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Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual.

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Presentation on theme: "Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus The Agricultural Ontology Service: multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture Johannes Keizer Information Systems Officer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division APAN 2003, Fukuoka23rd th January 2003

3 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 2 FAOs mandate Reducing the quantity of hungry people by 50% within the year 2015 (World Food Summit 1996). WAICENT (World Agricultural Information Center) is FAO’s approach to fight hunger with information FAO itself produces huge amount of content in it’s subject area It is also within FAOs mandate to make available useful information from other information providers FAO collaborates in information networks

4 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 3 Introduction It is not difficult to find information on the WWW (if you for what you are looking) But it is nearly impossible to extract knowledge or structured information

5 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 4 The Search Problem Full text search engines might have a high recall (not verifiable), but precision/relevance is desperately low! Recall Number of Relevant Documents in the Collection Number of Relevant Documents Identified Precision Number of Relevant Documents Identified Total Number of Documents Identified How to evaluate Search Results?

6 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 5 State of Search Systems  Full text search engines based on statistical text analysis are inprecise by nature  New system based only on “machine intelligence” do not show too promising results  Recogniton of meaning (semantic analysis) by machines is only possible by using knowledge organization systems agreed metadata schemas Controlled vocabularies Machine readable encoding

7 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 6 Knowledge Organization Systems: Vocabularies AGROVOC NAL Thesaurus CABI Thesaurus Dedicated KOSs Non-dedicated KOSs e.g., ASFA thesaurus e.g., the Multilingual Forestry Thesaurus e.g., the Sustainable Development website classification e.g., biological taxonomies such as NCBI and ITIS GEMET Other thematic thesauri Existing Thesauri and Knowledge Organization Systems (KOSs)  Common concepts are not declared  No or very limited interoperability  Insufficient subject + language coverage  Severe maintenance problems  Very limited machine readability  Only very simple encoding of semantic relations

8 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 7 Ontologies?  An ontology is a formal knowledge organization system It contains concepts (and instances) a formal description of the application knowledge Definitions of concepts and instances Relations between concepts and instances possibility of machine processing  Nearly everyone tries to build (inexplicit) ontologies Directory structures, navigation trees Humans can overcome bad organization by intuition Machine have no intuition, Machine need formal information

9 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 8 What benefits do we expect from Ontologies? Semantic Organization of websites Knowledge maps Guided discovery of knowledge Easy retrievability of information without using complicated Boolean logic Text processing by machines Text Mining on the Web (meaning-oriented access) Automatic indexing and text annotation tools Full text search engines that create meaningful classification (FAO-Schwartz not related to FAO) (semantic clustering) Intelligent search of the Web Building dynamical catalogues from machine readable meta data Natural Language processing Better machine translation Queries using natural language

10 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 9 The Example: International Portal on Food Safety, Animal and Plant Health Goal: To create an explicit, formal specification of a shared conceptualization of a domain of interest Ontology

11 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 10 Ontology: conceptual model Concept label synonym stem description Concept relationship

12 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 11 Ontology: RDFS model, machine readable encoding

13 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 12 Processes to create a Domain Ontology Ontology acquisition (2 paths) –Creating core ontology from scratch –Automatic extraction of ontological knowledge from base vocabulary and domain specific text sources Merging into one ontology Refinement and Extension Evaluation and Assessment

14 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 13 Creation of the core ontology 67 concepts 91 relationships Information Resources: Brainstorming Codex Alimentarius SPS Agreement Core Ontology Ontology Editor (SOEP) 3 subject specialists

15 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 14 1 st Acquisition Approach: Focused Crawling Focused Web Crawling 68 concepts 91 relationships Core Ontology List of extracted main sites: Gateway to Government Food Safety Information Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Canadian Food Inspection Agency Iowa State University - Food Safety Project Iowa State University - Food Safety Consortium United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service Foodborne Ilness Education Information Center World Health Organization – Regional Office for Europe Food Safety Programme List of 257 food Safety domain web pages Grouping into Main sites

16 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 15 Selection of Documents Domain Set: Manual selection –11 documents Codex Alimentarius: Description, Code of Ethics, Food Hygiene, Food Import and Export Report of consultation on risk assessment of microbiological hazards in foods Ensuring food quality and safety, Protecting food quality and safety Domain Set: Focused Crawler Output –5 documents extracted: Generic documents: Manual Selection –8 documents Several documents of the animal feed domain

17 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 16 2 nd Acquisition Approach: Thesaurus Pruning Food Safety Documents Generic Documents Rice BT … NT … RT … RT … RT … … AGROVOC keywords Automatic Pruning Extracted ontological structure: # of concepts: 504 taxonomic depth: 5 5 evaluation runs 1632 frequent terms

18 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 17 Merging of Ontologies and Refinement 1632 Terms from pruning process 12 new concepts extracted Ontological structure extracted from AGROVOC 23 new concepts With hierarchical relationships extracted 67 concepts 91 relationships Core Ontology Assembly step 92 new relationships created Food Safety Ontology Prototype 102 concepts 183 relationships

19 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 18 Final Prototype Food Safety Ontology Prototype 102 concepts 183 relationships 1.79 relationships concept Core Ontology 67 concepts 91 relationships relationships concept 1.36

20 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide Concepts Agreement of Agriculture ALOP ALOP, Codex ALOP, OIE ALR animal byproducts animal diseases animal fats animal feed additives animal feed contaminants animal feed ingredients animal feeding animal health animal processing animal products animal waste animals antibiotics Bacteria bakery products biological agent CAC Caragene protocol CCFH cereal products cheese chemical agent Codex Committees commodities Consumer health diseases eggs exposure assessment fabrication FAO fishes food food additives food consumption food contaminants food export food import food ingredients food safety food-borne diseases fungi good hygienic practices hazard hazard characterization hazard identification human health human nutrition humans international agreements international food trade international governmental organizations IPPC labelling meat microorganisms microorganisms byproducts microorganisms processing microorganisms products microorganisms waste milk milk products non-pathogens OIE packaging parasites pathogens physical agent plant byproducts plant diseases plant feed additives plant feed contaminants plant feed ingredients plant feeding plant health plant processing plant products plant waste plants processed animal products processed plant products processed products processing risk analysis risk assessment risk characterization risk communication risk management slaughter SPS agreement standards sugar TBT agreement transport viruses WHO WTO

21 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide Unique Relationships adopts adversely affect are included in are produced by are the source for can be used as constitutes describes determines ensures establishes govern has economical impact on Implies includes influences interacts with is a consequence of is a step in the process is comprised of is established by is protected by originate from refer to requires rule sustains trades uses

22 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 21 Current project status Ontology creation: 2 nd application of framework Food Safety Ontology Prototype 102 concepts 183 relationships Text To Onto ~ 100 domain Specific documents AGROVOC Revised Ontology Pruner List of frequent terms Pruned Agrovoc: ~3000 concepts Ontology Editor (OIModeler) Merging & Refinement 1 st acquisition approach 2 nd acquisition approach

23 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 22 Usage Scenario Search: Risk assessment Biosecurity Portal: … … Ontology Enabled Search Application Ontology based search extension Risk characterization Hazard characterization Hazard identification Exposure assessment Risk assessment Risk management Risk communication Risk analysis Is a Step In the process Is a Step In the process Extended Search Mark the terms below, which you might want to include in your search: Interacts with Risk assessment Risk characterization Risk analysis Search: Ontology Doc base Search results

24 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 23 Current project status: Application: Ontology Browser for the Ontology on Food Safety, Animal and Plant Health

25 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 24 The Project for an Agricultural Ontology Service Only agreed semantic standards guarantee knowledge discovery between different applications The definition of Knowledge Organization systems is resource intensive Therefore FAO started initiatives to bring interested partners together October 2000 Launch of the AGStandards initiative to agree on metadata standards July 2001 concept paper on Agricultural Ontology Service

26 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 25 What does Agricultural Ontology Service mean? The Agricultural Ontology Service is an approach to organize knowledge organization systems that is  International The Internet must become plurilingual  Multidisciplinary The area of subjects is broad and needs various inputs  Cooperative different expert knowledge has to be associated and used  Distributed no central ownership should be looked for  Coordinated Coordination must ensure reusability and standardization

27 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 26 AOS: Iterative Knowledge Registration KOS uses components to build an application Discussions and choices for amendments to components Components: terms, definitions, relationships Users search and browse application using components User feedback Agricultural Ontology Service (AOS) Federated storage and description facility Components: terms, definitions, relationships

28 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 27 Activities up to now 4 workshops (Rome, Wallingford, Florida, Cobenhavn) and numerous presentations have been organized to discuss the role of ontologies and semantic standards Several prototypes for ontology use are in preparation The AGROVOC thesaurus has been enhanced especially in multilinguality

29 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 28 AOS – a “business model” A consortium of Information Providers A clearinghouse for semantic standards in the relevant subject areas One stop access to agreed standards (Ontologies, Metadataschemas, Vocabularies…) Participation as a consortium in semantic web activities to get funding for specific projects (“Semkos” for EU 6 th framework) Organization of seminars and workshops to further develop and promote the use of semantic standards

30 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division The Agricultural Ontology Service, multilingual domain ontologies for knowledge management in agriculture APAN/NR - JIRCAS Workshop on Multilingual Services over Asia Pacific: Ontology and Thesaurus Slide 29 Further Information


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