2 Ever wondered what differentiates two seemingly same products from each other??
3 Fabric testing is an important segment of the textile industry Fabric testing is an important segment of the textile industry. We can easily detect the faults of machinery and materials during test of textiles.
4 WHY DO WE NEED TESTING?? Checking Raw Materials – Variable Qualities Monitoring Production - to control increase of waste.Assessing the Final Product – Enhance and efficient output.Investigation of Faulty Material – To get the root cause of problems during process.Product Development and Research
5 TESTING IS NORMALLY CARRIED OUT ACCORDING TO A “STANDARD” Following are some of the source of standard test method for textiles:American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)American Association of Textile Chemists and Colourists (AATCC)International Standard Organization (ISO)Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)
6 WHAT IS TO BE TESTED???There are 3 forms of Textiles on which the test can be conducted -Fibre- length, strength, fineness, maturity.Yarn- strength, count, twistFabric- Greige / DyedEPI, PPI, GSM , Physical and chemical properties.
7 FIBER TESTS1. Identification of fiber - By their cross section Or Chemical test 2. Fiber length* - to identify quality of cotton. 3. Strength and elongation - tensile properties 4. Fineness & Maturity test - 5. Uniformity & Evenness - 6. Trash, neps test etc. - Impurities
8 YARN TEST1. Yarn count – e.g. 30s single or 2-ply yarn 2. Twist per unit length 3. Strength and elongation i.e. tensile properties 4. Appearance 5. Evenness and regularity 6. Hairiness * - Due to Short Fibers
9 FABRIC TEST Physical Properties of Textiles - 1. Strength and elongation - Tensile, Tear & Bursting 2. Thread Count 3. The count of yarn used 4. Fabric Weight - GSM 5. Design and construction of the Fabric 6. Air permeability
10 7. Flammability Test 8. Stiffness, handle, drape 9 7. Flammability Test 8. Stiffness, handle, drape 9. Crease resistance and recovery 10. Abrasion 11. Pilling * 12. Shrinkage *- Dimensional stability 13. Water absorbency or resistance etc.14. Seam Strength & Slippage*
11 FABRIC TEST Test in chemical properties of textile Color Fastness to WashingColor Fastness to Crocking ( Rubbing)Dry CrockingWet CrockingColor Fastness to WaterColor Fastness to LightFiber CompositionColor Fastness to PerspirationColor Fastness to Dry CleaningPH ValueDurability Test ( DP Rating)
12 Multifiber Fabric - Specially Used for testing of textile performance on different fibers. AcetateCottonNylonPolyesterAcrylicWoolObservation - Color Change- Color Staining
14 GRAYSCALEGrayscale for color change is used to visually evaluate change in color due to color Fastness Test.Gray Scale for staining is used to visually evaluate the staining on multifiber samples due to colorfastness test.Rating 1 to 5 can be measure on the scale where rating 1 is poor and rating 5 is excellent performance. Generally rating 4 is acceptable.
16 TIPS TO REMEMBERRead the label properly: Size, Where it is made, Style number, Type of fabric, RN NumberRead the Hang Tag: fabric characteristics, and describes the quality.Warnings Are Sometimes Included: Possible shrinkage, stretching, or fadingCare InstructionsSIZE: Tells what size the garment is. May list a numeric size or size class such as Small (S), Medium (M), Large (L), X-Large (XL). There is no uniform standard for sizing in the U.S.WHERE IT'S MADE: “Made in USA” from imported fabric “Made in China,” “Taiwan,” etc.STYLE NUMBER: Identifies a particular style of garment in a manufacturer's line. Used to track sales, returns. (Not always shown.)TYPE OF FABRIC In the U. S. the generic names of all fibers present in the amount of five percent or more of the total fiber weight must be provided on the label. RN NUMBER: A registered identification number (RN) is issued by the U. S. Federal Trade Commission to a business residing in the U. S. that is engaged in the manufacture, importing, distributing, or sale of textile, wool, or fur products. Such businesses are not required to have an RN. However, the RN can be used in place of a name on the label or tag, that is required to be affixed to these products. The RN number is helpful for consumers when trying to contact a manufacturer with a question, comment, or complaint. You can access and search the FTC data base on theirweb site. Usually there will be both an address and telephone number listed.CARE INSTRUCTIONS: The Care Labeling Rule requires clothing manufacturers and importers to provide at least one satisfactory method of care necessary for the ordinary use of the garment. The label must also provide warnings against the use of any method which the consumer can reasonably expected to use that would harm the product. Note that fabrics on a bolt should have care instructions on the end of the bolt. The laundry instructions are to provide instructions for, in order, washing, bleaching, drying, and ironing; and drycleaning instructions are to include one symbol.