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سورة الفاتحة The Qur’ān Divine interpretation of the Book of Existence. Surah 1 1 Al-Fatihah (The Opening)

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1 سورة الفاتحة The Qur’ān Divine interpretation of the Book of Existence. Surah 1 1 Al-Fatihah (The Opening)

2 2 Al-Fatihah (The Opening) It is called Sūrat al-Fātihah because it is the opening chapter of the Qur’ān because it is the opening chapter of the Qur’ān.

3 QUR’AN ( ( قرآن ‬ - Continuous reading (al-)Qur’ ā n: The Qur’ ā n; the last Book of God which He revealed to the Prophet Muhammad,upon him be peace and blessings, as His last and universal Message to conscious, responsible beings (as-)Suhuf (pl. of as-Sah ī fah): Scrolls given to some Messengers (as- )Sunnah: The way of God’s Messenger,upon him be peace and blessings. SURAH ( سورة ) (as-)S ū rah: An independent chapter of the Qur’ ā n DefinitionsDefinitions 3

4 AYAH (singular) - AYAT (plural) Definition of Ayah (al-)‘ Ā yah: A manifest sign; miracle; lesson to be taken from an event; each of the Qur’ ā n’s independent sentences between two points (verses) DefinitionsDefinitions 4

5 Ā y ā tun bayyin ā t: The signs or messages which are clear in meaning and content (as evidence of the truth) (al-) Ā yat al-Kurs ī yy: The verse of the Divine Seat of Dominion. It is verse 255 of S ū rat al-Baqarah, which makes God known through some of His Names and Attributes. DefinitionsDefinitions 5

6 (al-)Basmalah: The phrase, Bismi’ll ā hir-Rahm ā ni’r-Rah ī m, meaning in (and with) the Name of God, the All-Merciful, the All-Compassionate DefinitionsDefinitions 6

7 (al-)Fard: Any obligatory religious act (al-)Far ā ’id: Plural of al-fard. It is also used to mean the science of sharing inheritance. Fard ‘Ayn: Any act which is obligatory on every Muslim who is mature, healthy, and sane Fard Kifayah: A collective duty of the Muslim community, so that if some people carry it out, no Muslim is considered blameworthy, but if no one carries it out, all incur a collective guilt. DefinitionsDefinitions 7

8 (al-)Had ī th: Communication, narration, word or saying. As a term, it denotes the record of whatever the Prophet (upon him be peace and blessings) said, did, or tacitly approved. According to some scholars, the word had ī th also covers reports about the sayings and deeds, etc., of the Companions of the Prophet, in addition to those of the Prophet himself. The whole body of Traditions is termed Had ī th, and the science which deals with it is called ‘Ilm al-Had ī th. Had ī th quds ī : A saying of God narrated by His Messenger but not included in the Qur’ ā n DefinitionsDefinitions 8

9 (al-)Mu’min: The Believer. A person who has faith in whatever must be believed in and is a righteous and obedient servant of His (al-)Mun ā fiq: One who is a believer outwardly or professes faith, while one is an unbeliever inwardly and in reality (al-)Mushrik: A polytheist: a person who commits Shirk (see Shirk) – who associates partners with God in His Divinity, Lordship, and Sovereignty, or in any of these (al-)Muslim: One who believes in whatever is to be believed in and practices Islam in his daily life in submission to God; (law) one who professes faith and, as a citizen of a Muslim st ate, joins a Muslim congregation in the Prayer and pays the Zak ā h DefinitionsDefinitions 9

10 (as-)Sir ā t al-Mustaq ī m: The only Straight Path to God, which the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings. demonstrated to humankind and the jinn, and was manifested by way of the Qur’an and Sunnah. (as-)Sab‘u’l-Math ā n ī (Sab‘an mina’l-Math ā n ī ): Another name for S ū rat al-F ā tihah, meaning the Seven Doubly-Repeated Verses (ar-)Rabb: Lord, Master; the Lord It has three sets of related meanings: (i) Upbringer, Trainer, Sustainer, Nourisher; (ii) Lord and Master; (iii) He Who directs and controls. DefinitionsDefinitions 10

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12 1 بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمانِ الرَّحِيمِ IN THENAME OF GOD, THEALL-MERCIFUL,THE ALL- COMPASSIONATE 2 الْحَمْدُ للّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِين All praise and gratitude are for God, the Lord of the worlds, 3 الرَّحْمـانِ الرَّحِيمِ The All-Merciful, the All-Compassionate, 4 مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ The Master of the Day of Judgment. 5 إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ You alone do We worship, and from You alone do we seek help. 6 اهدِنَــــا الصِّرَاطَ المُستَقِيمَ Guide us to the straight path. 7 صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنعَمتَ عَلَيهِمْ غَيرِ المَغضُوبِ عَلَيهِمْ وَلاَ الضَّالِّينَ The Path of those whom You have favored, not of those who have incurred (Your) wrath (punishment and condemnation), nor of those who are astray. 12

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14 Surat al Fatiha summaries the whole Qur’an SURAT AL FATIHA QURAN

15 SALAT SHADAH (The Testimony of Faith) We read in Salat. SAVM (FASTING) We do not eat, drink, talk… HAJJ (The Pilgrimage to Makkah) We face to Qibla (Kaba in Makkah) Zakat (Almsgiving) We devote our time to gain pleasure of Allah SALAT summaries all type worships of creation

16 Kiyam (Standing) : Represents prayers of trees, mountains, and angels who worship in standing.

17 Ruku (Bowing) : Represents prayers of camels, sheep, cows (4 legged animals) and angels who worship in bowing.

18 Sajdah (Prostration ) : Represents prayers of ants, butterflies, reptiles and angels who worship in prostration all time.

19 WORSHIP of ALL CREATION SALAT BRINGS ALL THE MINIATURES TOGETHER SURAT AL FATIHA SALATHUMAN QURAN UNIVERSE

20 The Prophet (sallAllahu alayhi wasallam) said, “I will teach you a Surah which is the greatest Surah in the Qur'an…” The Greatest Surah in the Qur’an He said, “Al-Hamdu-Lillah Rabbi-l-Alamin which is Al-Sab'a Al-Mathani (seven repeatedly recited Verses) and the Grand Qur'an which has been given to me.” [Sahih Bukhari, Book #60, Hadith #1] 20

21 Narrated Ibn Abbaas (radiyAllahu anhu): “While the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu alayhi wasallam) was sitting with Jibreel (alayhi assalam), he heard a creaking sound above him. Jibreel looked up and said, “This is the sound of a gate that has been opened in heaven today and has never been previously opened.” Then an Angel descended through it and came to the Prophet (sallAllahu alayhi wasallam) and said, “Rejoice in the good news of two lights that have been given to you such as no prophet before you has been given. [They are] Surah al-Fatihah and the concluding [two] Ayat of Surah al-Baqarah. You will never recite a word from them without being given the blessings they contain." [An-Nisaee and al-Haakim] Revealed by a Special Angel 21

22 Opening Surah in the Qur’an Beginning of book Commanded to recite 17 times a day Every Surah in Qur’an is related to Surah al-Fatihah This Surah explains the whole Qur’an Everything in our life is related to this Surah We live with this Surah in our daily life Understand it, live with it, and feel it Unique Virtues 22

23 With its marvelously brief and comprehensive words, it balances praise and petition perfectly, and it establishes four main themes or purposes of the Qur’ānic guidance. (1) Existence and Unity of God, (1) Existence and Unity of God, (2) Prophethood, (2) Prophethood, (3) the Resurrection and afterlife, and (3) the Resurrection and afterlife, and (4) Worship and justice. (4) Worship and justice. Key to every Surah, Key to the whole Qur’an

24 Allah SWT says, “I have divided the prayer (Al-Fatihah) between Myself and my slave equally and My slave shall be granted what he asked for.” 24 Hadith Qudsi [Sahih Muslim]

25 25 When he says, ‘Guide us to the straight path, the path of those whom You have favored, not of those who earned Your anger, nor of those who have gone astray’ When he says, ‘the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful,’ When he says, ‘Master of the Day of Judgment,’ When he says, ‘You alone we worship and You alone we seek for help,’ Therefore when the slave says, ‘All praises and thanks are due to Allah, the Lord of the universe’, Allah says, ‘My slave has praised Me.’ Allah says, ‘My slave has praised Me.’ Allah says, ‘My slave has glorified Me.’ Allah says, ‘My slave has glorified Me.’ Allah says, ‘My slave has related all matters to Me.’ Allah says, ‘My slave has related all matters to Me.’ Allah says, ‘This is between Me and My slave and My slave shall have what he requested.’ Allah says, ‘This is between Me and My slave and My slave shall have what he requested.’ Allah says, ‘This is for My slave and My slave shall have what he asked for.’ Allah says, ‘This is for My slave and My slave shall have what he asked for.’

26 (61 A.H. – 101 A.H.) 5th Khilafah (99 A.H A.H.) Great grandson of Omar ibn Al-Khattab Recited Surah al-Fatihah with long pauses Waiting for Allah to answer him Enjoying the response of Allah SWT Omar ibn Abdul Aziz 26

27 27 Um Al-Qur’an Mother of the Qur’an Um Al-Kitab Mother of the Book Al-Qur’an Al-Atheem The Glorious Qur’an Al-Waffiyah The Complete One Al-Ruqyah The Remedy As-Salah The Prayer Al-Hamd The Praise Ash-Shifa The Cure Saba’ul Mathanee 7 repeated verses Names of Surah al-Fatihah

28 11 points to remember from Surah al-Fatihah 28

29 الْحَمْدُ للّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ Al Hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Aalameen All praise and gratitude are for God, the Lord of the worlds. 1. Reminder of Allah’s Favors & Bounties 29 It should be noted that all praise and thanks are due to God alone, and are His alone. Wherever beauty, excellence and perfection occur, the ultimate source is God. No created beings, whether angels or humans, heavenly or earthly objects, have anything other than a dependent excellence, beauty or perfection.

30 الْحَمْدُ للّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ Al Hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Aalameen All praise and gratitude are for God, the Lord of the worlds. 30 “Worlds” translates the Arabic ‘ālamīn (singular, ‘ālam). The word comes from ‘alam, ‘alāmah, meaning something by which another thing is known. Thus, in this perspective, every individual thing or set of things, from the tiniest sub-atomic particles to the largest nebulae and galaxies, is a “world” and indicates God. The plural form (‘ālamīn) is particularly used for conscious beings, giving the sense that everything that is created is as if conscious, and signifying that its pointing to God’s Existence, Unity and Lordship is extremely clear for conscious beings.

31 مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ Maaliki yawm mid-deen The Master of the Day of Judgment. الرَّحْمـانِ Ar-Rahman The All-Merciful الرَّحِيمِ Ar-Rahim the All-Compassionate 2. Reminder of the Names and Attributes of Allah 2. Reminder of the Names and Attributes of Allah 31

32 Mercy الرَّحْمـانِ الرَّحِيمِ Ar-Rahman Ar-Rahim Most Gracious Most Merciful 3. Reminder of the main connection between us and Allah (SWT) 32

33 Choose your way… RealityIllusion God’s mercy encompasses everything. There is no mercy, no purpose in life.

34 Actions Worry-free energy to solve my problems Even if I did it wrong, I can try again! Become agent of Hope Emotions HopeInner PeaceExcitement Beliefs (Ingrained Thoughts) God’s mercy encompasses everything.God loves me! He takes care of me. Intention I intend to look for alternative, for a better explanation, to look for the Source

35 Mālik => Master means both owner and sovereign Although God allows the existence of sovereigns in this world because He has endowed humankind with free will, He will be the sole, absolute Sovereign on the Day of Judgment. “Whose is the absolute Sovereignty on that Day? It is God’s, the One, the All-Overwhelming (with absolute sway over all that exist).” (40: 16).) مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ Maaliki yawm mid-deen The Master of the Day of Judgment.

36 4. Reminder that sincerity is only to Allah إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ Iyyaka na’budu wa iyyaka na’stayeen You alone we worship & You alone we seek for help 36

37 As for the sincere servant of God, he is a worshipping servant who does not degrade himself to bow in worship, even before the greatest of the creatures.

38 Servanthood in Islam is the only means to true human freedom and dignity. The Prescribed Prayer (the Salāh) and the Pilgrimage (the Hajj) are public occasions that demonstrate this most clearly. No one is greater than any other in being a servant and, therefore, none is worthy of worship or adoration. Every created being, whether a Prophet or a common human, is equally removed from being an object of worship.

39 5. Reminder of the unity of the Ummah nana إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ Iyyaka na budu wa iyyaka na’stayeen You alone we worship and You alone we seek for help 39

40 nana Iyyaka na budu wa iyyaka na’stayeen The collective aspect refers to (i) the individual person with all the systems and cells of his/her body, (ii) the group(s) of believers who have come together at any place or time to worship God, and (iii) to the whole body of believers throughout the world who have turned to the Ka‘bah to worship.

41 6. Reminder to keep good company اهدِنَــــا الصِّرَاطَ المُستَقِيمَ Ihdinasiratal mustaqim Guide us on the straight path 41 Sirāt is used in the Qur’ān in the singular; the word has no plural. This tells us that it is the only road leading to God, although there are many roads (sabīl) leading to the Path. It is qualified with the adjective straight, meaning that the Straight Path is the way of the Qur’ān, with no crookedness at all (18: 1)

42 7. Warning against bad company اهدِنَــــا الصِّرَاطَ المُستَقِيمَ Ihdinasiratal mustaqim Guide us on the straight path 42 It is the middle way having nothing to do with any extremes. It is equally far from communism and capitalism in economy, from absolutism and anarchism in politics, from realism and idealism in philosophy, from materialism and spiritualism in belief, from being exclusively this-worldly or exclusively other-worldly in world-view. It is the middle way considering human psychology and the realities of life and creation.

43 8. Istiqama - Reminder to stay on the straight path 8. Istiqama - Reminder to stay on the straight path اهدِنَــــا الصِّرَاطَ المُستَقِيمَ Ihdinasiratal mustaqim Guide us on the straight path 43 Path => Sirāt. It is a way having ups and downs, one wide in some of its parts and narrow in others, and difficult to walk on. It is described in a Prophetic Tradition as a path or bridge with ups and downs, one having walls on its sides, and doors and windows opening on the outside. The walls are the rules of the Islamic Sharī‘ah, which protect it from external attacks and save those following it from veering off. The doors and windows are the openings to things forbidden. Those following the Path should not follow these openings lest they go astray.

44 9. Reminder of the Hereafter: As-Sirat صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنعَمتَ عَلَيهِمْ Siratal latheena an ‘amta alayhim The path of those who earned your favor 44 Even if one can, by studying creation and reflecting on it, work out that there must be One Who has created it, none can discover what the Straight Path is through reasoning alone.

45 People attain happiness in both worlds through it, and realize the aim of their creation. In order to be able to find and follow the true Religion, God points us towards some persons He has chosen among people.People attain happiness in both worlds through it, and realize the aim of their creation. In order to be able to find and follow the true Religion, God points us towards some persons He has chosen among people. He describes them as those whom He has favored. He presents the Straight Path as their way, andHe describes them as those whom He has favored. He presents the Straight Path as their way, and He publicizes their identity in another verse (4: 69): Whoever obeys God and the Messenger (as they must be obeyed), then those are (and in the Hereafter will be, in Paradise) in the company of those whom God has favored (with the perfect guidance) – the Prophets, and the truthful ones (loyal and truthful in whatever they do and say), and the witnesses (those who see the hidden Divine truths and testify thereto with their lives), and the righteous ones (in all their deeds and sayings and dedicated to setting everything right). How excellent they are for companions!He publicizes their identity in another verse (4: 69): Whoever obeys God and the Messenger (as they must be obeyed), then those are (and in the Hereafter will be, in Paradise) in the company of those whom God has favored (with the perfect guidance) – the Prophets, and the truthful ones (loyal and truthful in whatever they do and say), and the witnesses (those who see the hidden Divine truths and testify thereto with their lives), and the righteous ones (in all their deeds and sayings and dedicated to setting everything right). How excellent they are for companions! One who sincerely searches for such people finds them, because they shine in the spiritual and intellectual “heaven” of humankind.One who sincerely searches for such people finds them, because they shine in the spiritual and intellectual “heaven” of humankind. The greatest favor or blessing of God for humanity is the Religion.

46 46 إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ You alone we worship, and You alone we ask for help. اهدِنَــــا الصِّرَاطَ المُستَقِيمَ Guide us to the straight path. صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنعَمتَ عَلَيهِمْ غَيرِ المَغضُوبِ عَلَيهِمْ وَلاَ الضَّالِّينَ The path of those on whom You have bestowed your grace, not the path of those who earned your anger, nor of those that went astray. 10. Reminder of the importance of du’aa

47 The Qur’ān forbids us to follow the ways of two groups: 1.those who have incurred God’s wrath (punishment and condemnation), and 2.those who are astray

48 God’s wrath does not mean that God becomes angry in some way analogous to us. Rather, His wrath means punishment and condemnation. We read in the Qur’ān that those who kill a believer intentionally (4: 93), who kill a believer intentionally (4: 93), who cherish evil thoughts about God (48: 6), who cherish evil thoughts about God (48: 6), who flee the battlefield (8: 16), who flee the battlefield (8: 16), who have disbelieved after their belief (16: 106), and who have disbelieved after their belief (16: 106), and who argue concerning God after He has been acknowledged (42: 16) who argue concerning God after He has been acknowledged (42: 16) who disbelieved in God and slew His Prophets (2: 61); who disbelieved in God and slew His Prophets (2: 61); who refused to believe in Prophet Muhammad because of envy and racist tendencies, even though they knew and recognized that he was a Prophet (2: 90); who refused to believe in Prophet Muhammad because of envy and racist tendencies, even though they knew and recognized that he was a Prophet (2: 90); who took a calf for worship after they believed in God (7: 152, 20: 86); and who took a calf for worship after they believed in God (7: 152, 20: 86); and who showed disrespect to the Sabbath, also incurred God’s wrath (punishment and condemnation). who showed disrespect to the Sabbath, also incurred God’s wrath (punishment and condemnation). have incurred God’s punishment and condemnation.

49 The verbal noun meaning “astray” (dalāl) can refer to a broad range of straying from the path – from the slightest lapse of a believer to complete deviation from the Straight Path. As a term, it denotes returning to unbelief after belief and exchanging unbelief for belief (2: 108);it denotes returning to unbelief after belief and exchanging unbelief for belief (2: 108); associating partners with God either in His Essence or His Attributes or acts (4: 116); andassociating partners with God either in His Essence or His Attributes or acts (4: 116); and rejecting faith in all or any of the pillars of faith, namely believing in the Existence and Unity of God (including Destiny), in angels, in all the Divine Scriptures and Prophets, without making any distinction among them with respect to believing in them, and in the Resurrection and afterlife.rejecting faith in all or any of the pillars of faith, namely believing in the Existence and Unity of God (including Destiny), in angels, in all the Divine Scriptures and Prophets, without making any distinction among them with respect to believing in them, and in the Resurrection and afterlife.

50 1) In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. 2) All the praises and thanks are for Allah the Lord of the Universe. 3) The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful. 4) Master of the Day of Recompense. 5) You alone we worship, and You alone we ask for help. 6) Guide us to the straight path. 7) The path of those on whom You have bestowed your grace, not the path of those who earned your anger, nor of those that went astray. Praise Du’aa 11. Reminder on how to address Allah 50

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52 Ameen آمين Ameen 52


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