Presentation on theme: "From Dirt to DNA Agriscience Applications What is Agriculture? Activities concerned with the production of plants and animals, and related supplies,"— Presentation transcript:
From Dirt to DNA Agriscience Applications
What is Agriculture? Activities concerned with the production of plants and animals, and related supplies, services, mechanics, products, processing, and marketing.
USDA refers to agriculture as…. “Agriculture/ Agribusiness and renewable natural resources”. Another definition is food, fiber, and environmental systems.
What is Agriscience? The application of scientific principles and new technologies to agriculture.
Agriscience is…… An applied science because it uses principles learned in biology, chemistry, and physics (the basic sciences) in a practical way.
Examples of Applied Sciences Agronomy Uses biology and chemistry to discover new ways to control weeds in crops. Entomology Uses biology and chemistry to study insect life. Agricultural Engineering Uses physics to develop new machinery. Saw Stop
Agriscience employs….. The scientific method to solve problems. The steps to the scientific method are…. Identify the problem. Review literature. Form a hypothesis. Prepare a project proposal. Design the experiment. Collect the data. Draw conclusions. Prepare a written report.
Why is Agriculture/Agriscience Important? Largest “employer” and the largest source of income in the United States and North Carolina.
Opportunities in Agriculture Agricultural production is supported by many more careers than actually exist in production. Many careers in agriscience products & distribution are needed to grade, transport, process, package, & market agriculture commodities. Products, Processing & Distribution Projections show that the average size of farms in the U.S. will increase while the number of farms will decrease.
Opportunities in Agriculture Twenty percent of all jobs in the U.S. are agriscience related. In addition to farming, agriscience jobs help support farmers to meet the world’s food & fiber needs. Areas include: Production Processing, products, and distribution Supplies and services.
World Outlook The world population will grow as more people beget more people. More children are surviving to adulthood. More adults are living longer. Population growth will…. Add stress to environmental systems of air, water, soil, and natural resources. Create challenges to meet the demands for food and fiber (clothing and shelter).
Trends for Agriculture/Agriscience Agriculture will always be an essential industry. Increased commercialization of agriculture will continue. New types of farming such as aquaculture (fish farming and farming the sea) will be used as well as traditional farming methods.
Trends for Agriculture/Agriscience An expanded view of agriculture is necessary.
What are Renewable Natural Resources? Resources provided by nature that can replace or renew themselves. Important both economically and for posterity’s sake to maintain life. Agriculture & resources management will include pollution control.
Natural Resources - Forestry Timber management for lumber, poles, post, plywood, and etc. is another part of the agricultural industry.
Other Examples include: Wildlife Water Fish Soils Air
What are Commodities? Agricultural products which are sold. Examples: Milk Corn Wheat Beef Cotton
U.S. Agricultural Commodities (Market Value of Products Sold) Total Crops California Total Livestock Texas Total Ag Income California
Top 10 U.S. Ag Commodity Exports #1 Soybeans #2 Corn* #3 Wheat #4 Cotton #5 Misc. Hort Products #6 Poultry Meat** #7 Feed #8 Edible Tree Nuts #9 Pork #10 Feed Grain *Consistently ranks in top 5 in U.S. grain exports year after year. **Number 1 meat export as far as tonnage shipped from the U.S.
Agricultural Commodities _______ ranks in the top five in US agricultural commodities every year. __________ are the world’s most important source of vegetable oil and provide basic materials for hundreds of products. During the 1990s ________ was the number one meat export from the US.
U.S. Dept of Agriculture Secretary Mike Johanns Nebraska
U.S. Dept of Agriculture Oversees the following: Food Safety Inspection Commodity Grading Meat Fruit Vegetables Eggs
U.S. Dept of Agriculture Oversees the following: School Lunch Program Food Stamps Agricultural Cooperatives U.S. Forest Service Cooperative Extension Agricultural Marketing
North Carolina Agriculture
General NC Ag. Information There are 2,200,000 farms in N.C. Includes small farms 90.8% of farms in N.C. are family farms. The average N.C. farmer is 57 years old. The county with the most amount of agricultural sales is Duplin County.
Top Commodities In NC During the 1990s the top three agricultural commodities in terms of cash receipts for North Carolina were: 1. Hogs 2. Broilers 3. Tobacco
North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is #1 in the following commodities. Tobacco Sweet potatoes
North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is #2 in the following commodities. Hogs Christmas Trees Turkeys
North Carolina Agriculture North Carolina is #3 in the following commodities. Cucumber Processing Trout Total Poultry & Eggs
Agricultural Statistics - Cash Receipts : 2008 RankItem Million Dollars 1Broilers ¹2,692 2Hogs2,171 3 Greenhouse/Nursery/Floric ulture/Christmas Trees 777 4Tobacco687 5Turkeys ¹652 6Soybeans440 7Chicken eggs ¹374 8Corn333 9Wheat291 10Cattle and calves198 11Cotton & Cottonseed193 SOURCE: Economic Research Service, USDAEconomic Research Service, USDA ¹ Value of Production 12Dairy Products190 13Sweet Potatoes142 14Peanuts68 15Blueberries48 16Tomatoes, Fresh34 17Irish Potatoes26 18Cucumbers25 19Apples22 20Strawberries21
North Carolina Agriculture
NC Dept of Agriculture Steve Troxler Current Commissioner Guilford County
NC Dept of Agriculture Oversees the following: All agricultural issues Weights & Standards Food & Drugs in North Carolina NC State Fair
NC Dept of Agriculture Oversees the following: Marketing Farmer’s Markets Goodness Grows Program Research Stations Structural Pests Veterinarian Program
Cooperative Extension Service Located in all 100 counties and the Cherokee Indian Reservation. Provides information for those working in agriculture. Best free source of information for small agricultural businesses. Administers the 4H program.
Progress in Agriculture Mechanization helps 2% of America’s work force to meet the food & fiber needs of our nation. (2% of US population works “on the farm”.) There has been a reduction from 90% of the nation’s populace involved in farming 200 years ago.
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events George Washington In 1785, he became the first American to own mules. Also introduced agricultural concepts such as terracing, crop rotation, and the use of cover crops.
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Eli Whitney Invented the cotton gin in Turned cotton into an usable product by removing cottonseed from the cotton fiber.
Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Thomas Jefferson In 1814, Jefferson had his moldboard plow cast in iron, thus inventing the iron plow. Was a marked improvement over the inefficient European plow.
Thomas Jefferson’s Plow
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Cyrus McCormick Invented the grain reaper in 1834 to save labor in cutting wheat, oats, and similar crops. It only CUT the grain. Later a threshing machine was added and it became known as a combine.
Cyrus McCormick’s Reaper
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events John Deere In 1837, improved the iron plow by inventing the steel moldboard plow. Need caused by tough prairie soils.
John Deere’s Plow
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Edmund W. Quincy Invented the mechanical corn picker in Anna Baldwin Changed the dairy industry in 1878 by inventing a milking machine to replace hand milking.
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Joseph Glidden Invented barbed wire in Used for livestock fencing. Tamed the west by allowing ranches with fixed boundaries to be established.
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Booker T. Washington Founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. Advocate of vocational education/skills development. The school was later given land-grant status.
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events George Washington Carver Director of agricultural research at Tuskegee Institute in early 1900’s. Found new uses for soybeans, peanuts, and sweetpotatoes. Diversified southern agriculture.
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Benjamin Holt Invented the tractor Company went one to become Caterpillar Inc. Also invented the traction method used on many tanks
Benjamin Holt’s Tractor
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events Harry Ferguson Invented the 3 point hitching system on tractors. Met with Henry Ford in 1938 and had the famous “Handshake Agreement”.
“The Handshake Agreement”
Ferguson Insignia on a Ford Tractor
Progress in Agriculture: Historical Events In 1954, the tractor finally surpasses the mule as the main source of agricultural power.
Assignment With a partner you must design a new agricultural invention. Requirements: Must be something that has not already been invented. Must have a name and price. Must have a color picture. Must include a four sentence description of the invention and how it works.
Improving Life through Agriscience Soybeans Known as the “Yellow Jewell” to the Chinese. World’s most important source for vegetable oil. Provide basic materials for hundreds of products. Used as major food source in China in the form of tofu.
Improving Life through Agriscience The Green Revolution Process whereby many countries became self sufficient in food production in the 1960s by using improved crop varieties and practices.
Improving Life through Agriscience The Green Industry The modern horticulture industry with emphasis on turf and landscape plants.
Agriscience and the Future The average American farmer produces enough food and fiber for 128 people. As the world’s population increases, it will require a more sophisticated agriscience industry to keep pace with demand.
Agriscience and the Future The science of food production, processing, and distribution will require: College graduates to fill roles as scientists, engineers, and other professionals. USDA reported an increased demand for graduates from agricultural colleges in the 90s.