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By MaryAnn Custer MS, FNP. S. Pneumoniae 60,000 cases / year in 2000, 37,000 in 2002 Death in 14% of Hospitalized Adults Death in 14% of Hospitalized.

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Presentation on theme: "By MaryAnn Custer MS, FNP. S. Pneumoniae 60,000 cases / year in 2000, 37,000 in 2002 Death in 14% of Hospitalized Adults Death in 14% of Hospitalized."— Presentation transcript:

1 By MaryAnn Custer MS, FNP

2 S. Pneumoniae 60,000 cases / year in 2000, 37,000 in 2002 Death in 14% of Hospitalized Adults Death in 14% of Hospitalized Adults *Pneumococcal Vaccine *Pneumococcal Vaccine Up to 25 days (dust), Glass 1-11 days, 7 days in Sputum 7 days in Sputum

3 Influenza 5 th Leading Cause of Death in the Elderly Prevention – Immunization Listeria Listeria Opportunistic Pathogen Usually assoicated with food Survives well in Soil, Water, Food, Feces C – Difficile Spore Forming Organism Opportunistic Pathogen Fecal-oral Transmission May survive for extended periods outside Host TB TB Causes more Deaths Worldwide than Any Other Infectious Disease Spread Person to Person - Aerosolized Droplets Up to 70 days in Carpet, Clothes 45 days, Sputum 6-8 months CAP CAP 3-4 Million Cases / Year in the US 6 th Leading Cause of Overall Death Highest in Children < 5, and Elderly

4 MRSA Methicillin Resistent Staphylococcus Aureus Methicillin Resistent Staphylococcus Aureus HA MRSA – Hospital Associated ~ % HA MRSA – Hospital Associated ~ % Estimated Cost to Treat Between $3.2 – $4.2 billion/year Estimated Cost to Treat Between $3.2 – $4.2 billion/year Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals and Institute for Healthcare Improvement 5 Million Lives Campaign Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals and Institute for Healthcare Improvement 5 Million Lives Campaign Respiratory, Urine, Wound Infections Respiratory, Urine, Wound Infections CA MRSA – Community Associated – mid to late 90s CA MRSA – Community Associated – mid to late 90s Skin and Soft Tissue Skin and Soft Tissue Direct and Indirect Transmission Direct and Indirect Transmission Survival in Hospital Environment 1 – 56 days Survival in Hospital Environment 1 – 56 days

5 Norovirus Cruise Ships – 2002 Previously Known as Norwalk – like Viruses. Changed in – 1972 Outbreak of Winter Vomiting Disease in Norwalk, OH Acute gastroenteritis – stomach flu or 24 hour bug Explosive vomiting, watery (non bloody) diarrhea, abd cramps, HA, body aches, low-grade fever hours #1 Cause of Foodborne Illness in US, causing about 2/3 of all foodborne illness – 23 million infections, 50,000 hospitalizations, 300 deaths / year. Transmission fecal-oral (food and water) – Direct & Indirect, also airborne (inhale and swallow droplets) Highly transmissible – as few as 10 viral particles may cause infection. Only the Common Cold is reported more frequently. Virus is stable on environmental surfaces – Non enveloped virus. Quats work by disrupting the viral envelope and are ineffective on non enveloped viruses.

6 Getting Back to the Basics Cleaners and Disinfectants Precision Blend System Precision Blend System Gloves, Masks, Gowns Mops, Buckets, & Cleaning Cloths Waste, and Biohazard Containers Hand Hygiene Products

7 Reduce the Risks of Disease Transmission through…. PREVENTION

8 Epidemiologic Triangle Causal Agent Environment Environment Susceptible Host

9 Alter the Environment Alter the Environment

10 HAND HYGIENE

11 Observe Standard Precautions Combination of Universal Precautions and Body Substance Isolation. Wear personal protective equipment in accordance with OSHAs standards, and facility recommendations: Gloves, Goggles, Mask, Fluid Resistant Gown. NOTE: GLOVES ARE A MINIMUM DURING CLEANING AND DISINFECTION

12 Cleaning and Disinfection of Equipment & Environmental Surfaces

13 Choosing the Correct Chemical Germicide

14 Definitions A "disinfectant" is a substance that destroys or eliminates a specific species of infectious or other public health microorganism, but not necessarily bacterial spores, in the inanimate environment. * A "sanitizer" is a substance that significantly reduces the bacterial population in the inanimate environment, but does not destroy or eliminate all bacteria or other microorganisms. * (* EPA March 2002)

15 Two Levels of Disinfection for Environmental Services Intermediate Disinfection (ILD) – Inactivate Mycobacterium Tuberculosis var. Bovis in addition to all other organisms below it. ex. 3% Hydrogen Peroxide, 70% Isopropyl, Phenolics, Iodophors, and the other ready to use tuberculocidal solutions Low-Level Disinfection (LLD) – Inactivate most forms of bacteria, some fungi, some viruses. ex. Quaternary Ammonium Solutions

16 DESCENDING ORDER OF RESISTANCE TO GERMICIDAL CHEMICALS Sterilization BACTERIAL SPORES Bacillus Subtilis Clostridium Sporogenes HLD High Level Disinfection MYCOBACTERIA Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Var. Bovis ILD Intermediate Level TB NONLIPID OR SMALL VIRUSES Poliovirus Coxsackie Virus Hepatitis A Virus Rhinovirus Common Cold FUNGI LLD Low Level Trichophyton Spp. Nail Fungus Cryptococcus Spp. Candida Spp. Yeast VEGETATIVE BACTERIA Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Staphylococcus Aureus Staph Salmonella Choleraesuis Gastroenteritis LIPID OR MEDIUM-SIZED VIRUSES Herpes Simplex Virus Cold Sores Cytomegalovirus CMV Respiratory Syncytial Virus RSV Hepatitis B Virus HBV Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV (Adapted From Bond & Favaro, 1991)

17 Recommending Chemical Germicides

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