Mangalacharan Prayer o ṁ ajñāna-timirāndhasya jñānāñjana-śalākayā cak ṣ ur unmīlita ṁ yena tasmai śrī-gurave nama ḥ I was born in the darkest ignorance, and my spiritual master opened my eyes with the torch of knowledge. I offer my respectful obeisances unto him. Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare
How to approach Bhagavad-gita? In spirit of devotion to the Supreme Lord With humility and submissiveness As surrendered soul Best received in in parampara system – disciplic succession
Who spoke Bhagavad-gita? Lord Krsna spoke Bhagavad-gita Lord Krsna is regarded as the Supreme Person para ṁ brahma para ṁ dhāma pavitra ṁ parama ṁ bhavān puru ṣ a ṁ śāśvata ṁ divyam ādi-devam aja ṁ vibhum Supreme Personality of Godhead is the ultimate abode, the purest, the Absolute Truth. He is eternal, transcendental, original person, the unborn, the greatest. [BG 10.12]
Purpose of Bhagavad-gita Deliver mankind from the nescience of material existence. Teach that our existence is eternal (sat) Teach not to get entangled with temporary existence (asat). Come out of anxiety and suffering Reminds us the real purpose of life: Serve God
Relationships with Lord Passive: A person recognizes that God is great Active: Since God is great therefore must serve Him Serve the Lord in various degrees of intimacy Friend: Like Arjuna Parent: Like Yashoda and Nanda Maharaj Conjugal lover: Like Radha and gopis
Five basic truths Who is God (Ishvara)? - God is the Supreme Controller, the Absolute Truth What is Living Entity (jiva)? - Jiva is the conditioned living entity What is Material Nature (Prakriti)? - two types: superior conscious and inferior separated What is Time (Kala)? - How living entities are controlled by time? What is Karma? - Activities of living entities.
Ishvara Lord Krsna is the Supreme Controller (Ishvara) - Eternal, Supremely conscious and unaffected by modes of nature Everything emanates from Him [BG 10.8] aha ṁ sarvasya prabhavo matta ḥ sarva ṁ pravartate iti matvā bhajante mā ṁ budhā bhāva-samanvitā ḥ I am the source of all spiritual and material worlds. Everything emanates from Me. The wise who perfectly know this engage in My devotional service and worship Me with all their hearts. He controls the material nature.[BG 9.10] mayādhyak ṣ e ṇ a prak ṛ ti ḥ sūyate sa-carācaram hetunānena kaunteya jagad viparivartate This material nature, which is one of My energies, is working under My direction, O son of Kuntī, producing all moving and nonmoving beings. Under its rule this manifestation is created and annihilated again and again.
Jiva Jiva or living entity is part and parcel of God - Eternal, Conscious of own self and affected by modes of nature Has same qualities as God in minute quantities - Just like a drop (jiva) of ocean (Ishvara) Has limited free will and exploits the lower nature. - Thus Jiva is superior to lower nature however always under Lord’s control
Ishvara and Jiva Eternal na tv evāha ṁ jātu nāsa ṁ na tva ṁ neme janādhipā ḥ na caiva na bhavi ṣ yāma ḥ sarve vayam ata ḥ param Never was there a time when I did not exist, nor you, nor all these kings; nor in the future shall any of us cease to be.[BG 2.12]BG 2.12 Indestructible and unborn na jāyate mriyate vā kadācin nāya ṁ bhūtvā bhavitā vā na bhūya ḥ ajo nitya ḥ śāśvato ’ya ṁ purā ṇ o na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre For the soul there is neither birth nor death at any time. He has not come into being, does not come into being, and will not come into being. He is unborn, eternal, ever- existing and primeval. He is not slain when the body is slain.[BG 2.20]BG 2.20
Ishvara vs Jiva IshvaraJivaVerse Eternal 2.12 Everything emanates from Him Part and parcel of Ishvara 10.8 Supreme ControllerMinute Controller15.17 Conscious of all bodiesConscious of own body13.23 Indestructible & unborn 2.21 Has same transcendental body Take up different types of decaying body 4.94.9/15.615.6 Remembers all birthsForgetful4.5 Unaffected by workSuffers/Enjoys results of work 4.144.14/13. 2113. 21 Not materially affectedMaterially affected9.10
Prakriti Material Nature or Prakriti is of two types: Inferior (apara): Separated material energies Earth, water, ﬁre, air, ether, mind, intelligence and false ego all together these eight constitute Ishvara’s separated material energies. [BG 7.4] Superior (para): Comprises of living entities Exploit the resources of inferior nature. [BG 7.5] All created beings have their source in these two natures. [BG 7.6] Prakriti is eternal however is sometimes manifested sometimes un-manifested - Appears and disappears under the purview of time. [13.20] Ishvara is cause of both the origin and the dissolution of material nature [BG 7.6].
sattva ṁ rajas tama iti gu ṇ ā ḥ prak ṛ ti-sambhavā ḥ nibadhnanti mahā-bāho dehe dehinam avyayam Material nature consists of three modes – goodness, passion and ignorance. When the eternal living entity comes in contact with nature, O mighty-armed Arjuna, he becomes conditioned by these modes. [14.5] Goodness (satva): Conditions one to happiness Purer than the others, is illuminating, and it frees one from all sinful reactions. Those situated in that mode become conditioned by a sense of happiness and knowledge.[BG 14.6]. Passion (rajas): Conditions one to fruitive action Is born of unlimited desires and longings, O son of Kuntī, and because of this the embodied living entity is bound to material fruitive actions.[BG 14.7]. Ignorance (tamas): Covering one’s knowledge, binds one to madness Born of ignorance, is the delusion of all embodied living entities. The results of this mode are madness, indolence and sleep, which bind the conditioned soul. [BG 14.8]
Kala and Karma Time or Kala is eternal Karma are activities performed by a combination of the modes of material nature under purview of eternal time. We suffer or enjoy the results or fruits of our activities Karma is temporary Its possible to change the results of Karma with perfect knowledge Jiva covered by false ego, intelligence and mind thinks himself as doer of activities and has false sense of enjoyment and suffering. Karma has reactions that bind the conditioned soul causing more fruitive actions Activities we should adopt that will give us relief from the actions and reactions of all activities. That is explained in the Bhagavad-gita (Verses: 2.61, 2.71-72, 3.6-7, 3.9)2.61, 2.71-723.673.9
What is consciousness? The feeling of existence “I am” is consciousness Jiva’s consciousness gets materially affected Two types: Contaminated Consciousness: - I am the product of material nature. - I am the independent enjoyer and creator. Pure Consciousness: - I am spirit and NOT this material body - I am eternal part and parcel of Supreme Lord. - Naturally must act lovingly in accordance to Lord’s instructions.
Advantage of Bhagavad-gita Bhagavad-gita teaches us how to purify our consciousness and get out of the chain of Karma by dovetailing our activities to the will of Ishvara. We don’t have to cease our activities, we have to purify it. Bhakti is purified activity
Importance of human form There are 8.4 million species of life forms Humans, unlike other species, is responsible for the results of his actions. Human life is meant to realize the aim of existence. Human life is meant to cross the ocean of material existence Human life is meant for inquiry unto the Absolute Truth Human life to go back to Godhead as beyond the temporary material sky is an eternal spiritual sky
Improving behavior BehaviorVerse Learn to tolerate2.14 Engage in the discharge of duties allotted by K ṛṣṇ a 4.15 In every endeavor be devoid of desire for sense gratiﬁcation 4.19 Act only for the bare necessities of life4.21 Learn truth by approaching a spiritual master. Inquire from him submissively and render service unto him. 4.34 One who works in devotion, who is a pure soul, and who controls his mind and senses is dear to everyone, and everyone is dear to him. 5.7
The Supreme Abode na tad bhāsayate sūryo na śaśā ṅ ko na pāvaka ḥ yad gatvā na nivartante tad dhāma parama ṁ mama That supreme abode of Mine is not illumined by the sun or moon, nor by ﬁre or electricity. Those who reach it never return to this material world. [BG 15.6]
How to reach the Supreme Abode? bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvata ḥ tato mā ṁ tattvato jñātvā viśate tad-anantaram One can understand Me as I am, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, only by devotional service. And when one is in full consciousness of Me by such devotion, he can enter into the kingdom of God. [Bg 18.55]
Q & A – True or False You simply go on remembering Me and give up your present occupational duty is said by Lord Krsna Consciousness develops under certain circumstances of material combination. Authorities of Vedic knowledge have not accepted Sri Krishna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the Bhagavad-gita that impersonal Brahman is also subordinate to the complete person. We do not have to receive the knowledge from the right source in the disciplic succession of spiritual master beginning form the Lord Himself. The Lord being purnam or all-perfect, there is no chance of His becoming subjected to the laws of material nature. A man dies after it has not been decided what form of body he will have in the next life. Lord is absolute; there is no difference between His name and Himself. This material world is three fourths manifestation of the whole creation. All transcendentalists enter into the spiritual sky but only the devotees who have practiced personal touch with the Supreme lord enter into the Vaikuntha planets or Goloka Vrindavan planet.
Q & A – True or False You simply go on remembering Me and give up your present occupational duty is said by Lord Krsna. False Consciousness develops under certain circumstances of material combination. False Authorities of Vedic knowledge have not accepted Sri Krishna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. False In the Bhagavad-gita that impersonal Brahman is also subordinate to the complete person. True We do not have to receive the knowledge from the right source in the disciplic succession of spiritual master beginning form the Lord Himself. False The Lord being purnam or all-perfect, there is no chance of His becoming subjected to the laws of material nature. True A man dies after it has not been decided what form of body he will have in the next life. True Lord is absolute; there is no difference between His name and Himself. True This material world is three fourths manifestation of the whole creation. False All transcendentalists enter into the spiritual sky but only the devotees who have practiced personal touch with the Supreme lord enter into the Vaikuntha planets or Goloka Vrindavan planet. True
Q & A – Fill in the blanks The Bhagavad-gita also should be taken or accepted as it is directed by the __________ Himself. We should accept Sri __________ as the Supreme Personality of Godhead and receive this Bhagavad-gita in a submissive spirit and aural reception. So the ____________ Lord is actually the creator and enjoyer. The whole ____________ knowledge is infallible. That is also not allowed, that we accept a certain portion of ____________ and reject another portion.
Q & A – Fill in the blanks The Bhagavad-gita also should be taken or accepted as it is directed by the Lord Krishna Himself. We should accept Sri Krishna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead and receive this Bhagavad-gita in a submissive spirit and aural reception. So the Supreme Lord is actually the creator and enjoyer. The whole Vedic knowledge is infallible. That is also not allowed, that we accept a certain portion of Bhagavad-gita and reject another portion.
References Bhagavad-gītā As It Is Bhagavad-gītā As It Is http://vedabase.com/en/bg Lecture on Intro to BG by Srila Prabhupada Lecture on Intro to BG by Srila Prabhupada http://www.prabhupadavani.org GT001, GT002, GT003 & GT004GT001GT002GT003GT004