4Table of Contents Saddam Hussein Iran-Iraq War Persian Gulf War Gulf War PicturesGulf War MoviesIraqi surrenderEconomic Sanctions and Weapon Inspections
5Saddam HusseinHussein moved to Baghdad in 1955, in 1959 he joined the Baath party and escaped to Cairo after an assassination.Hussein became involved in politics and returned to Baghdad in 1963Built country up and bought Soviet weapons with oil moneyRules country with an iron hand, killed enemies
6Iran-Iraq WarIraqi loses totaled 400,000 soldiers, and a debt of $75 billion.Lead by Hussein
7Persian Gulf WarIraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990 and refused to leave by the UN security council deadline of January 1991.Led by Hussein
11Economic Sanctions & Weapon Inspections The UN impressed economic sanctions on Iraq, such as no fly-zones and embargo.The UN demanded themselves to be allowed to check for illegal weapons but this was denied by Saddam Hussein.This made the UN aware that they had to make a greater effort to control chemical and biological weapons.After War, Iraq was forced to destroy its chemical and biological weapons, but did not complyNo fly zones were created over KuwaitHussein vs. Weapons Inspectors
13Table of Contents The Shah Monarchy Ayatollah Khomeini Khomeini and Islamic RevolutionIran-Iraq WarContemporary IranDividedIranian timeline
14The Shah Monarchy “Shah” is Persian King, years of reign. During 20th century Shah monarchy Muslims were not very religious.Women had almost equal rights to men.Trade was good, but Iran had economic problems.Children ages were required to go to school.Under Shah, security strong.Strong ally of US and Israel.
15Ayatollah KhomeiniFor many years, opposition to corrupt and oppressive Shah reign.Under Khomeini, Iran became an “Islamic Republic”, and an enemy of the US.Revolution very popular with Iranians-between Shah and Khomeini.Turned Iran away from the western World “in the name of Islam”. US seen as “Great Satan”.
16Khomeini & Islamic Revolution Hostage Crisis.He was the absolute and only Ruler for 10 years until 1989.Followed the Shari'a laws to an extreme extent.Rejection of West by embracing fundamentalist Islam.Died in 1989.
17Iran - Iraq War1980 there was a war between Iran and Iraq-lasted 8 years.Caused by differences between different ethnic groups, Iran:Persian, Iraq:Arab, as well as, border disagreements.It was assumed by Iraq that Iran was weak after the Iranian Revolution.Iran lost 600,000 Iranians, and the economic loss totaled 1.2 billion US dollars.War finally ends in a stalemate.
18Contemporary Iran Divided Controversy between Khatami and Khamenei.Khatami wants Iran to be friendlier to the US and the western world. More freedom in Iran.Khamenei wants Iran to be exactly the way Khomeini had it. US as “Great Satan,” Shari'a law.Country divided.Most Iranian support Khatami, but Khamenei supported by military and clerisy.KhameneiControversyKhatami
19Iranian Timeline The Shahs Khomeini Khatami Khamenei Islamic RevolutionKhomeiniD I E DAgree withControversyKhameneiKhatami
21Table of Contents Wahhabism/History Monarchy Opec Oil; Saudis And Arab NeighborsPersian Gulf SecurityMecca, holds the holiest shrine of Islam, the Kaaba.Madina,is a scared city where Muhammad took refugeRiyadh, is the capitol of Saudi Arabia
22Opec Oil; Saudis And Arab Neighbors Saudi Arabia status quo, rejects both Arab nationalism, Egypt under Nasser and Islamic fundamentalism, Iran under Khomeini.Arab vs. Saudis: mutual enmity.
23Wahhabism/History Movement in Islam from mid 18th century. The Wahhabis formed a large tribe, and very strictly followed Islam, in vast empty deserts.In 1802, the Wahhabis conquered Mecca, but in 1812, were driven out out of Mecca.Because of their extreme attitude, the Wahhabis were founders of Saudi Arabia.Eventually come to be rulers of Saudi Arabia.
24Monarchy The house of Saud is the family that rules Saudi Arabia. Monarchy started in 1932, when they conquered territories were unified, and Abdul Azin was named king.Present king of Saudi Arabia: FAHD bin Abd al-Azin Al Saud.Constitution: Governed according to Shari’a (Islamic Law); Basic Law that articulates governments rights and responsibilities (est. 1993).Sauds use Islam as unifying idea for country
25Opec Oil; Saudis And Arab Neighbors Happened during 1973, while the Yom Kippur war was happening in Israel.Saudi Arabia played a leading role in an oil boycott against the Western countries that supported Israel. Gains Arab supportIn March, 1974, the oil embargo ended.This resulted in a strong increase in oil prices. They nearly quadrupled. Saudi Arabia becomes rich and powerful.
26Persian Security On August 2, 1990, Iraq invades Kuwait 1, Iraqi soldiers on Saudi Arabian border.4 days later on August 6, King FAHD meets with Richard Cheney, and requests military assistance form USA.Allied Coalition defeats Iraq and Kuwait liberated.Saudi Arabia safe, Persian Gulf free for oil shipping.Continued presence of American troops very controversial inside Saudi Arabia.Some Saudis call for overthrow of King, resort to terrorism against “infidels”