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QUANTUM INFORMATION: FUTURE OF MICROELECTRONICS? PAWEL HAWRYLAK QUANTUM THEORY GROUP INSTITUTE FOR MICROSTRUCTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF.

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Presentation on theme: "QUANTUM INFORMATION: FUTURE OF MICROELECTRONICS? PAWEL HAWRYLAK QUANTUM THEORY GROUP INSTITUTE FOR MICROSTRUCTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF."— Presentation transcript:

1 QUANTUM INFORMATION: FUTURE OF MICROELECTRONICS? PAWEL HAWRYLAK QUANTUM THEORY GROUP INSTITUTE FOR MICROSTRUCTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF CANADA OTTAWA, K1AOR6,CANADA CANADIAN INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH NANOELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS PROGRAMME

2 WHY QUANTUM INFORMATION: FUTURE OF MICROELECTRONICS? CMOS IS A MARVEL OF TECHNOLOGY YET WITH EXISTING TECHNOLOGY MANY PROBLEMS ARE LIKELY TO REMAIN UNSOLVED: QUANTUM MATERIALS NANOSCIENCE-MULTISCALE PROBLEMS DRUG DESIGN AND DISCOVERY HARD MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS – FACTORIZATION OF PRIME NUMBERS (SECURITY OF INFORMATION) HENCE QUANTUM HARDWARE

3 QUANTUM THEORY AND QUANTUM INFORMATION QMechanics: EPR, superposition, entanglement, … Condensed Matter Superfluidity Superconductivity Fractional charge FQHE Mesoscopics, interference Quantum materials ???????????? Quantum information: Quantum computing Quantum cryptography Quantum imaging Quantum sorting … Materials Science: Correlations,mesoscopics,…

4 How Many Configurations? Number of atoms on Earth? Quantum register | > QUANTUM THEORY AND QUANTUM INFORMATION resourcesbits

5 QUANTUM ABACUS MADE OF HUNDRED BITS IS MORE POWERFUL THAN CLASSICAL ABACUS BUILD OF ALL ATOMS ON EARTH abacus – 500 AD – 10 additions / min Quantum Groups Worldwide QUANTUM THEORY AND QUANTUM INFORMATION

6 | > QUANTUM INFORMATION 101 QUANTUM ALGORITHMS Spin configuration=|K> = binary decomposition of number K Quantum Bits,Gates Algorithm QUANTUM COMPUTATION initialize Measure Time t Evolve to final target state 0T

7 QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY QUANTUM HARDWARE AND INFORMATION DECOHERENCE QUANTUM STATES ARE FRAGILE ERROR CORRECTION IS POSSIBLE OVERHEAD IS VERY HIGH QUANTUM METROLOGY QUANTUM NMR…… SOLUTION: FEW QUBITS EMBEDDED IN CLASSICAL SYSTEMS FIRST APPLICATIONS ? QUANTUM ECONOMICS ?

8 QUANTUM INFORMATION APPLICATIONS FEW QUBITS – EMBEDDED IN CLASSICAL SYSTEMS FIRST APPLICATIONS? QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY QUANTUM ECONOMICS

9 Quantum Groups Worldwide QUANTUM INFORMATION 101 APPLICATIONS - QUANTUM ECONOMICS HP LABS, PALO ALTO

10 Quantum Groups Worldwide QUANTUM INFORMATION 101 APPLICATIONS - QUANTUM ECONOMICS WHY QUANTUM GAMES? BIDDING, CONFLICT ONLY FEW PLAYERS HIGH PAY-OFF OF INTEREST NOT ONLY TO PHYSICISTS “PRISONER DILEMMA” - COOPERATE “C” - DEFECT “D” QUANTUM GAME REMOVES DILEMMA OPTIMIZES PAYOFF Quantum Bidding – 2 Qubits –HP Labs-S.Williams

11 Quantum Groups Worldwide QUANTUM HARDWARE BUILDING FEW QUBITS IN SOLID STATE QUANTUM HARDWARE BUILDING FEW QUBITS IN SOLID STATE USING MICROELECTRONICS ELECTRON SPIN NUCLEAR SPIN –NMR SUPERCONDUCTIVE QUBITS ATOM/ION TRAPS ATOM CHIPS LINEAR OPTICS ……. QCOMPUTING WITH QDOTS Barenco et al Brum PH 1997 Loss DiVincenzo 1998

12 TOWARD ELECTRON SPIN BASED QUANTUM COMPUTER IN A FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR QComputing with Qdots: Brum&Hawrylak ’97 Loss&DiVincenzo ‘98 NANOSCIENCE WITH SINGLE ELECTRONS

13 ELECTRON SPIN BASED QUANTUM COMPUTER Model of QComputer : interacting qubits S Effective qubit local field tunable entanglement J 2D electron gas at GaAs/AlGaAs AlGaAs 90 nm SOURCE DRAIN LOCALISING CONTROLLED NUMBER OF ELECTRONS GaAs

14 off on artificial atom source drain NANO SPINTRONICS SINGLE SPIN TRANSISTOR

15 =2 N=17 ODD N E CURRENT ODD N E B N=16 N=18 NANO SPINTRONICS SINGLE SPIN TRANSISTOR Sachrajda,Ciorga,PH,.. IMS NRC,PRL’02

16 12 I QPC A.Sachrajda,M.Pioro-Ladriere,PH, Ottawa (5,0)(6,1) (7,2) (9,4) (0,0) (1,1) (1,0) (0,1)  TUNING TUNELING BARRIER L.Kouwenhoven et al, Delft S.Tarucha et al Tokyo C.Marcus et al, Harvard M.Heiblum et al, Weizman ELECTRON SPIN BASED QUANTUM COMPUTER Model of QComputer : interacting qubits S Effective qubit local field tunable entanglement J

17 ELECTRON SPIN BASED QUANTUM COMPUTER TWO QUBITS Model of QComputer : interacting qubits S Effective qubit local field tunable entanglement J 12 I QPC 1  m (0,0) (1,0) (0,1) V 2 / V V 1 / V (N 1,N 2 ) = (0,0) (3,0) (2,0) (4,0) (5,0) (3,1) (2,1) (4,1) (5,1) (6,1) (4,2) (5,2) (6,2) (7,2) (5,3) (6,3) (7,3) (6,4) (7,4) (8,4) (9,4) (6,5) (75) (8,5) (9,5) (1,1) (1,2) (5,4) (2,3) (3,3) (4,3) (3,4) (4,4) (4,5) (5,5) A.Sachrajda,M.Pioro-Ladriere,PH PRL2003, PRB2005 (1,0)

18 ELECTRON SPIN BASED QUANTUM COMPUTER TWO QUBITS-WHY TUNABLE J? Model of QComputer : interacting qubits S Effective qubit local field tunable entanglement J (1,0) Loss,DiVincenzo J 12 =0 J 12 >0 J 12 =0 t=0 t=T SPIN SWAPPING BASIS OF CNOT GATE …. |01> |10>

19 ELECTRON SPIN BASED QUANTUM COMPUTER COHERENT CODED QUBIT OPERATION Swapping spins Rabi oscillations Quantum Optics on a chip

20 ELECTRON SPIN BASED QUANTUM COMPUTER THREE QUBITS-TRIPLE QUANTUM DOT Model of QComputer : interacting qubits S Effective qubit local field tunable entanglement J (1,0) V 5B (V) V 1B (V) (0,0,0) (1,1,0) (0,1,0) (0,0,1) (1,0,0) (0,1,1) (1,1,1) C B A A B B A C B A I QPC 1B 3B 5B 3T S 0.5  m 2B 4B A.Sachrajda,S.Studenikin,L.Gaudreau,A.Kam, M.Korkusinski, PH, PRL2006 (5,0)(6,1) (7,2) V 5B (V) V 1B (V) N=3 N=2 N=3 (1,1,1) (0,1,2) N=4 N=1

21 ELECTRON SPIN BASED QUANTUM COMPUTER TRIPLE QUANTUM DOT-CODED QUBIT Model of QComputer : interacting qubits S Effective qubit local B field tunable entanglement J M.Korkusinski, PH,SSC2005 S=1/2 CODED QUBIT

22 ELECTRON SPIN BASED QUANTUM COMPUTER PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES Model of QComputer : interacting qubits S Effective qubit local field tunable entanglement J (1,0) Single spin – Koppens, Kouwehoven et al,Nature2006 Operation - Pioro-Ladriere, Tarucha et al. Coherent two spin operation, Single coded qubit operation – Petta,…,Marcus - Koppens, …,Kouwehoven Coherent spin manipulation over minutes! - Greilich,Bayer,…Science 2006

23 ELECTRON SPIN BASED QUANTUM COMPUTER PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES - DECOHERENCE Model of QComputer : interacting qubits S Effective qubit local field tunable entanglement J (1,0) DECOHERENCE – NUCLEAR SPINS, SO+PHONONS,IMPURITIES SOLUTIONS? MATERIALS WITHOUT NUCLEAR SPIN 2-6, CARBON NANOTUBES, GRAPHENE ?

24 LOCALIZED VS ITINERANT ELECTRONS HUBBARD MODEL A WINDOW ON QUANTUM MATERIALS: COMPLEX OXIDES WITH TRIANGULAR LATTICE Na x CO 2 TRIPLE QDOT MOLECULES SPIN, TOPOLOGY, STATISTICS AND E-E CORRELATIONS

25 tripletsinglet Exchange Vx  ~Vx~e^2 S=0 S= Singlet – double occupancy Super-Exchange  ~4t^2/U~1/e^2 S=0 S=1 t TRIPLE QDOT MOLECULES SPIN, TOPOLOGY, STATISTICS AND E-E CORRELATIONS

26 triplet TRIPLE QDOT MOLECULES SPIN, TOPOLOGY, STATISTICS AND E-E CORRELATIONS singlet PH, Korkusinski, SSC2005 S=1 SINGLET GS! TOPOLOGICAL “HUNDS” RULE! SPIN-CHARGE SEPARATION? S=0  ~t

27 TRIPLE QDOT MOLECULES FILLING LOWEST ELECTRONIC SHELL 3t 2e SINGLET 4e TRIPLET 3t 4e SINGLET Voltage tunable nano-magnet -1V -1.1V -2.5V 0V Korkusinski,Puerto,PH ….. PRB2007

28 QUANTUM INFORMATION APPLICATIONS FEW QUBITS – EMBEDDED IN CLASSICAL SYSTEMS FIRST APPLICATIONS? QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY – QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION SINGLE PHOTONS-SECURE-NO CLONING- SHORT DISTANCE ENTANGLED PHOTON PAIRS- QUANTUM REPEATER-LONG DISTANCE

29 ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: SOURCE OF SINGLE PHOTONS ON DEMAND SOURCE OF ENTANGLED PHOTON PAIRS QUANTUM INFORMATION QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY-WHATS NEEDED? ENABLING TECHNOLOGY : SELF-ASSEMBLED QUANTUM DOT DEVICES

30 QUANTUM DOT TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS FOR QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: EMISSION AT TELECOM WAVELENGTH -MATERIALS ENHANCED LIGHT MATTER INTERACTION -QDOTS IN PHOTONIC CAVITIES -PRECISE POSITIONING OF QDOTS ENGINEERING OF LIGHT POLARIZATION -FULL UNDERSTANDING OF AND ABILITY TO ENGINEER OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF QDOT QUANTUM INFORMATION QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY

31 STRAIN DRIVEN SELF-ASSEMBLY: InAs/GaAs DIRECTED SELF-ASSEMBLY VIA LITHOGRAPHY: InAs/InP at 1.5  m SiO 2 mask InAs dot InP pyramid ARTIFICIAL ATOM FACTORY GROWTH AND POSITIONING OF QDOTS EMITTING AT TELECOM WAVELENGTH Williams, Poole,…IMS

32 GROWTH AND POSITIONING OF SINGLE QDOTS GATING OF A SINGLE QDOT M.Reimer,J.Lapointe,P.Poole, R.Williams,…

33 EXTRACTING SINGLE PHOTONS SINGLE QUANTUM DOT IN A CAVITY InAs dot InP pyramid sa Q>8000 Tuning Photon Field Inside cavity Dalacu,Aers,Williams, Poole POSITIONING DOTS IN E-FIELD MAXIMA

34 ENTANGLED PHOTON PAIRS FROM EXCITON TO BI-EXCITON CASCADE QUANTUM INFORMATION QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY Entangled Photon Pairs From a Semiconductor Quantum Dot, Akopian, Gershoni, Avron, Petroff,…… PRL 2006 OR SPLITTING

35 QUANTUM INFORMATION QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY-MATERIALS CHALLENGE InAs/InP NICE,PROOF OF CONCEPT, BUT NOT AT TELECOM WAVELENGTH! ~0.8eV InAs/GaAs (8,5) Lefebvre,Finnie,IMS

36 TOWARD QUANTUM INFORMATION WITH QUANTUM DOTS“Crossing” (8,5) In As do t InP pyram id


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