3Palestinian ExileWith the creation of Israel in 1947 Palestinians grew hatred for Israel.Palestinians and Arabs made a call for Israel to be destroyed.Palestinian Army attacks Israel from Jordan and Syrian
4PLO And Yassir Arafat Palestinian Liberation Organization formed. Yasser Arafat believed to be Anti-Semetic because of his hatred for Israel.After 1967, P.L.O. turns from conventional war fighting to terrorism.197 Olypmic Massacre, plan hijackingExpelled from Jordan in “Black September”
6Intifada and Terrorism Palestinians frusterated at at lack of progress of PLO against Israel.Riots destroy property street riots breakout rocks thrown at Israeli Police in (stoning)Palestinian-Israel agreement made in Oslo.Hamas rejects Oslo, continues to fight on destruction of Israel. OsloPalestinian terrorism on Italian ship; American killed.U.S. embassy bombed.
7Palestinian Authority In Palestine Yassir Arafat is leaderNo specific civil codereligious Islamic AredTo become a full government in the futureCivil rights violationsRivalry with HamasPalestinians divided. To fight, or to make peace?Libya Punished for sponsoring terrorismPan Am terrorist bombing with 244 dead over Scotland.
9Western InfluenceBritain used to have control of Jordan, called Transjordan.Britain dropped control over this area.Due to lack of natural resources Jordan is/was dependent on foreign aid.
10King Hussein’s ReignCame into power at a age 16 due to family difficulties.Arab (Palestinian) – Western problems.Threats and relations with the Arab nationalism.1967 War
11Hussein’s Death Had a 46-year reign Died at age 63 of Cancer on February 4, 1999Were more than 40 kings [at the funeral], presidents, prime ministers, and other leaders,former leaders and other dignitaries. The largest gathering leaders since the funeral of Yitzhak Rabin
12Hussein’s Son: The New King and Jordan’s Future He is King Hussein’s son and his name is Abdullah.He is 37 and is a novice when it comes to politics and he has little knowledge about international affairs.He says he will continue the policies of his father.
14Nasser: Arab Messiah Rise and Power In favor of Arab nationalism.1956 war against England, France, and Israel.Lost Arab unity, but won control over Suez canal.Nasser becomes hero to Arab world.
15Nasser’s DownfallForms United Arab Emirates. Alley of Soviet Union, enemy of U.S.Wants to expel Israel and West from region.Defeated decisively in 1967 war with Israel, humiliated.Nasser dies on September 28, 1970.Arab world loses unity.
16Anwar Sadat ( )November Sadat signs Peace Treaty with Israel.Becomes ally of United States.Tourists pile into Egypt, Egyptians become associated with West.1973- Yom Kippur War, victory for Sadat.Arab pride restored.yo
17Mohammad Hosni Mubarak Loyal supporter of Sadat and 1973 war heroContinues Sadat’s pro-West policy, peace with IsraelWorked effectively with Muslim extremists who threaten to overturn the government and kill him.Egypt threatened by overpopulation, poverty, and Islamic fundamentalism.
19Hafiz Assad- The Lion Of Damascus Assad was born on October 6, 1930 to a family of respected Alawites.In February of 1969 Assad is declared ruler of Syria.Hafiz Assad also supports radical and violent Muslim groups that are based in Lebanon and Syria.Political control has affected most aspects in his life.
201973 WarCalled Yom Kippur War because it started on Yom Kippur on October 6, 1973.It was a surprise attack by Egypt and Syria against Israel.The reason for the attack was for recapturing the territories lost in the 1967 War. ( Sinai by the Egyptians, and the Golan Heights by Syria)It lasted for approximately three weeks
21SyriaAncient Syria had many conquerors: Egypt (1500 BCE) and the Turks (1516 CE)20th Century control vied for between French and English for SyriaFormed United Arab Republic with Egypt from1961- Present a dictatorship under Hafiz Assad1999 peace talks with Israel- want the return of Golan Heights (which were lost on 1967 war.)
22Current Peace Negotiations Since May 1999 elections in Israel when Barak was elected as prime minister, renewed Israeli efforts brought about two recent important meeting with SyriaBoth weere held near Washington D.C. in the presences of U.S President Cinton as facilitatorWhile the third round of meeting was postponed there is high hope that Israel and Syraai will sign a peace agreement after Israel gives back the Golan heights.
23The Central Middle East Focus Group Our Special Message:Thank you for watching and listening to our presentation. We appreciate your courtesy and hope that this was informative.Thank YouThe Central Middle East Focus Group