Presentation on theme: "The Liberal Reforms Last Minute revision 2012. Why were people worried about poverty? Before the 1890s – poverty was seen as the fault of those who were."— Presentation transcript:
The Liberal Reforms Last Minute revision 2012
Why were people worried about poverty? Before the 1890s – poverty was seen as the fault of those who were poor. Charles Booth – Worked with a team of researchers – 4000 people investigated – 31 % of Londoners didn’t earn enough to pay for necessities and save against emergencies Seebohm Rowntree – Also used researchers to investigate families in York. – Found that 28% of people also lived in poverty – Saw that even those who sometimes had enough, would get into difficulties when they had children, or were too old or unwell to work.
Why did the Liberal Party worry about the poor? The Labour Party – The new ‘Labour’ party promised to help the poor. New rules meant that more poor people could vote. The liberals worried that Labour would take their support New Liberalism – David Lloyd George, Winston Churchill were new ‘bright stars’ in the Liberal party who had read the research of Booth and Rowntree and wanted to help. National Efficiency – Large numbers of volunteers for the Army during the Boer war were unfit because they were so poor – Germany’s schools were creating clever and fit workers who were out performing Britain’s workforce.
What did the Liberals do to help Children? The Children’s Charter (The Children’s Act 1909) – Separate courts and prisons for children – Ban on children going to the pub or buying cigarettes – Local Authorities had to visit children who had been neglected compulsory medical inspections in schools (1907), free medical treatment (1912) free school meals for the poor – 158,000 children had free meals once a day by 1914.
What did the Liberals do to help old people? Old age pensions 1909 – Everyone over the age of 70 who earned less than £21 a year was entitled – Single person – 5s a week – Couple 7s 6d Half a million pensioners given the means to live.
What did the Liberals do to help working people? Labour exchanges – Offices where unemployed could look for jobs posted by employers, rather than trudging around National Insurance – Sick pay – 10s a week from 13 weeks, then 5s a week for 13 weeks – Workers paid 4d a week, employers 3d and government 2d – Unemployment benefit 7s 6d a week for 14 weeks, in return for 2d each from the worker, employer and government.
Who opposed the reforms? Those who paid higher taxes to pay for them – The House of Lords, made up of rich landowners Those who thought that being poor was their own fault.
The People’s Budget January 1910 – The Liberal Government’s budget was blocked by the House of Lords – The liberals held an election and said ‘if you want the People’s Budget to pass vote for us’ – The Liberals won the election and the House of Lords backed down, passing the budget.
Why was this cartoon published in 1910?
How useful is source in explaining why the Liberal Reforms were made? Speech by Lloyd George to a Liberal Party meeting in Cardiff, October 1906 I warn you about the Labour Party. I warn you it will become a terrifying force that will sweep away Liberalism. We have a Liberal Parliament, but we must act to help the poor.