Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY"— Presentation transcript:
1 An Introduction to BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY SUBMITTED BY:RAJESH KUMAR MISHRAELEX &COMM ENGG
2 CONTENT Overview of Bluetooth History The Bluetooth Specifications 25 March, 2017CONTENTOverview of Bluetooth HistoryThe Bluetooth SpecificationsTypical Bluetooth ScenarioProtocolsProfilesSecurityComparison with other technologiesFuture of BluetoothSummary
3 One of the first modules (Ericsson) What is Bluetooth?“Bluetooth wireless technology is an open specification for a low-cost, low-power, short-range radio technology for ad-hoc wireless communication of voice and data anywhere in the world.”One of the first modules (Ericsson)A recent module
6 Bluetooth Goals & Vision Originally conceived as a cable replacement technologyShort-Range Wireless SolutionsOpen SpecificationVoice and Data CapabilityWorldwide UsabilityOther usage models began to develop:Personal Area Network (PAN)Ad-hoc networksData/voice access pointsWireless telematics
7 Overview of Bluetooth History What is Bluetooth?Bluetooth is a short-range wireless communications technology.Why this name?It was taken from the 10th century Danish King Harald Blatand who unified Denmark and Norway.When does it appear?1994 – Ericsson study on a wireless technology to link mobile phones & accessories.5 companies joined to form the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) in 1998.First specification released in July 1999.
8 Timeline 1994 : Ericsson study complete / vision 1995 : Engineering work begins1997 : Intel agrees to collaborate1998 : Bluetooth SIG formed: Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia & Toshiba1999 : Bluetooth Specification 1.0ASIG promoter group expanded: 3Com, Lucent, Microsoft & Motorola2000 : Bluetooth Specification 1.0B, adopters2001 : First retail products released, Specification 1.12003 : Bluetooth Specification 1.22005 : Bluetooth Specification 2.0 (?)
10 Technical features Connection Type Spread Spectrum (Frequency Hopping) & Time Division Duplex (1600 hops/sec)Spectrum2.4 GHz ISM Open Band (79 MHz of spectrum = 79 channels)ModulationGaussian Frequency Shift KeyingTransmission Power1 mw – 100 mwData Rate1 MbpsRange30 ftSupported Stations8 devicesData Security –Authentication Key128 bit keyData Security –Encryption Key8-128 bits (configurable)Module size9 x 9 mm
11 Bluetooth FHSS Employs frequency hopping spread spectrum Reduce interference with other devicesPseudorandom hopping1600 hops/sec- time slot is defined as 625 microsecondsPacket 1-5 time slots long
12 Time-Division Duplex Scheme Channel is divided into consecutive slots (each 625 s)One packet can be transmitted per slotSubsequent slots are alternatively used for transmitting and receivingStrict alternation of slots between the master and the slavesMaster can send packets to a slave only in EVEN slotsSlave can send packets to the master only in the ODD slots
13 ClassificationClassification of devices on the basis of Power dissipated & corresponding maximum Range.POWERRANGECLASS I20 dBm100 mCLASS II0-4 dBm10 mCLASS III0 dBm1 m
14 Typical Bluetooth Scenario Bluetooth will support wireless point-to-point and point-to-multipoint (broadcast) between devices in a piconet.Point to Point LinkMaster - slave relationshipBluetooth devices can function as masters or slavesPiconetIt is the network formed by a Master and one or more slaves (max 7)Each piconet is defined by a different hopping channel to which users synchronize toEach piconet has max capacity (1 Mbps)mssm
15 Piconet Structure All devices in piconet hop together. MasterActive SlaveParked SlaveStandbyAll devices in piconet hop together.Master’s ID and master’s clock determines frequency hopping sequence & phase.
16 Ad-hoc Network – the Scatternet Inter-piconet communicationUp to 10 piconets in a scatternetMultiple piconets can operate within same physical spaceThis is an ad-hoc, peer to peer (P2P) network
19 Baseband Addressing This MAC address is split into three parts Bluetooth device address (BD_ADDR)48 bit IEEE MAC addressActive Member address (AM_ADDR)3 bits active slave addressall zero broadcast addressParked Member address (PM_ADDR)8 bit parked slave addressThis MAC address is split into three partsThe Non-significant Address Part (NAP)Used for encryption seedThe Upper Address part (UAP)Used for error correction seed initialization & FH sequence generationThe Lower Address Part (LAP)Used for FH sequence generation
21 PART TWOCONTINUE BYANIL KUMARELEX &COMM ENGGROLL NO
22 Connection State Machine StandbyInquiryPageConnectedTransmit dataParkHoldSniff
23 Channel Establishment There are two managed situationsA device knows the parameters of the otherIt follows paging processNo knowledge about the otherThen it follows inquiring & paging processTwo main states and sub-statesStandby (no interaction)Connection (working)Seven more sub-states for attaching slaves & connection establishmentConnection State Machine
26 Link Manager ProtocolThe Link Manager carries out link setup, authentication & link configuration.Channel ControlAll the work related to the channel control is managed by the masterThe master uses polling process for thisThe master is the first device which starts the connectionThis roles can change (master-slave role switch)
27 L2CAP Service provided to the higher layer: L2CAP provides connection-oriented and connectionless data services to upper layer protocolsProtocol multiplexing and demultiplexing capabilitiesSegmentation & reassembly of large packetsL2CAP permits higher level protocols and applications to transmit and receive L2CAP data packets up to 64 kilobytes in length.
28 Middleware Protocol Group Additional transport protocols to allow existing and new applications to operate over Bluetooth.Packet based telephony control signaling protocol also present.Also includes Service Discovery Protocol.RFBasebandAudioLink ManagerL2CAPDataSDPRFCOMMIPControlApplicationsMiddleware Protocol Group
29 Middleware Protocol Group (contd.) Service Discovery Protocol (SDP)Means for applications to discover device info, services and its characteristics.TCP/IPNetwork Protocols for packet data communication, routing.RFCOMMCable replacement protocol, emulation of serial ports over wireless network.
32 File Transfer Profile Profile provides: Enhanced client-server interactions:- browse, create, transfer folders- browse, pull, push, delete files
33 Headset Profile Profile provides: Both devices must provide capability to initiate connection & accept/terminate calls.Volume can be controlled from either device.Audio gateway can notify headset of an incoming call.
35 Other Products… 2004 Toyota Prius & Lexus LS 430 hands free callsDigital Pulse Oximetry SystemToshiba Washer & DryerNokia N-gage
36 Security Security Measures Link Level Encryption & Authentication. Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) for device access.Long encryption keys are used (128 bit keys).These keys are not transmitted over wireless. Other parameters are transmitted over wireless which in combination with certain information known to the device, can generate the keys.Further encryption can be done at the application layer.
38 Bluetooth vs. IrD Bluetooth IrD Point to Multipoint Point to point Data & VoiceEasier Synchronization due to omni-directional and no LOS requirementDevices can be mobileRange 10 mIrDPoint to pointIntended for Data CommunicationInfrared, LOS communicationCan not penetrate solid objectsBoth devices must be stationary, for synchronizationRange 1 m
41 Future of BluetoothSuccess of Bluetooth depends on how well it is integrated into consumer productsConsumers are more interested in applications than the technologyBluetooth must be successfully integrated into consumer productsMust provide benefits for consumerMust not destroy current product benefitsKey Success FactorsInteroperabilityMass Production at Low CostEase of UseEnd User Experience
42 Summary A new global standard for data and voice Eliminate Cables Low Power, Low range, Low Cost network devicesFuture ImprovementsMaster-Slave relationship can be adjusted dynamically for optimal resource allocation and utilization.Adaptive, closed loop transmit power control can be implemented to further reduce unnecessary power usage.
43 “Things that think… don’t make sense unless they link.” - Nicholas Negroponte, MIT Media Laboratory