Cell phones Wireless peripherals: Headsets Cameras CD Player TV/VCR/DVD Access Points Telephone Answering Devices Cordless Phones Cars

35 Other Products… 2004 Toyota Prius & Lexus LS 430
hands free calls Digital Pulse Oximetry System Toshiba Washer & Dryer Nokia N-gage

36 Security Security Measures Link Level Encryption & Authentication.
Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) for device access. Long encryption keys are used (128 bit keys). These keys are not transmitted over wireless. Other parameters are transmitted over wireless which in combination with certain information known to the device, can generate the keys. Further encryption can be done at the application layer.

37 A Comparison WLAN

38 Bluetooth vs. IrD Bluetooth IrD Point to Multipoint Point to point
Data & Voice Easier Synchronization due to omni-directional and no LOS requirement Devices can be mobile Range 10 m IrD Point to point Intended for Data Communication Infrared, LOS communication Can not penetrate solid objects Both devices must be stationary, for synchronization Range 1 m

39 Bluetooth: Today & Tomorrow

40 Will Bluetooth become a household name?

41 Future of Bluetooth Success of Bluetooth depends on how well it is integrated into consumer products Consumers are more interested in applications than the technology Bluetooth must be successfully integrated into consumer products Must provide benefits for consumer Must not destroy current product benefits Key Success Factors Interoperability Mass Production at Low Cost Ease of Use End User Experience

42 Summary A new global standard for data and voice Eliminate Cables
Low Power, Low range, Low Cost network devices Future Improvements Master-Slave relationship can be adjusted dynamically for optimal resource allocation and utilization. Adaptive, closed loop transmit power control can be implemented to further reduce unnecessary power usage.

43 “Things that think… don’t make sense unless they link.”
- Nicholas Negroponte, MIT Media Laboratory

44 Thank You

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