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Walk Through History: Legalized Racism in Canada AND Resistance to Racism Created by Jennifer Janzen-Ball; original idea by Rusa Jeremic; with material.

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Presentation on theme: "Walk Through History: Legalized Racism in Canada AND Resistance to Racism Created by Jennifer Janzen-Ball; original idea by Rusa Jeremic; with material."— Presentation transcript:

1 Walk Through History: Legalized Racism in Canada AND Resistance to Racism
Created by Jennifer Janzen-Ball; original idea by Rusa Jeremic; with material from Historical Overview of Prejudice and Racism in Canada, by Dorothy Wills, Timeline, by Wenh-In Ng, in That All May Be One: A Resource for Educating Toward Racial Justice (Toronto: United Church Publishing House, 2004), and from Legalized Racism from Canadian Race Relations Foundation, en/pub/faSh/ePubFaShLegRac.pdf, accessed 23 October 2009 Additional information & graphics added by Stephen Fetter Sources noted on the appropriate slides

2 Objective: The idea of this exercise is for folks to review together history and key moments of the history of legalized racism in Canada AND resistance to racism, and to share their knowledge.

3 Right of white colonists in Canada
to own and sell people as slaves Photo: archives of Ontario

4 1600's – 1833 In 1628 the first recorded slave in Canada was brought by a British Convoy to New France. Olivier le Jeune was the name given to the boy originally from Madagascar By 1688 while slavery was prohibited in France, it was permitted in its colonies as a means of providing the massive labour force needed to clear land, construct buildings and (in the Caribbean colonies) work sugar plantation. As white Loyalists fled the new American Republic, they took with them about 2000 black slaves: 1200 to the Maritimes (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island), 300 to Lower Canada (Quebec), and 500 to Upper Canada (Ontario).

5 Black and White United Empire Loyalists flee to the Maritimes; land grants based on skin colour
A Black Wood Cutter at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, . © Library and Archives Canada /

6 1780's In the 1780s, Birchtown Nova Scotia harboured the largest concentration of free Black settlers anywhere in British North America. Britain had promised freedom and land to Blacks who supported the British cause in America, and 3,550 former slaves had taken them up on the offer. The land grants were slow in coming, however, and proved to be small, poor and isolated. Many of the Black Loyalists starved while waiting. And, when these Black settlers offered labour to White settlers, violence erupted among white competitors for work. Some desperate Blacks sold themselves into indentureship ─ virtual slavery Source: Parks Canada

7 Successive Indian Acts to civilize and Christianize Aboriginals
Our Indian legislation generally rests on the principle that the Aborigines are to be kept in a condition of tutelage and treated as wards or children of the state... It is clearly our wisdom and our duty, through education and other means, to prepare him for a higher civilization by encouraging him to assume the privileges and responsibilities of full citizenship. Annual Report of the Department of the Interior Boys from the Williams Lake residential school in Williams Lake, British Columbia, date unknown. Library and Archives Canada/PA

8 Indian Acts of 1876, 1880, 1884 and later.
* In 1884, the potlatch ceremony, central to the cultures of west coast Aboriginal nations, was outlawed. In 1885, the sun dance, central to the cultures of prairie Aboriginal nations, was outlawed. Participation was a criminal offence. * In 1885, the Department of Indian Affairs instituted a pass system. No outsider could come onto a reserve to do business with an Aboriginal resident without permission from the Indian agent. In many places, the directives were interpreted to mean that no Aboriginal person could leave the reserve without permission from the Indian agent. Aboriginal children in Residential school, Photographer: Unknown, National Archives of Canada, Neg no.C26448.

9 Head tax imposed on every Chinese person seeking to enter Canada.
Head Tax certificate Chinese Canadian National Council

10 1885 Head tax imposed on every Chinese person seeking to enter Canada. Set first at $50; increased to $100 in 1900 and $500 in 1903 An example of a Chinese head tax certificate, which must be presented in order to be receive compensation.

11 Canadian authorities attempt to limit Black enlistment and participation in the armed forces

12 Black people were rejected at enlistment offices until 1916, when Canada's only segregated Black unit was formed in July 1916 Photo: Pictou, N.S., 1916: The band of No. 2 Construction Battalion, CEF. © National Defence

13 Government completely barred the Chinese from entering Canada
Government completely barred the Chinese from entering Canada. Chinese people already in Canada were not allowed to sponsor family members A political cartoon showing a Chinese man being barred entry to the "Golden Gate of Liberty". The caption reads, "We must draw the line somewhere, you know."

14 July 1, 1923 Chinese Immigration Act, finally repealed in 1947
This piece of legislation, also known as the Exclusion Act, was the last of a series of tactics used by the Government of Canada to limit immigration to British Columbia from China. This Act barred all Chinese people from entering Canada, except for diplomats, university students and merchants. Library & Archives Canada

15 Jews excluded from employment, elite social clubs, beaches, holiday resorts, Universities

16 Jews excluded from employment in major institutions, such as banks and the police force, and barred from elite social clubs, beaches, and holiday resorts in Montreal, Toronto, and Winnipeg. Universities set limits on Jewish enrolment Abella, Irving and Troper, Harold. None Is Too Many: Canada and the Jews of Europe , 1982 .

17 A United Church candidate for ministry is prevented from being ordained because he is black

18 1941 Rt. Rev. Wilbur Howard Wilbur Howard completed his theology degree in 1941, but no United Church congregation would accept him for Settlement. Eventually a position was created for him on the National Staff. From 1941 to Howard worked for the Boys Work Board of Toronto and from to 1953 he worked for the Boys Work Board of Manitoba. Then in 1954 he became the editor for Sunday School Publications in Toronto. He didn’t find a congregation until he was hired to join the pastoral team at Dominion Chalmers United Church in Ottawa in 1963, more than 20 years after he was ordained. His first sole pastorate began in

19 fleeing Hitler’s Europe.
Canada has worst record of any Western country for providing sanctuary to Jews fleeing Hitler’s Europe. \\

20 This picture dated June shows the M.S. St. Louis in Havana, Cuba. The St. Louis carried 930 Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany to Cuba where all but 22 were denied landing. After being refused refuge in the U.S. and Canada, the ship returned to Europe where the refugees were scattered in Great Britain, Belgium, France and the Netherlands. Canada was the only western country to completely close its doors to Jewish people fleeing Nazi persecution

21 Over 22,000 Japanese- born, Japanese- Canadians, and foreigners were stripped of their rights and forcibly re-located to internment camps in BC's interior or sugar beet farms in Alberta.

22 1942 Japanese internment After the war, they were not allowed to return to the west coast , but had to re- locate east of the Rockies or return to Japan, a country unknown to those born in Canada BC Conference voted against a motion which would have protested this government decision

23 First Nations peoples obtain the right to vote in federal elections without losing their treaty status.

24 First Nations people obtain the right to vote unconditionally
July 1, 1960 First Nations people obtain the right to vote unconditionally

25 Native women retain their treaty status even if they marry a non-native man

26 1986 Native women are allowed to retain their treaty status even if they marry a non-native man

27 Government Report Recommends
Recognition of an Aboriginal order of government, Creation of an Aboriginal parliament. Expansion of the Aboriginal land and resource base. Recognition of Métis self-government, provision of a land base, and recognition of Métis rights to hunt and fish on Crown land

28 Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples report
1996 Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples report Note that none of the recommendations highlighted in the previous slide have been implemented A few quotes from this report are shown on the next slide

29 “As Commissioners we urge our fellow Canadians to commit the required resources to the actions we describe, to close the economic gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people by 50 per cent and improve social conditions in the next 20 years. Perhaps it will take longer. But within the 20-year timeframe, enormous momentum for change can be generated. By 2016, Aboriginal people can be very much better off than they are today and moving steadily forward. The result will be a large gain in human and financial terms for Aboriginal people - and, in the long term, much greater savings for all Canadians.” -- Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples

30 Over 500 Chinese from Fujian Province arrive by boat on the West coast ; the public backlash that arose led to their detention as illegal migrants.

31 Chinese from Fujian Province arrive by boat on the West coast
1999 Chinese from Fujian Province arrive by boat on the West coast

32 Nisga Nation treaty with government of British Columbia enacted

33 Nisga nation treaty with government of British Columbia
2000 Nisga nation treaty with government of British Columbia

34 The Toronto Star publishes a series of stories claiming that black people are still being stopped by police and accused of certain crimes far more frequently than white people.

35 2002 Racial Profiling A series of articles published in 2002 in the Toronto Star caused a sensation. The articles were based on stats collected by the police. Analysis of those figures by Star reporters suggested that blacks in Toronto were over-represented in certain offence categories like drug possession and in what were called "out-of-sight" traffic violations, such as driving without a licence. The analysis also suggested that black suspects were more likely to be held in custody for a bail hearing, while white suspects; facing similar charges – were more likely to be released at the scene

36 Prime Minister of Canada apologizes to
First Nations peoples for Indian Residential Schools

37 June 2008 Prime Minister of Canada apologizes to First Nations peoples for Indian Residential Schools

38 Members of Ardoch Algonquin and K-I First Nations in Ontario charged and fined (over $25,000 for one person) for refusing to allow developers and uranium mining companies access to land under treaty negotiation

39 2008 Ardoch & K-I First Nations in Ontario protest; members charged, fined, and some are imprisoned). Charges dismissed in late May against K-I First Nations members; Bob Lovelace is freed

40 A few contemporary issues and examples where racism and racial justice are live issues in Canadian life today.

41 Employment Equity Act Annual Report 2008
“In the federally regulated private sector, the representation of members of visible minorities exceeded labour market availability. However, workforce representation gaps existed for the other three designated groups, with particular challenges for persons with disabilities and Aboriginal peoples.” “In the federal public sector, the representation of Aboriginal peoples exceeded labour market availability. However, the greatest challenge continued to be the gap in the representation of members of visible minorities.” source:

42 Water & Wastewater for First Nations
“The number of high-risk drinking water systems has increased from 48 to 49 in the past year, but this number is significantly below the193 identified in 2006” “in March 2010, there were 61 high-risk wastewater treatment systems in First Nation communities.” Source: Indian & Northern Affairs, Canada First Nations Water & Wastewater Action Plan Progess Report, April 2009 – March 2010

43 Aboriginal Adults: rates of incarceration 2005 - 2006
4% of the total Canadian adult population - (2006 Census) 24% of admissions to provincial/territorial sentenced custody 18% of admissions to federal prisons 19% of admissions to remand 21% of male prisoner population 30% of female prisoner population source: drawn from Juristat, Statistics Canada


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