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Knowledge Science: Empirical Measures in Knowledge Utilization Paul J Graham Research Associate & Librarian Department of Sociology University of Saskatchewan.

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Presentation on theme: "Knowledge Science: Empirical Measures in Knowledge Utilization Paul J Graham Research Associate & Librarian Department of Sociology University of Saskatchewan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Knowledge Science: Empirical Measures in Knowledge Utilization Paul J Graham Research Associate & Librarian Department of Sociology University of Saskatchewan December 2008

2 Presentation Contents Part I: What is Knowledge Science? – State of the Art Theory, Methods, Models, Concepts Part II: Knowledge Science Today – Nursing Research Research Examples Part III: Problem Based Learning – How do we study a real life Problem?

3 Part I: Knowledge Science: State of the Art

4 State of the Art: Terminological Tangle Terminology Tangle – Knowledge Management, Transfer, Translation, Utilization, Research Transfer, Implementation Research…the list goes on Two Approaches to Knowledge Studies – Broad Approach (comprehensive) Searching any possibility, any combination – Narrow Approach (Focused) Searching specific terminology, Knowledge Translation

5 State of the Art: Broad Approach (Comprehensive) Over 1800 publications USA (32%) and Canada (26%) are top producers English articles makes up 94% Top Author: Carole Estabrooks from Nursing

6 State of the Art: Broad Approach (Comprehensive) 1 Management -- R&D, Human resources, Technology networks, Multi-national corporations, cost of information, including information science Nursing – Building Social Capital, Barriers to research utilization, translation to practice, overlapping into evidence based medicine Business – Time management, international business, customer knowledge transfer, vertical alliances, absorptive capacity Public, Environmental Health – Health technology assessment, teen pregnancy, cancer management Operations Research and Management Science – Technology performance, network size and organizational culture, product development process 101

7 State of the Art: Narrow Approach (Focused) Over 500 Articles Canada (39%) and US (39%) 99% in English and 1% in German Estabrooks is Top author

8 1 Nursing -- Building Social Capital, Barriers to research utilization, translation to practice, overlapping into evidence based medicine Public, Environmental Health - Health technology assessment, teen pregnancy, cancer management 60 3 Health Care Sciences – Mentorship strategy, Research Based Theatre, health care policy making 47 4 Emergency Medicine – Knowledge Translation, adult asthma guidelines, Knowledge Translation systems 33 5 Education, Scientific Disciplines – Stroke rehabilitation programme, Guides to KT, improving performance & evaluation 23 State of the Art: Narrow Approach (Focused)

9 State of the Art: Components to Study Subjects – Health, Business, Governance, Social Sciences Roles (as intermediaries) – Knowledge Brokering, Funding agencies, Implementation Units, Librarians, Database Technicians Approaches or Theory – Specific Approaches (Rogers Diffusion of Innovation model) – General Approaches (Social Engineering, Mode 2, Triple Helix) Models – Instrumental (Rational) – Educational/Enlightenment (Conceptual) – Symbolic (Aesthetic) – Interactive (Collaborative)

10 State of the Art: Components to Study Environments to Analyze – Policy, Administration, Politics – Clinical Application & Technology – Theory/Research/Academic (educational) Levels to Analyze – Individual (psychological) – Group (sociological) – Organizational (culture and structure) Methods (General) – Bibliometrics; Factor Analysis; Structured Equation Modeling – General Surveys, qualitative and quantitative methods Methods (Specific) – Devising Special models and ways to interpret Knowledge Science activities.

11 State of the Art: General Models Information Utilization Scale Stage of Concern Scale Levels of Use Scale Research Utilization Index Overall Policy Impact Scale Diffusion of Innovations AHRQ Knowledge Transfer Framework

12 State of the Art: Knowledge System for Clarification Holzner & Marx (1979) Knowledge Application: The Knowledge System in Society – The Knowledge System represents the different, but sometimes overlapping, processes in society: Production Management (Organization, Storage & Retrieval) Transfer (or Translation) Application Implementation Evaluation Mobilization (inter-systematic)

13 Part II: Knowledge Science Today: Nursing Research

14 Nursing Research: Setting the Foundation Undergraduate Research Programmes – Research Mentorship Evidence Based Literacy – Number needed to treat; risk assessment; interpreting context of research problem Information Literacy – You cant analyze what you cant find! – Consult with librarians; enroll in skills development Communication Skills & Diplomacy – Dont take your skill set for granted – You might consider a Critical Thinking course Literacy is the Key The basis of Knowledge Science is the basis of academic activity: critical reading skills, database skills, systematic thinking and synthesis of concepts.

15 Nursing Research: Bibliometrics Estabrooks et al. (2004) Mapping the Field Purpose – Map the characteristics of research utilization in the nursing research field. Methodology – Searching bibliographic databases resulting in 630 articles on research utilization between 1972 and 2001 – Used available bibliographic software (freeware from Internet) to organize results Results & Conclusions – Models important to Nursing (Iowa Model of Research in Practice, Multidimensional framework, Ottawa Model of Research Use) – Top Journals (Journal of Advanced Nursing, Nursing Standard) – Important Authors (Cheryl Stetler, Jo-Anne Horsley, Carole Estabrooks) Empirical Analysis This is a library science assessment that requires understanding databases; Information Science Skills (Boolean Searching); Content Analysis; Citation Analysis; co-authoring with Librarians.

16 Nursing Research: Systematic Reviews Estabrooks et al. (2003) Individual Determinants of research utilization Purpose – Review studies that examine individual characteristics & determinants Method – Advanced searching of relevant databases – Using an inclusion criteria for systematically reviewing specific content – Employed a validity Score Results & Conclusions – Research was organized into: beliefs and Attitudes, involvement in research activities, information seeking, professional characteristics, education, socio- economic status. – Support for a positive association between individual beliefs and attitudes and increased research utilization. – Development of a strong interdisciplinary body of work, relevant to nursing is important Empirical Analysis Although using Bibliometrics and Information literacy as the basis, it extends on this basis by needing the nursing knowledge identify specific content for systematic review.

17 Nursing Research: Nursing Models Conduct and Utilization of Research in Nursing Iowa Model of Research in Practice Collaborative research utilization model Stetler/Marram Model for application of research findings in practice Framework for dissemination and utilization of research for healthcare policy and practice Multidimensional Framework BARRIERS to Research Utilization Scale Research Factor Questionnaire Important Contribution Recommend the creation of a database/website to track, organize and discuss Nursing models in Knowledge Science.

18 Nursing Research: Utilizing a Nursing Model McCloskey (2008) Nurses Perceptions of Research Utilization in a Corporate Health Care System Purpose – Investigate selected characteristics of nurses based on educational level, years of experience, hospital position that might affect Research Utilization Methods – Nurses in five hospitals were surveyed using Research Utilization Questionnaire – ANOVA was used to analyze data Results & Conclusion – Significant differences (p <.001) were found in perceived use of research, attitude toward research, availability of research resources, or perceived support for research activities based on education and organizational position. Does the Instrument Fit? The question to ask yourself when you read what instrument is being used is Does this fit? Will the model actually measure what the authors want it to measure?

19 Nursing Research: Validating a Nursing Model Tolson et al. (2008) Achieving evidence-based nursing practice Purpose – Determine the impact of the Caledonian Development Model (version 2), designed to promote evidence based practice – Participants engage in Communities of Practice, focus on a specific goal, and learn how to use and participate in a virtual college Method – 24 nurses and 18 practice sites formed 3 Communities of Practice. – Pre- and post intervention Revised Nursing Work Index; focus groups – SPSS and Nvivo used for analysis Results – The model performed well as an agent of knowledge translation supporting the implementation of values-based evidence-based care guidance within the context of nursing older people. Reflect on Knowledge Process Communities of Practice are important to this model; it is a concept that is overlapping with a large Knowledge Management literature, another important part of Knowledge Science.

20 Nursing Research: Evaluation or Testing Estabrooks (1999) Modeling the Individual Determinants of Research Utilization Purpose – This studys objectives were to develop and test a series of structural equation models that included individual factors believed to influence research utilization Method – Using Instrumental, Conceptual & Persuasive research utilization – Using a 1996 Nurses Survey – Model fit was assessed by examining chi-square, the adjusted goodness of fit index – Scaling and reliability in LISREL Results – Some individual factors: Activism, Affiliation, attitude, Autonomy, Awareness of policy, Belief suspension, Cosmopoliteness, Dogmatism, Educational level, Problem solving ability, Theoretical orientation, Time spent reading professional journals, Trust Empirical Analysis We are still interested in the individual determinants, but we are building on our previous examples: you need to know more quantitative analysis, structural equal modeling & LISREL

21 Nursing Research Clinical Realm Oh, E.G. (2008) Research activities and perceptions of barriers to research utilization among critical care nurses in Korea Purpose – Analyze data from Nurses and Nurse Managers working in critical care units to describe research activities and to identify barriers Method – Data from 63 critical care nurses describing research activity such as reading journals / week, additional nursing courses, etc. – Barriers to Research Utilization Scale (Funk, 1991) used. Results – Critical care nurses share a strong sense of value for the contribution that research makes to improving their practice, bus also perceived barriers in the lack of administrative support Reflect on Types of Models The author calls the work a description of research activities, similar to the Educational or Conceptual Model of Knowledge Utilization

22 Nursing Research: Nursing Culture Watson et al. (2005) Exploratory Factor Analysis of the research and development culture index among qualified Nurses Purpose – Factor analysis of a rating instrument for assessing the strength of organizational Research and Development (R&D) Culture Methods – Qualitative research is the basis for creating the formal index – R&D Culture Index used as means of appraising R&D culture Results – Both Individual and Organizational Factors are important and distinctive. – Three components must be developed: Skill base of practitioners, infrastructure of organizations, and reflective development nature of the immediate work environment Mixed Methods We can note the role of qualitative data as the preliminary stage in forming Knowledge Utilization theory or method.

23 Nursing Research: Organizational Measures Fink, Thompson, Bonnes (2005) Overcoming Barriers and Promoting the Use of Research in Practice Purpose – Identify Nurses changes in attitudes toward research utilization and the organizations environment pre-implementation and post-implementation. Method – Descriptive, cross-sectional, pre-survey, post-survey design to identify inpatient nurses personal and professional characteristics, perceptions of organizational culture and the effectiveness of organizational strategies. Results & Conclusion – Research activities most participated: Shared research findings with peers (70%), attended conference (67%) Evidence based council meetings (55%); participant in data collection (n = 123), attending Journal club (n = 105) – Barriers to Research included: Nurse had no authority to change practice, aware of research, administration not allowing implementation, nurse is isolated from colleagues, access to research, no time on the job to read research. Organizational Readiness The Canadian Health Services Research Foundation developed a readiness assessment guide for analyzing the organizations preparedness

24 Nursing Research: Qualitative Analysis Thompson et al (2008) The relationship between busyness and research utilization Purpose – Explore the concept of busyness in nursing and to understand the relationship between busyness and nurses research utilization better Method – Conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in a large ethnographic multiple case study examining the use of research by Canadian nurses in the context of adult and pediatric pain management Results & Conclusions – Lack of time or busyness refers to the mental time and energy required to use research and the culture of busyness in nursing rather than physical time required to perform routine tasks. Using Qualitative Software Nvivo 7/8 is now available at the university; you can seek out training from the Qualitative Research Centre. The author provides Nvivo sessions.

25 Nursing Research: Research Environment Ax, Susanne (2001). Nursing Students Perceptions of Research: Usefulness, Implementation and Training Purpose Investigate Nursing Research perceptions of usefulness, implementation, interest and personal involvement Investigate Nursing Training in structure and design of classes, reading materials, personal study and stress Methodology One to one Interviews of 13 Nursing Students Findings Improving Practice by testing assumptions of current practice Many students voiced difficulties voicing suggestions for change Feeling of a lack of understanding, a disconnect to application The Reality of Implementation The need for education and attitudinal changes are real; you will need to know how to communicate new ideas, changes and be able to argue for their implementation.

26 Part III: Problem Based Learning Plan your own Knowledge Science Project Lets Apply what weve learned…

27 Possible Scenario: Descriptive Assessment Knowledge Management – Identify Knowledge Brokers (800 million rural poor) Professionals Local Authorities Trusted persons Cultural Component/Indexes Mapping the flow of knowledge – Diffusion of Innovation Conceptual/Educational Model – Learning about the System Level of Analysis – Policy AND Practice level (Government)

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