HISTORY!!!!! n Russia was determined to conquer all of the Tran Caucuses and the south. n The czars were also doing the same in 1800s. n Chechnya tries to brake away from Russia, after the fall of U.S.S.R.
1990-1994 n Russian and Chechnya formed separate; Russia does not support this happening. n Russia Declares war. n Chechnya decisively wins battle and Russia withdraws. As her aunt faints after seeing her wounds, four-year-old Liana lies on a hospital bed in southern Russia. Liana's mother, mother, brother and aunt were killed when a Russian shell fell on their house in the Chechen town of Urus-Marta
The Current WAR: 1999- _Present___ n Chechen terrorism attacks; 4 apartments bombed; 300 killed in Russia. n New President Putin prosecuting War aggressively, and Russia Committed to conquer Chechen rebels. n Most Russians Consider Chechens to be bandits, criminals. A Russian soldier looks at a destroyed building in the Staropromyslovsky district of the Chechen capital Grozny.
Religion n Legislation favors Eastern Orthodox church. n Discrimination between E. Orthodox(71.8%), Christians (1.8%) and Muslims (5.5%) because of Chechnya and other problems.
Chechen succession from Russia n The conflict between the two countries is a long one, going back to the 1800s and Czars. n USSR finally controlled Chechnya by the 50s. n Fall of USSR in 1991 led to Chechen cries for independence n Militant Islam becomes anti Russian force
The 1994-96 war from the Chechen point of view n Militant Muslims begin to fight for independence in 1994 n Russia attacks Chechnya to keep it n Chechnya beat Russia decisively n Chechnya looses 12% of its population n Chechnya de facto independent
The Current war from the Chechen point of view n n Militant Muslims try to war in Dagestan n n Terrorist bombings, no proof Chechnya involved n n Russia is back to get revenge and get Chechnya back under control n n Neither Russia or Chechnya can afford to loose the war
The current war continued n Russia changes tactics n The new Russian president, Putin, is willing to put everything into the war, his reputation at stake n Civilians are the wars main victims, refugees n Chechnya very badly damaged Fighting intensifies in Grozny Fighting intensifies in Grozny - CBC.CA (Jan 20, 2000) Chechens inflicted "a devastating blow for the Russian army" - BBC (Dec 6, 1999)Chechens inflicted "a devastating blow for the Russian army"
The current war results… Gruesome Monument: The rubble of downtown Grozny, Sunday February 6, 2000. Russia may not spend the estimated $1 billion required to rebuild the city, instead letting it stand in ruins as a warning against separatism.
Afghan Scenario n Even if Russians take Grozny, Chechnya could fight on n Retreat to mountains for guerrilla war n Chechens could fight Russians forever, as they have for 200 years n Russians take combat dead indefinitely.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk n Turkeys founder- completely modernized. n Created new political system and abolished the Caliphate. n Gave equal rights to women and changed alphabet and attire. n Reacting against traditional values in favor of Western styles. Here, Ataturk teaches the new alphabet.
The Kurd Question: Abdullah Ocalan n Waged 15 yr. Guerilla against Turkish government. n 30,000 people died. n Kurdish rebel leader arrested and sentenced to death for treason. n Execution of Ocalan would forbid Turkish membership in European Union. Ocalan gets arrested.
Challenge: Secular and Religious n Turkey faces challenge in remaining secular. n Countries around are more religious and disapprove of Western state. n Islamic fundamentalists in Turkey challenge and demand a more Islamic state. (Sharia law.) Militant Kurd sets himself on fire to protest the arrest of Abdullah Ocalan.
Challenge: Continued n Turkish military nullify elections where Turkey challenged on this. n Although a Muslim country, it is much more modern than most Muslim places. n Crossroads of Asia and Europe. Greatly influenced by both. Turkish people kicked out of Turkey by Ataturk
n Durrani Dynasty 1772- 1818. n Start of Jihad: Dost Muhammad. n Used as a battleground for for wars involving the and not involving the Afghanistan. n English tried to take over Afghanistan for many years but were unsuccessful. Afghanistan was continually involved in war.
The Soviet Invasion n 1979-1989 n Soviets fought for communism, land, and power. The Mujahideens, freedom fighters, fought as a form of jihad. n USA helps Afghanistan, Soviets ousted. n Afghanistan left in ruins without a government. Injured people in the brutal war
Rise of the Taliban n After the Soviet Invasion a tribe of Mujahdeen, called Taliban, declare themselves government. n They quickly take control of most of the country by murdering and threatening. n They spread their ideas to become head of most of Afghanistan. Taliban taking over Afghanistan Osama Ben Laden
n Harsh and strict rules. n Not appreciated and liked by other Muslim countries. n Cruel laws toward woman. n Hate the West because it is impure. n Encourage Jihad to all dissidents of Islam. n Anti-American and Israel