Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco PublicSCTE_IP_Basics 1 Dan Baum Systems Engineer Cisco [date] Understanding the Internet Protocol.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco PublicSCTE_IP_Basics 1 Dan Baum Systems Engineer Cisco [date] Understanding the Internet Protocol."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco PublicSCTE_IP_Basics 1 Dan Baum Systems Engineer Cisco [date] Understanding the Internet Protocol (IP) for RF Technicians

2 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 2 Objectives Better understand the Internet Protocols (IP) background and popularity in todays networks Better understand the Internet Protocol Suite; including applications Better understand a Routers role in IP communications Better understand the operation of IP in cable networks Better understand the use of IP for delivering Voice, Video, Home Networking and other services Gain a fundamental understanding of IP version 6

3 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 3 Agenda Internet Protocol (IP) background Internet Protocol Suite IP applications and services Routing IP IP in cable networks Using IP to deliver services Introduction to IP version 6 Q&A

4 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 4 Internet Protocol (IP) Background

5 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 5 Internet Protocol History Lesson Work began in mid 1970s for an internet technology First packet-based switching network was ARPANET Internet Protocols in current form took shape The global Internet (what we have today) began in 1980 In 1983 the Office of the Secretary of Defense mandated that all devices connected to long haul networks use TCP/IP In 1986 the National Science Foundation funded an effort to create a wide area backbone network called NSFNET and connected it to ARPANET Today it is estimated there are over 1.4 Billion Internet users

6 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 6 IP Standards and Specifications Based on open systems interconnection No single vendor owns the TCP/IP technology Publicly available Facilitate communication between devices of diverse hardware architectures Supported on multiple Operating Systems Contained in Internet Request For Comments;

7 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 7 Why Use the Internet Protocol? The Internet Protocol is the de facto standard for the Internet Applications can quickly and easily be built upon an IP foundation The Internet Protocol suite is an open specification allowing for interoperability Resources for information related to IP are easy to find

8 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 8 What is the Internet Protocol? Officially named the TCP/IP Internet Protocol Suite Suite of protocols which define how devices communicate with each other Facilitates communication between networks and devices of varying underlying technologies Provides various Application Level Services – Electronic Mail – File Transfer – Terminal Emulation – Streaming Media – World Wide Web Based Services Isnt unique to the Global Internet; applies to private networks as well

9 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 9 Internet Protocol Suite

10 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 10 Internet Protocol Suite Application Transport Internet Network Interface FTP, TFTP, TELNET, SMTP, HTTP, DNS, BOOTP, TFTP, SNMP TCP or UDP (BGP and RIP) IP, ARP, ICMP, OSPF Ethernet, Packet Over SONET, Wireless Physical Data link Network Transport Session Presentation Application OSI LayersIPS LayersInternet Protocol Suite

11 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 11 Network Interface Layer

12 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 12 Host The Internet or Private Networks TCP/IP Host Network Interface Layer Varying underlying technologies - Ethernet - Packet Over SONET - Frame Relay Different geographic locations Talking Frames Mutliple Layer 2 Technologies

13 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 13 Internet Layer

14 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 14 Internet Layer IP Packet format IP Address Network Mask Default Gateway Private IP Addresses Address Resolution Internet Control Message Protocol

15 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 15 Data Variable Length TCP or UDP Header 24 or 8 Bytes IP Packet Format IP Header 20 Bytes Up to 1500 Bytes The process starts with Data to be transmitted The Data is encapsulated in a Transport Protocol Then an IP Header is applied FCS 4 Bytes Ethernet Header 14 Bytes The Packet is then packaged in a Data Link frame IP Header 20 Bytes TCP or UDP Header 24 or 8 Bytes Data Variable Length FCS 4 Bytes Ethernet Header 14 Bytes The Ethernet frame with IP Packet is Transmitted

16 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 16 IP Header Information IP Header 20 Bytes Version = 4 bits Length = 4 bits Type of Service (TOS) = 8 bits Total Length = 16 bits Identification = 16 bits Flags = 3 bits Fragment Offset = 13 bits TTL = 8 bits Protocol = 8 bits Header Checksum = 16 bits Source IP Address = 32 bits Destination IP Address = 32 bits

17 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 17 IP Address

18 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 18 IP Address A 32 bit number divided into octets where each octet has a value of 0-255; example Uniquely identifies an IP enabled device on an IP network It is common to use a dotted decimal representation of 4 octets Addresses can be assigned Statically or Dynamically Most servers ( , web, DNS) use a static IP address and most clients (PCs, Laptops, Cable Modems, etc) use dynamic addresses assigned via DHCP Example: is the same as: binary IP Addresses are assigned in blocks by ARIN (American Registry of Internet Numbers)

19 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 19 An IP Address is 32 bits (or 4 bytes) in length It takes the form of N.N.N.N where N is a number from 0 to 255 e.g An IP Address is 32 bits (or 4 bytes) in length It takes the form of N.N.N.N where N is a number from 0 to 255 e.g IP Address An IP Address is a UNIQUE identifier assigned to EVERY device on a network. It is used to allow communications between devices on a network

20 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID Dotted Decimal Maximum NetworkHost Binary 32 Bits IP Address

21 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 21 Class A: Class B: Class C: Class D: Multicast Class E: Research Network Host Network Host Network Host 8 Bits IP Address Classes

22 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 22 1 Class A: Bits: 0NNNNNNN Host Range (1-126) 1 Class B: Bits: 10NNNNNN Network Host Range ( ) 1 Class C: Bits: 110NNNNN Network Host Range ( ) 1 Class D: Bits: 1110MMMM Multicast Group Range ( ) IP Address Classes

23 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 23 Network Mask

24 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 24 A Network Mask is 32 bits (or 4 bytes) in length It takes the form of N.N.N.N where N is a number from 0 to 255 i.e A Network Mask is 32 bits (or 4 bytes) in length It takes the form of N.N.N.N where N is a number from 0 to 255 i.e Network Mask A Network Mask is associated with an IP Address and defines a boundary IP devices use to determine whether or not packets need to be forwarded to a Gateway

25 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 25 Default Mask for a Class A Network is , Default Mask for a Class B Network is , Default Mask for a Class C Network is The Network Mask indicates how many bits are being used for the Network Portion of an Address Network Mask

26 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID mask is equivalent to / mask is equivalent to / mask is equivalent to /24 Network Mask Notations

27 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 27 Default Gateway

28 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 28 When a IP host needs to communicate with another IP host on a different IP network i.e to or a different sub-network i.e to Data must be forwarded through a gateway THIS FUNCTION IS NORMALLY DONE BY A ROUTER OR LAYER 3 SWITCH Default Gateway - Default Router A gateway forwards data from the local (sub) network to another (sub) network

29 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 29 Private IP Addresses

30 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 30 Class A Address - Network Class B Address - Networks to Class C Address - Range from to As defined in RFC 1918 As defined in RFC 1918 If you use any of these addresses in your network, then you MUST use address translation if you want to connect to the INTERNET If you use any of these addresses in your network, then you MUST use address translation if you want to connect to the INTERNET Private IP Address Space - RFC 1918

31 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 31 Private IP Address Space Private addresses can be used in any network internally, they cannot be used for the global Internet Class A Private Addresses: to Class B Private Addresses: to Class C Private Addresses: to

32 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 32 Address Resolution

33 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 33 Every Host has at least 2 addresses… 1. A protocol address (i.e. IP address ) 2. A Media address (i.e. Ethernet MAC address of the Network Interface Card 00:00:0c:12:34:56) When a device wants to talk, 1. It uses the PROTOCOL address to identify the device it wants to talk to, and.. 2. The MEDIA address to send the data to the target device or gateway on the same segment Host Addresses

34 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 34 ARP works by broadcasting packets to all hosts attached to the LAN ARP packet contains IP address in which sender is interested in communicating with Hosts keep a list of ARP responses in an ARP table ARP is propagated through Bridges/Switches but not through Routers Address Resolution Protocol - ARP Address Resolution Protocol Standards

35 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 35 I heard that broadcast. The message is for me. Here is my Ethernet address IP: = ??? I need the Ethernet address of IP: Ethernet: IP: Ethernet: ARP Now the IP Address is mapped to the MAC address, yielding a table like this: IP : MAC Next time I want to talk to I dont have to use ARP since its already in my table.

36 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 36 Internet Control Message Protocol

37 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 37 Internet Control Message Protocol - ICMP IP protocol number 1 Used for troubleshooting Error Reporting Mechanism Notifies Hosts and Routers of presence and type of errors

38 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 38 Ping Packet InterNet Groper Check end-to-end network connectivity Baseline network layer performance Depending on implementation can indicate: Host Alive Roundtrip Delay

39 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 39 Traceroute Used to determine path through a network between two endpoints Uses the IP Time To Live (TTL) field Initiated via Echo Request or UDP probe on high ports Narrow down connectivity issues Baseline network performance on a hop by hop basis

40 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 40 Time To Live

41 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 41 Time To Live - TTL Mechanism to prevent loops in an IP Network Originating host sets the initial TTL value Intermediate hops, i.e. routers, decrement the TTL value by 1 When TTL expires: - The packet is dropped - An ICMP report is sent back to the source

42 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 42 TTL = 10 Host Host TTL TTL = 8TTL = 7TTL = 6TTL = 9

43 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 43 TTL = 10 Host Host TTL TTL = 8TTL = 7TTL = 6TTL = 9TTL = 0 Introduce a loop with broken routing

44 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 44 Transport Layer

45 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 45 Transmission Control Protocol - TCP IP protocol number 6 Connection oriented Reliable transport Assumes very little about the underlying protocol and architecture HTTP, , Telnet, FTP TCP is a Transport Layer Protocol used to provide reliable, connection oriented communications between two devices. Each packet transmitted is acknowledged by the receiving station.

46 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 46 User Datagram Protocol - UDP IP protocol number 17 Connectionless Unreliable by nature Upper layer applications responsible for reliability Real time applications – VoIP, Video over IP UDP is a Transport Layer Protocol used to provide fast, connectionless communications between to devices. Each packet transmitted is not acknowledged and reliability is left up to higher layer protocols and/or applications.

47 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 47 Application Layer

48 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 48 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol - DHCP RFC 2131 Protocol used to supply IP Layer information to Hosts IP Address Subnet Mask IP Gateway DNS Server(s) Often used to simplify the management of IP Address Space Prevents undertaking laborious task of manually configuring many Hosts

49 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 49 DHCPOFFERDHCPDISCOVERDHCPACKDHCPREQUEST Host DHCP Server I need an IP Address You can use this IP Address I will use that IP Address DHCP Acknowledged

50 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 50 Domain Name Service - DNS RFCs 1034 and 1035 Resolves hostname with domain to matching IP Address Easier to remember than www.cisco.com Utilizes TCP and UDP as underlying Transport Protocols Alternative to Host Tables on all Hosts Domain Name Service Standards

51 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 51 DNS - Name Resolution I heard that request. Here is the IP Address. = = ??? I need the IP Address for =

52 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 52 IP Routing

53 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 53 What is Routing? Routing is the process of forwarding a datagram from one hop to the next Routers forward traffic to a logical destination in an internetwork Routers perform two primary functions Routing – share/learn network routes Switching – take packets from the inbound interface and send them through the outbound interface Routers are a fundamental component to the very fabric of the Internet

54 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 54 Why are Routers Important? Separate internetworks into logical entities Maintain Routing information for end stations Dynamically update Routing information as networks become available/unavailable Determine the best path for communication through the internetwork

55 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 55 Routers make internetworking possible. Network 1 Network 2 Network 5 Network 4 Network 3 Network 6 Why are Routers Important? As the network topology changes, all routers will update their tables using their chosen routing protocol. (e.g. OSPF) When a new link from Network 5 to Network 6 is established. The routers on Network 5 and 6 will advertise the new route to Network 3. If the link from Network 5 to Network 3 breaks, the routers will update their tables and will choose the next best path which is now through Network 6. X I can now get to Network 6 directly! I can now get to Network 5 directly! I can no longer reach Network 3 directly!

56 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 56 General Networking Concepts

57 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 57 Packet Types Three types of Packets Unicast Only one end-point for the packet Multicast Only select endpoints (those who asked for it) should receive a copy of the packet Broadcast All end points should receive the packet

58 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 58 Unicast

59 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 59 Multicast

60 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 60 Quality of Service

61 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 61 TOS and DSCP Type of Service (TOS) and Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) Used to differentiate traffic types Provide priority queuing to important packets Originating host or intermediate routers can set TOS value Intermediate routers can act upon (Per Hop Behavior) or modify the value TOS has been expanded to Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) to provide more levels of service TOS and DSCP are important to classify and prioritize services such as: Voice over IP Broadcast Video Video on Demand This ensures our customers have a pleasant TV viewing experience and coherent phone conversations

62 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 62 Sample ToS/DSCP Effect Class definition sets minimum bandwidth Queue servicing (metering) controls latency Unused capacity is shared amongst the other classes Each Class can be separately configured for QoS 10% 40% 50% Voice Video Data Step 1: Define Scheduling Step 2: Define Bandwidth Low Latency, High Servicing (Voice) Broadcast Video High Speed Data

63 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 63 Ethernet

64 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 64 Ethernet Overview Invented by Xerox in Early 1970s Became IEEE Standard in 1980s Ethernet Version 2 Jointly Developed by Digital Equipment Corp, Intel Corp, and Xerox Popular as a Layer 2 Protocol

65 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 65 Ethernet Overview Ethernet Speeds Ethernet - 10 Million Bits Per Second Fast Ethernet Million Bits Per Second Gigabit Ethernet Million Bits Per Second or 1 Gbps Ten Gigabit Ethernet Million Bits Per Second or 10 Gbps

66 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 66 Ethernet Overview Type Dest Addr Src Addr FCS Data Payload (IP) Up to 1500 Bytes Ethernet Frame Destination MAC Address Source MAC Address Frame Check Sequence (CRC) Type field IPv4 = x0800

67 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 67 Why Ethernet? Gigabit Ethernet and Ten Gigabit Ethernet offer high throughput capabilities Ethernet relatively inexpensive compared to other technologies offering the same throughput Ethernet is well known and understood; resources abound

68 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 68 MAC Address MAC = Media Access Control Hardware identifier Burned in at time of manufacturing 6 Bytes in length Uniquely identifies devices connected to Ethernet Organization Unit Identifier is first 3 bytes Example: Cisco has OUI of c Typical Formats c c :00:0c:12:34:56

69 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 69 Putting it all Together

70 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 70 Putting It All Together… 1.Information to transmit - Node A to Node B 2.Determine which Protocol to use – TCP or UDP 3.Name Resolution – to www.cisco.com 4.Address Resolution – to 00:00:0c:12:34:56 5.Send Information to local Router to get on the Network 6.Router determines QoS tag and queues appropriately 7.Information flows from Hop to Hop (Router to Router) until it reaches the destination

71 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 71 IPv6 Fundamentals

72 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 72 What changed from IPv4? Expanded address space Addresses quadrupled from 32 bits to 128 bits Header Format Simplification Fixed length, optional headers are daisy chained IPv6 header is double that of IPv4, from 20 to 40 bytes No checksum at the IP network layer Relies on lower layer (POS, Ethernet, etc) or upper application layer (TCP, UDP) No hop-by-hop segmentation/fragmentation Path MTU discovery mandated No broadcast

73 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 73 VersionIHLType of ServiceTotal Length IdentificationFlagsFragment Offset Time to LiveProtocolHeader Checksum Source Address Destination Address OptionsPadding VersionTraffic ClassFlow Label Payload LengthNext HeaderHop Limit Source Address Destination Address IPv4 Header Header – RFC 2460 IPv6 Header – RFC fields name kept from IPv4 to IPv6 - fields not kept in IPv6 - Name & position changed in IPv6 - New field in IPv6 Legend IPv4 & IPv6 Header Comparison

74 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 74 Larger Address Space IPv4 32 bits = 4,294,967,296 possible addressable devices IPv6 128 bits =3.4 X possible addressable devices =340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 5 x addresses per person on the planet 13 quintillion IPv4 domains per person (a quintillion is one million trillion)

75 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 75 IPv6 Addressing IPv6 addressing rules are covered by multiple RFCs Architecture defined by RFC Address types: Unicast: One to One (Global and Link Local) An identifier for a single interface. A packet sent to a unicast address is delivered to the interface identified by that address. Anycast: One to Nearest (Allocated from Unicast) An identifier for a set of interfaces (typically belonging to different nodes). A packet sent to an anycast address is delivered to one of the interfaces identified by that address (the "nearest" one, according to the routing protocols' measure of distance). Multicast: One to Many An identifier for a set of interfaces (typically belonging to different nodes). A packet sent to a multicast address is delivered to all interfaces identified by that address. No Broadcast address, use multicast instead

76 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 76 All addresses are 128 bits. 16-bit fields in case insensitive colon hexadecimal representation – Preferred form 2031:0000:130F:0000:0000:09C0:876A:130B Leading zeros in a field are optional: 2031:0:130F:0:0:9C0:876A:130B Successive fields of 0 represented as ::, but only once in an address – Compressed form 2031:0:130F::9C0:876A:130B 2031::130F::9C0:876A:130B 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 => ::1 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 => :: IPv6 Address Representation

77 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 77 Address Type Identification Localhost: (128 bits)::1/128 equivalent to in IPv4 Multicast: FF00::/8 Link-Local IPv6 Addresses x xFE80::/10 (FE80, FE90, FEA0, FEB0) Used within a network segment Global Unicast:Everything else All address types (except multicast) have to support EUI-64 (64 bit extended unique identifier)

78 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 78 IPv6 Global Unicast Addresses IPv6 Global Unicast addresses are: Addresses for generic use of IPv6 Structured as hierarchy to keep the aggregation First 3 bits 001 (2000::/3) is the first allocation from IANA for IPv6 Unicast use 001 Global Routing Prefix Subnet ID Interface ID n bits Provider (64-n) bits Site 64 bits Host

79 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 79 Dual Stack Approach Dual stack node means: Both IPv4 and IPv6 stacks enabled Applications can talk to both Choice of the IP version is based on name lookup and application preference * Does not mean that all applications are dual stack aware TCPUDP IPv4IPv6 IPv4 Application Data Link (Ethernet) 0x08000x86dd TCPUDP IPv4IPv6 IPv6-enable Application Data Link (Ethernet) 0x08000x86dd Frame Protocol ID Preferred method on Application servers

80 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 80 Q and A

81 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 81 References RFC 761 – DoD Standard Transmission Control Protocol RFC 768 – User Datagram Protocol RFC 791 – Internet Protocol RFCs 1034 and 1035 – Domain names – concepts and facilities, Domain names – implementation and specification RFC 1918 – Address Allocation for Private Internets RFC 2131 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

82 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 82 References cont. RFC 2460 – Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification RFC 4291 – IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture Internetworking with TCP/IP by Douglas E. Comer

83 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 83 Contact Info Dan Baum Cisco Systems

84 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 84


Download ppt "© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco PublicSCTE_IP_Basics 1 Dan Baum Systems Engineer Cisco [date] Understanding the Internet Protocol."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google