2What is Agriculture?Activities concerned with the production of plants and animals, and related supplies, services, mechanics, products, processing, and marketing.
3USDA refers to agriculture as…. “Agriculture/ Agribusiness and renewable natural resources”.Another definition is food, fiber, and environmental systems.
4What is Agriscience?The application of scientific principles and new technologies to agriculture.
5Agriscience is……An applied science because it uses principles learned in biology, chemistry, and physics (the basic sciences) in a practical way.
6Examples of Applied Sciences AgronomyUses biology and chemistry to discover new ways to control weeds in crops.EntomologyUses biology and chemistry to study insect life.Agricultural EngineeringUses physics to develop new machinery.Saw Stop
7Agriscience employs….. The scientific method to solve problems. The steps to the scientific method are….Identify the problem.Review literature.Form a hypothesis.Prepare a project proposal.Design the experiment.Collect the data.Draw conclusions.Prepare a written report.
8Why is Agriculture/Agriscience Important? Largest “employer” and the largest source of income in the United States and North Carolina.
9Opportunities in Agriculture Agricultural production is supported by many more careers than actually exist in production.Many careers in agriscience products & distribution are needed to grade, transport, process, package, & market agriculture commodities.Products, Processing & DistributionProjections show that the average size of farms in the U.S. will increase while the number of farms will decrease.
10Opportunities in Agriculture Twenty percent of all jobs in the U.S. are agriscience related.In addition to farming, agriscience jobs help support farmers to meet the world’s food & fiber needs.Areas include:ProductionProcessing, products, and distributionSupplies and services.
11World OutlookThe world population will grow as more people beget more people.More children are surviving to adulthood.More adults are living longer.Population growth will….Add stress to environmental systems of air, water, soil, and natural resources.Create challenges to meet the demands for food and fiber (clothing and shelter).
12Trends for Agriculture/Agriscience Agriculture will always be an essential industry.Increased commercialization of agriculture will continue.New types of farming such as aquaculture (fish farming and farming the sea) will be used as well as traditional farming methods.
13Trends for Agriculture/Agriscience An expanded view of agriculture is necessary.
147 Divisions of Agriculture AgribusinessAgriscience MechanicsAgronomyAnimal ScienceBiotechnologyHorticultureNatural ResourcesWhere Did ThatCome From?
15What is Agribusiness?Commercial firms that have developed with or stem out of agriculture.
25What is Horticulture?Involves the producing, marketing fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants. (Green Industry)Continues to expand as the standard of living is raised.
26Horticulture includes…. Greenhouse ManagementNursery ManagementLandscape ArchitecturePlant PhysiologyIntegrated Pest Management
27What are Renewable Natural Resources? Resources provided by nature that can replace or renew themselves.Important both economically and for posterity’s sake to maintain life.Agriculture & resources management will include pollution control.
28Natural Resources - Forestry Timber management for lumber, poles, post, plywood, and etc. is another part of the agricultural industry.
30What are Commodities? Agricultural products which are sold. Examples: MilkCornWheatBeefCotton
31U.S. Agricultural Commodities (Market Value of Products Sold) Total CropsCaliforniaTotal LivestockTexasTotal Ag Income
32Top 10 U.S. Ag Commodity Exports #1 Soybeans#2 Corn*#3 Wheat#4 Cotton#5 Misc. Hort Products#6 Poultry Meat**#7 Feed#8 Edible Tree Nuts#9 Pork#10 Feed Grain*Consistently ranks in top 5 in U.S. grain exports year after year.**Number 1 meat export as far as tonnage shipped from the U.S.
33Agricultural Commodities Corn_______ ranks in the top five in US agricultural commodities every year.__________ are the world’s most important source of vegetable oil and provide basic materials for hundreds of products.During the 1990s ________ was the number one meat export from the US.SoybeansPoultry
34U.S. Dept of AgricultureSecretaryMike JohannsNebraska
35U.S. Dept of Agriculture Oversees the following: Food Safety InspectionCommodity GradingMeatFruitVegetablesEggs
36U.S. Dept of Agriculture Oversees the following: School Lunch Program Food StampsAgricultural CooperativesU.S. Forest ServiceCooperative ExtensionAgricultural Marketing
38General NC Ag. Information There are 2,200,000 farms in N.C.Includes small farms90.8% of farms in N.C. are family farms.The average N.C. farmer is 57 years old.The county with the most amount of agricultural sales is Duplin County.
39Top Commodities In NCDuring the 1990s the top three agricultural commodities in terms of cash receipts for North Carolina were:HogsBroilersTobacco
40North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is #1 in the following commodities.TobaccoSweet potatoes
41North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is #2 in the following commodities.HogsChristmas TreesTurkeys
42North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is #3 in the following commodities.Cucumber ProcessingTroutTotal Poultry & Eggs
43Agricultural Statistics - Cash Receipts : 2008 RankItemMillion Dollars1Broilers ¹2,6922Hogs2,1713Greenhouse/Nursery/Floriculture/Christmas Trees7774Tobacco6875Turkeys ¹6526Soybeans4407Chicken eggs ¹3748Corn3339Wheat29110Cattle and calves19811Cotton & Cottonseed19312Dairy Products19013Sweet Potatoes14214Peanuts6815Blueberries4816Tomatoes, Fresh3417Irish Potatoes2618Cucumbers2519Apples2220Strawberries21SOURCE: Economic Research Service, USDA¹ Value of Production
45NC Dept of Agriculture Steve Troxler Current Commissioner Guilford County
46NC Dept of Agriculture Oversees the following: All agricultural issues Weights & StandardsFood & Drugs in North CarolinaNC State Fair
47NC Dept of Agriculture Oversees the following: Marketing Farmer’s MarketsGoodness Grows ProgramResearch StationsStructural PestsVeterinarian Program
48Cooperative Extension Service Located in all 100 counties and the Cherokee Indian Reservation.Provides information for those working in agriculture.Best free source of information for small agricultural businesses.Administers the 4H program.
49Progress in Agriculture Mechanization helps 2% of America’s work force to meet the food & fiber needs of our nation.(2% of US population works “on the farm”.)There has been a reduction from 90% of the nation’s populace involved in farming 200 years ago.
50Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events George WashingtonIn 1785, he became the first American to own mules.Also introduced agricultural concepts such as terracing, crop rotation, and the use of cover crops.
51Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Eli WhitneyInvented the cotton gin in 1793.Turned cotton into an usable product by removing cottonseed from the cotton fiber.
53Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Thomas JeffersonIn 1814, Jefferson had his moldboard plow cast in iron, thus inventing the iron plow.Was a marked improvement over the inefficient European plow.
55Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Cyrus McCormickInvented the grain reaper in 1834 to save labor in cutting wheat, oats, and similar crops.It only CUT the grain.Later a threshing machine was added and it became known as a combine.
59Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Edmund W. QuincyInvented the mechanical corn picker in 1850.Anna BaldwinChanged the dairy industry in 1878 by inventing a milking machine to replace hand milking.
60Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Joseph GliddenInvented barbed wire in 1874.Used for livestock fencing.Tamed the west by allowing ranches with fixed boundaries to be established.
61Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Booker T. WashingtonFounded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.Advocate of vocational education/skills development.The school was later given land-grant status.
62Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events George Washington CarverDirector of agricultural research at Tuskegee Institute in early 1900’s.Found new uses for soybeans, peanuts, and sweetpotatoes.Diversified southern agriculture.
63Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Benjamin HoltInvented the tractorCompany went one to become Caterpillar Inc.Also invented the traction method used on many tanks
68Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events In 1954, the tractor finally surpasses the mule as the main source of agricultural power.
69AssignmentWith a partner you must design a new agricultural invention.Requirements:Must be something that has not already been invented.Must have a name and price.Must have a color picture.Must include a four sentence description of the invention and how it works.
70Improving Life through Agriscience SoybeansKnown as the “Yellow Jewell” to the Chinese.World’s most important source for vegetable oil.Provide basic materials for hundreds of products.Used as major food source in China in the form of tofu.
71Improving Life through Agriscience The Green RevolutionProcess whereby many countries became self sufficient in food production in the 1960s by using improved crop varieties and practices.
72Improving Life through Agriscience The Green IndustryThe modern horticulture industry with emphasis on turf and landscape plants.
73Agriscience and the Future The average American farmer produces enough food and fiber for 128 people.As the world’s population increases, it will require a more sophisticated agriscience industry to keep pace with demand.
74Agriscience and the Future The science of food production, processing, and distribution will require:College graduates to fill roles as scientists, engineers, and other professionals.USDA reported an increased demand for graduates from agricultural colleges in the 90s.