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Alloimmune Hemolytic Disease Of The Fetus / Newborn: Rh Isoimmunization Professor Hassan A Nasrat Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Faculty of Medicine.

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Presentation on theme: "Alloimmune Hemolytic Disease Of The Fetus / Newborn: Rh Isoimmunization Professor Hassan A Nasrat Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Faculty of Medicine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alloimmune Hemolytic Disease Of The Fetus / Newborn: Rh Isoimmunization Professor Hassan A Nasrat Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Faculty of Medicine King Abdul-Aziz University

2 The Antibodies Arise In The Mother As The Direct Result Of A Blood Group Incompatibility Between The Mother And Fetus. The mother become Isoimmunized. In The Fetus: Erythroblastosis Fetalis In The Newborn: HDN. Alloimmune Hemolytic Disease Of The Fetus / Newborn: Definition: A condition in which the Red Cells Of The Fetus Or Newborn Are Destroyed By Maternally Derived Alloantibodies

3 Antibodies That May Be Detected During Pregnancy: Innocuous Antibodies: Most Of These Antibody Are IgM Therefore Cannot Cross The Placental Barrier Antibodies Capable Of Causing Significant Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions: IgG antibodies, Their Corresponding Antigens Are Not Well Developed At Birth E.g. Lu (b), Yt (a), And VEL Antibodies That Are Responsible For HDN : Anti-c, Anti-d, Anti-e, And Anti-k (Kell)

4 ISO: is a prefix means similar, equal or uniform. Isoimmunization: is the process of immunizing a species with antigen derived from the same subject.

5 RhD D negativity primarily occurs among Caucasians; the average incidence is 15 percent in this group. Examples of the blood group distribution in various populations are illustrated below: Basques 30 to 35 percent Finland 10 to 12 percent American blacks 8 percent Indo-Eurasians 2 percent Native Americans and Inuit Eskimos 1 to 2 percent. Local Studies (population) + 8% Distribution of Rh negative Blood Group

6 The RH Antigen – Biochemical and Genetic Aspects Mechanism of Development of Maternal Rh Isoimmunization Natural History of Maternal isoimmunization /HD of the Newborn Pathogenesis of Fetal Erythroblastosis Fetalis Diagnosis of Rh isoimmunization

7 The RH Antigen – Biochemical and Genetic Aspects

8 The Rh Antigen- Biochemical Aspects: The Rh Antigen Is A Complex Lipoprotein. Distributed Throughout The Erythrocyte Membrane In A Nonrandom Fashion It Can Not Be Seen By Routine Microscopy, But Can Be Identified By Specific Antisera Function of the Rh antigen: Its Precise Function Is Unknown. Rh Null Erythrocytes Have Increased Osmotic Fragility And Abnormal Shapes.

9 The RH Antigen- Genetic Aspect The Rh gene complex is located on the distal end of the short arm of chromosome one. A given Rh antigen complex is determined by a specific gene sequence inherited in a Mendelian fashion from the parents. one haploid from the mother and one from the father. Three genetic loci, determine the Rh antigen (i.e. Rh blood group). Each chromosome will be either D positive or D negative (there is no "d" antigen), C or c positive, and E or e positive.

10 Grades Of Positively Due To Variation In The Degree Genetic Expression Of The D Antigen. Incomplete Expression May Result In A Weakly Positive Patient e.g. Du Variant Of Weakly Rh Positive Patient (They May Even Be Determined As Rh Negative). A Mother With Du Rh Blood Group (Although Genetically Positive) May Become Sensitized From A D-positive Fetus Or The Other Way Around May Take Place. Genetic Expression ( Rh Surface Protein Antigenicity):

11 Incomplete Expression Of The D Antigen Result In A Weakly Positive Patient e.g. Du Variant Of Weakly Rh Positive Patient. Genetic Expression ( Rh Surface Protein Antigenicity): Du Variant Frank D Positive

12 Factors Affect The Expression Of The Rh Antigen The Number Of Specific Rh-antigen Sites: - The Gene Dose, - The Relative Position Of The Alleles, - The Presence Or Absence Of Regulator Genes. Interaction Of Other Components Of The Rh Blood Group. Erythrocytes Of Individuals Of Genotype Cde/cde Express Less D Antigen Than Do The Erythrocytes Of Individuals Of Genotype cDE/cde. The Exposure Of The D Antigen On The Surface Of The Red Cell Membrane.

13 DcE eCd eCd/EcD Phenotype Genotype D positive Antigenicity of the Rh surface protein: genetic expression of the D allele. Number of specific Rh antigen sites. Interaction of components of the Rh gene complex. Exposure of the D antigen on the surface of the red cell

14 Mechanism of Development of Maternal Rh Isoimmunization

15 The Mechanism of Development of the Rh Immune Response: Fetal RBC with Rh +ve antigen Maternal circulation of an Rh –ve mother (Primary immune response) The Rh +ve antigen will be cleared by macrophages; processed and transferred to plasma stem cell precursors (Develop an almost permanent immunologic memory) With subsequent exposure the plasma cell line proliferate to produce humeral antibodies (Secondary immune response).

16 The Primary Response: Is a slow response (6 weeks to 6 months). IgM antibodies a molecular weight of 900,000 that does not cross the placenta. The Secondary Response: Is a Rapid response IgG antibodies a molecular weight of 160,000 that cross the placenta.

17 Exposure to maternal antigen in utero the grandmother theory: Explains the development of fetal isoimmunization in a primigravida, who has no history of exposure to incompatible Rh blood. Rh negative Fetus and the mother is Rh positive The Fetus is exposed to the maternal Rh antigen through maternal-fetal transplacental bleed. The fetus immune system develop a permanent template (memory) for the Rh- positive antigen. When the fetus becomes a mother herself and exposed to a new load of D antigen from her fetus (hence the grandmother connection) the immune memory is recalled and a secondary immune response occur.

18 IGM antibodies 1. Cleared by Macrophage 2. Plasma stem cells The First Pregnancy is not Affected Mother Placental Primary Response 6 wks to 6 M. IGM.

19 Anti - D Macroph. antigen Presenting cell T- helper cell B cell Fetal Anemia Mother Placental Secondary Response Small amount Rapid IgG

20 Macroph. Antigen Presenting Cell T-Hellper B-cell Anti-D Anti - A Anti - B Mother Infant B Rh positive A Rh Positive O Rh positive Group O Rh Negative Placenta

21 Natural History of Maternal isoimmunization /HD of the Newborn

22 Without treatment: less than 20% of Rh D incompatible pregnancies actually lead to maternal isoimmunization 25-30% of the offspring will have some degree of hemolytic anemia and hyperbilirubinemia % will be hydropic and often will die either in utero or in the neonatal period. Cases of hemolysis in the newborn that do not result in fetal hydrops still can lead to kernicterus. Natural History of Rh Isoimmunization And HD Fetus and Newborn

23 The Risk of development of Fetal Rh-disease is affected by: The Husband Phenotype And Genotype (40 % Of Rh Positive Men Are Homozygous And 60% Are Heterozygous). The Antigen Load And Frequency Of Exposure. ABO Incompatibility Less than 20% of Rh D incompatible pregnancies actually lead to maternal alloimmunization

24 Why Not All the Fetuses of Isoimmunized Women Develop the Same Degree of Disease? The Non-responders: ABO Incompatibility: Expression Of The Rh Antigen: Classes Of IgG Family

25 Pathogenesis of Fetal Erythroblastosis Fetalis

26 Rh Antibodies Antibodies Coated Red Cells Destruction of Fetal Cells by Fetal RES Fetal Anemia Fetal Hypoxia and Stimulate of Erythropoietin Extra Medullary Red Cells Synthesis Hepatomegaly Hepatic Cell Failure Hypoproteinemia, Increased Intrahepatic Pressure, Portal hypertension Ascites, Edema, hypoxia, Placental Thickness, Polyhydramnios, Pericardial effusion

27 Complications of Fetal-Neonatal Anemia: Fetal Hydrops And IUFD Hepatosplenomegaly Neonatal Jaundice Compilations Of Neonatal Kernicterus (Lethargy, Hypertonicity, Hearing Loss, Cerebral Palsy And Learning Disability) Neonatal Anemia

28 Management - Prevention: -Treatment:

29 Prevention of Rh Isoimmunization Screening all women for D Factor and antibodies Prophylaxis (Anti D Immunoglobulin) only for those who are negative for antibodies The dose of Immunoglobulin depends the volume of Blood Anti D Is given 72 hours after delivery, weeks, and any other time when there is risk of Fetomaternal Bleeding

30 10 mcg of anti-D Ig should be administered for every mL of fetal blood in the maternal circulation. Thus, the 300-mcg dose covers hemorrhage volumes up to 30 mL of whole fetal blood. In the less than 1% of cases where the volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage exceeds 30 mL, utilizing the Kleihauer-Betke test to quantitate the volume of fetal blood in the maternal circulation and administer the appropriate amount of anti-D. Dose of prophylactic Anti-D Ig:

31 Most polyclonal RhiG comes from male volunteers who are intentionally exposed to RhD-positive red blood cells. Potential Problems: infectious risk solve supply problems. ethical issues MONOCLONAL ANTI-D anti-D monoclonal antibody: Although monoclonal anti-D is promising, it cannot be recommended at this time as a replacement for polyclonal RhIg.

32 The amount of fetal cells in maternal blood: The Kleihauer-Braun-Betke Test

33 Management of cases of Rh isoimmunization Diagnosis Of RH Isoimmunization Evaluation of Fetal Condition

34 Diagnosis of Rh isoimmunization The diagnose is Based on the presence of anti-Rh (D) antibody in maternal serum. The Enzymatic Method The Antibody Titer In Saline, In Albumin The Indirect Coombs Tests. Methods of Detecting Anti D Antibodies in Maternal Serum:

35 Antibody Titre in Saline : RhD-positive cells suspended in saline solution are agglutinated by IgM anti-RhD antibody, but not IgG anti-RhD antibody. Thus, this test measure IgM, or recent antibody production. Antibody Titre in Albumin : Reflects the presence of any anti- RhD IgM or IgG antibody in the maternal serum. The Indirect Coombs Test: o First Step: RhD-positive RBCs are incubated with maternal serum Any anti-RhD antibody present will adhere to the RBCs. o Second Step : The RBCs are then washed and suspended in serum containing antihuman globulin (Coombs serum). Red cells coated with maternal anti-RhD will be agglutinated by the antihuman globulin (positive indirect Coombs test). Diagnosis Maternal Isoimmunization

36 Is Done After Birth To Detect The Presence Of Maternal Antibody On The Neonate's RBCs. The Infant's RBCs Are Placed In Coombs Serum. If The Cells Are Agglutinated This Indicate The Presence Of Maternal Antibody The Direct Coombs Test

37 Fetal Rhesus Determination RHD Type And Zygosity (If RHD-positive) Of The Father Amniocentesis To Determine The Fetal Blood Type Using The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Detection Of Free Fetal RHD DNA (FDNA) Sequences In Maternal Plasma Or Serum Using PCR Flow Cytometry Of Maternal Blood For Fetal Cells

38 Management of cases of Rh isoimmunization Diagnosis Of RH Isoimmunization Evaluation of Fetal Condition

39 Initially detecting fetal anemia prior to the occurrence of fetal compromise. Minimize fetal morbidity and mortality by correcting this anemia until fetal lung maturity and delivery can be achieved. Goals of managing Fetal Alloimmunization:

40 Evaluation of Fetal Condition Measurements Of Antibodies in Maternal Serum Determination of Fetal Rh Blood Group Ultrasonography Amniocentesis Fetal Blood Sampling Past Obstetric History

41 Although not reliably accurate in predicting severity of fetal disease, past obstetrical history can be somewhat prognostic Past Obstetric History:

42 Maternal Anti-D Titer Antibody Titer Is A Screening Test. A Positive Anti-d Titer Means That The Fetus Is At Risk For Hemolytic Disease, Not That It Has Occurred Or Will Develop. Variation In Titer Results Between Laboratories And Intra Laboratory Is Common. A Truly Stable Titer Should Not Vary By More Than One Dilution When Repeated In A Given Laboratory.

43 Ultrasound Image of Transabdominal Chorion Villus Sampling

44 To Establish The Correct Gestational Age. In Guiding Invasive Procedures And Monitoring Fetal Growth And Well-being. Ultrasonographic Parameters To Determine Fetal Anemia: o Placental Thickness. o Umbilical Vein Diameter o Hepatic Size. o Splenic Size. o Polyhydramnios. o Fetal Hydrops (e.g. Ascites, Pleural Effusions, Skin Edema). Ultrasonography:

45 Anemic Fetus Preserves Oxygen Delivery To The Brain By Increasing Cerebral Flow Of Its Already Low Viscosity Blood. Doppler Velocimetry Of The Fetal Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) To Predict The Timing Of A Second Intrauterine Fetal Transfusion. For Predicting Fetal Anemia

46 Previous Seriously Affected Fetus Or Infant (e.g. Intrauterine Fetal Transfusion, Early Delivery, Fetal Hydrops, Neonatal Exchange Transfusion). A Critical Anti-D Titer: I.E. A Titer Associated With A Significant Risk For Fetal Hydrops. Anti-D Titer Value Between 8 And 32 Invasive Techniques ( Amniocentesis and Fetal Blood Sampling): Indications:

47 Amniocentesis Normally Bilirubin In Amniotic Fluid Decreases With Advanced Gestation. It Derives From Fetal Pulmonary And Tracheal Effluents. Its Level Rises in Correlation With Fetal Hemolysis. Determination Of Amniotic Fluid Bilirubin: By The Analysis Of The Change In Optical Density Of Amniotic Fluid At 450 nm On The Spectral Absorption Curve (delta OD450) Procedures Are Undertaken At Days Intervals Until Delivery Data Are Plotted On A Normative Curve Based Upon Gestational Age.

48 Ultrasound image of amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation

49 Extended Liley graph.

50 Queenan curve (Deviation in amniotic fluid optical density at a wavelength of 450 nm in Rh-immunized pregnancies from 14 to 40 weeks' gestation)

51 Interpretation Of Amniotic Fluid Bilirubin: A Falling Curve: Is Reassuring: i.e. An Unaffected Or RhD-negative Fetus. A Plateauing Or Rising Curve: Suggests Active Hemolysis (Require Close Monitoring And May Require Fetal Blood Sampling And/Or Early Delivery). A Curve That Reaches To Or Beyond The 80th Percentile Of Zone II On The Liley Graph Or Enters The Intrauterine Transfusion" Zone Of The Queenan Curve: Necessitates Investigation By Fetal Blood Sampling

52 Is the gold standard for detection of fetal anemia. Reserved for cases with: - With an increased MCA-PSV - Increased ΔOD 450 Complications: Total Risk of Fetal Loss Rate 2.7% (Fetal death is 1.4% before 28 weeks and The perinatal death rate is 1.4% after 28 weeks). Bleeding from the puncture site in 23% to 53% of cases. Bradycardia in 3.1% to 12%. Fetal-maternal hemorrhage: occur in 65.5% if the placenta is anterior and 16.6% if the placenta is posterior. Infection and abruptio placentae are rare complications Fetal blood sampling:

53 Diagram of cordocentesis procedure Cordocentesis


55 Suggested management of the RhD-sensitized pregnancy Monthly Maternal Indirect Coombs Titre Below Critical TitreComplicated History and / or Exceeds Critical Titre Paternal Rh Testing Rh PositiveRh-negative Amniocentesis for RhD antigen statusRoutine Care Fetus RhD positiveFetus RH D Negative Serial Amniocentesis Weekly MCA-PSV < 1.50 MOM Cordocentesis or Deliver > 1.50 MOM

56 Suggested management after amniocentesis for ΔOD 450 Serial Amniocentesis Lily zone I Lower Zone II Upper Zone II Zone III Hydramnios & Hydrops Repeat Amniocentesis every 2-4 weeks Delivery at or near term Repeat Amniocentesis in 7 days or FBS Hct < 25%Hct > 25% Intrauterine Transfusion Repeat Sampling 7 to 14 days < 35 to 36 weeks And Fetal lung immaturity > 35 to 36 weeks Lung maturity present Intrauterine Transfusion Delivery

57 Ultrasound-guided transabdominal fetocentesis

58 Titers greater than 1:4 should be considered Rh alloimmunized. However, the threshold for invasive fetal testing varies at different institutions and generally is 1:16 or greater because these titers have been associated with fetal hydrops Antibody Titer in maternal blood

59 Because the wavelength at which bilirubin absorbs light is nm, the amount of shift in optical density from linearity at 450 nm (D OD 450) in serial amniotic fluid samples can be used to estimate the degree of fetal hemolysis. Modification of the Liley curve to adjust for the relative inaccuracy of D OD 450 readings in early-to-middle second trimester and the use of serial measurements has improved its accuracy. spectrophotometric measurements of bilirubin in amniotic fluid

60 Changes Since Introduction of Anti-D

61 DIAGNOSIS Blood and Rh(D) typing and an antibody screen should always be performed at the first prenatal visit

62 Liver lengths plotted against gestation for 18 fetuses with anemia with ultrasonographic measurement during week before delivery, shown in reference to normal values Open circles, Cord hemoglobin level <90 g/L; solid circles, cord hemoglobin level 90 to 130 L.

63 Liver length measurements made within 48 hours of fetal blood sampling in all fetuses with anemia at first fetal blood sampling, shown in reference to normal values.

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