Presentation on theme: "Unit 3 Political Change 1919 to 2000. Unit Themes ■Great Depression ■WWII ■Civil Rights."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 3 Political Change 1919 to 2000
Unit Themes ■Great Depression ■WWII ■Civil Rights
Key Question ■How effectively did the federal government from 1933 to 2000 respond to the challenges it faced?
Specified Content ■The New Deal 1933-39 ■Cash and Carry and Lend-Lease policies 1939-41 ■Government in wartime 1941-45 ■The policy of containment: the Truman Doctrine 1947 & the Marshall Plan 1948 ■Brown v. Board of Ed 1954 ■The end of Jim Crow laws 1955-65, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965 ■Vietnam 1954-73: reasons for involvement, military events, & their consequences ■Cuban Missile Crisis ■Proliferation and arms control, ■Equal Rights Amendment 1972
5 Politics and Prosperity Warren G. Harding was elected as the new President in 1921. World War I helped the economy. Factories expanded rapidly to meet the need for military supplies. When the war was over more than 2 million soldiers came home looking for jobs. At the same time factories slowed production. The result was a sharp recession, or economic slump. Warren G. Harding Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven children, age 32, in Nipomo, California, March 1936.
P RESIDENTS OF 1920 S ■ Calvin Coolidge Pro Business High Tariffs on Imports Causes Americans to buy American ■ Herbert Hoover Low Taxes Business profit up which creates expansion
P OST W ORLD W AR I ■ Automobile Paved Roads Gasoline Stations Repair Shops Motels
E LECTRIC P OWER AND A PPLIANCES ■ Electricity wired in most of American homes by 1920 ■ Appliances Refrigerators Cooking Ranges Toasters
D EBT ■ Installment Plan Buy goods over an extended period, without having to put down much money at the time of purchase. Ex. – Rent A Center ■ Credit Times good People live beyond means Buy now and pay later.
S PECULATION ■ Buying stocks and hoping for a quick profit ■ Form of Gambling
B UYING ON THE M ARGIN ■ Pay a small price for stock ■ Borrow to pay for rest of stock ■ Large amount of stock being bought
O VER - PRODUCTION ■ Too many goods, too little demand ■ More products for sale then people wanting to buy product. ■ Company loses money. ■ Business start to fail.
B LACK T HURSDAY ■ September Stocks peak and fall People get scared start to sale ■ October 24, 1929 Stocks plunge Investors panic and start to sale
B LACK T UESDAY ■ October 29, 1929 Bottom Fell Out Stock tried to be sold No Buyers Borrows stuck with debt
G REAT D EPRESSION 1929-1940 ■ Economy Plummeted and Unemployment Rose
B ANKS ■ Invested in Stock ■ People pull money out of banks ■ Banks unable to pay people because they lost money on stocks ■ Gov’t did not insure savings ■ Banks went Bankrupt and people lost their money
B ANKS AND B USINESS C LOSE ■ Banks 1929 – 600 1933 - 11,000 ■ Business 90,000 Bankrupt
E FFECTS OF D EPRESSION ■ Hoovervilles Herbert Hoover believed things would fix themselves (did very little) People lost houses Towns constructed of shacks pop up.
M ORE P ROBLEMS ■ Dust Bowl Drought in Central U.S. Plowing mixed soil up Wind Storms blew top soil away. Farmers unable to grow crops
R OOSEVELT E LECTED ■ New Deal Relief for the needy Economic Recovery Financial Reform
F IRST H UNDRED D AYS ■ 15 major policies passed ■ Closed Banks to prevent further withdrawals. ■ Only sound banks could reopen ■ Those who could not were given loans
A LPHABET A GENCIES ■ Federal Agencies that were created as part of the New Deal ■ Aim of these agencies was to give Americans jobs and economic relief.
S ECOND N EW D EAL ■ Continued to help farmers ■ Educate youth to create more jobs ■ Social Security Insurance for those over 65 in form of money Unemployment Compensation Aid for children and disabled.
L IMITATIONS OF N EW D EAL ■ Women Jobs given to men Lower minimum wage then men ■ African Americans FDR did not fully support Civil Rights Agencies discriminated against African Americans.
C RITICS OF N EW D EAL ■ Many felt Government was too large. ■ Stopped free Enterprise ■ Many felt U.S. was becoming socialist.
ELP Cold War Era
Background ■The French had a colony called Indochina ■During WWII, Japan took over Indochina (and much of Eastern Asia) ■Japan lost WWII and therefore they lost Indochina ■The French tried to retake Indochina However, Communists were causing trouble Truman gave military aid to the French
Geneva Conference ■Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam created out of Indochina ■Vietnam was split by the 17 th parallel ■Elections were going to be held to unite Vietnam under one government North Vietnam had a communist government South Vietnam had a democracy ■When the US realized they were going to lose the election, they cancelled them
Causes of the Vietnam War 1.U.S. Participation a. 1955-1961 i. "Domino Theory" 1. if a country falls to communism, so will the other nations around it b. Kennedy i. increased # of military advisors ii. trained South Vietnamese troops c. Tonkin Gulf Resolution i. North Vietnamese fired upon U.S. warship according to President Johnson ii. Congress gave him authority to use all necessary measures to protect U.S. interests in Vietnam
Vietnam 1.Johnson escalates war by sending troops in March 1965 2.An elusive enemy a. jungle terrain and guerilla war tactics made it difficult to know and find enemy b. Vietcong’s underground tunnel system c. booby traps and land mines 3.War of attrition a. strategy used by Westmoreland to wear down enemy by continual harassment i. the more Vietcong dead, the quicker they will be to surrender
Vietnam cont... 1.Battle for “Hearts and Minds” a. winning support from South Vietnam’s rural population b. made difficult with napalm i. gasoline based bomb used to set fire to the jungle to expose Vietcong tunnels and hideouts c. Agent Orange i. leaf-killing toxic chemical d. search-and-destroy missions i. uprooting civilians with suspected ties to Vietcong, killing livestock, burning villages 2.Sinking Morale
Mass Media ■In the US, the Vietnam was not widely supported, due partly to the fact that the media showed the realities of the war to the average American
1968 1.Tet Offensive a. surprise attack by the North on South Vietnam during Vietnamese New Year celebrations b. lasted a month c. U.S. forces do regain control of the cities d. shook American public i. had thought Vietcong were almost defeated e. changed American’s views on the war from mostly positive to very negative
End of the War 1.Richard Nixon’s plan Vietnamization a. gradual withdrawal of U.S. troops so South Vietnamese could take more control b. “Peace with Honor” i. maintain U.S. dignity as troops continued to be pulled out c. orders massive bombing campaign on North Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia d. invasion of Cambodia i. clear out communist supply centers
Negative effects of the War a. My Lai Massacre i. 200 innocent South Vietnamese villagers shot ii. When this became public knoweldge, it caused an outrage in America b. President Johnson did not run for re- election due to the unpopularity of the war
Negative effects of the War a. Credibility Gap a. The US government told the people the war was almost over, but the Tet offensive showed that it was not. This caused the people to distrust the government
Berlin Wall, 1961 1.Soviets under Khrushchev a. demand U.S. troops to be pulled out of Berlin which had been divided after WWII b. Kennedy refused c. East Germans build wall i. purpose to stop East Germans from fleeing to West Germany
Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 1.U.S. planes discover Russian underground sites in Cuba for launching missiles a. These missiles could reach U.S. in minutes 2.Kennedy sets up naval blockade of Cuba until weapons are removed 3.Soviets sent ships to stop blockade 4.Khrushchev agree to remove missiles from Cuba a. in exchange for Kennedy's pledge not to invade Cuba
Proliferation and Arms Control 1.Proliferation- build up of nuclear weapons 2.Arms Control a. Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963 i. important precedent for future arms control b. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), 1968 c. agreement signed by several of the major nuclear and non-nuclear powers that pledged cooperation in stopping the spread of nuclear technology
End of the Cold War 1.Under President Reagan, the US won the Cold War 1.The USSR could not keep up with US spening 2.The Berlin Wall, a symbol of the separation of the East (USSR) and West (US) came down in 1989 3.The USSR suffered several protests and riots by its own peoples 4.Gorbachev was the right leader at the right time and allowed the USSR to end peacefully
ELP Civil Rights Movement
A history of segregation ■After the Civil War, African Americans were freed from slaver, granted citizenship and the right to vote. However, the introduction of Jim Crow laws and Black Codes limited the rights of Aftican Americans for the next 100 years
Move toward equality ■Brown V Board of Education In 1896, the Plessy v Ferguson court case declared that segregation (separating people based on race) was legal as long as both races had access to equal accommodations, such as school In 1954, several families filed lawsuits arguing that segregation is illegal and should not be allowed. The decision delcared segregation was illegal
Move toward equality ■1955- Emmett Till was an African- American boy from the North who was visiting family in Mississippi. Emmett flirted with a white woman. As a result, White Supremists killed Emmett. ■This incident opened the nation’s eyes to the problems faced by minorities
Move toward equality ■1955 – Rosa Parks Ms Parks was an activist in her community who made the decision to stand up to racial inequality by sitting down on a bus when it was not allowed. Ms Parks set off the Montgomery Bus Boycott during which activists refused to use public transportation until they had been integrated (allowed everyone, regardless of race, to ride).
Freedom Summer * 3 groups for the Mississippi Freedom Party and more than 80,000 people join it *They establish 30 Freedom Schools throughout Mississippi in order to address the racial inequalities in Mississippi’s education system *The schools and volunteers became the target of white racists, and there were bombings and assaults on minorities. * 3 Civil Rights workers were later found shot and buried in Mississippi by the KKK.
King 1.Minister chosen to lead Montgomery Bus Boycott because he was new 2.inspired others with his energy and enthusiasm and idea of nonviolence 3.established Southern Christian Leadership Conference a. coordinate and assist local organizations to work for equality of blacks 4.led the March on Washington and Selma campaign
March on Washington *August 28, 1963 *250,00 demonstrators assemble in Washington DC to support the passage of Kennedy’s Civil Rights Bill. *Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his famous “I Have A Dream Speech” on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial * After the march, King and the other leaders met President Kennedy to discuss civil rights legislation.
Malcolm X 1.most famous member of the Nation of Islam a. promoted separatism b. felt violence was justified in self-defense and to secure a separate black nation c. views changed after visit to Mecca i. left and form own organization called the Organization of Afro-American Unity to promote closer ties between Africans and African- Americans ii. pushed to end racial discrimination d. assassinated by Black Muslims in February 1965
Black Power 1.Riots erupt to protest discrimination, poverty, and unemployment of African Americans 2.Black Power movement emerged a. promote blacks taking responsibility for their own lives b. exhibit pride in black heritage “Black is beautiful” 3.Black Panther Party a. formed by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale b. advocated for full employment, good housing, adequate education c. prepared to use violence d. died out by 1969 due to policy confrontations and deaths of members
King’s Assassination 1.April 4, 1965 a. Memphis, Tennessee b. was supporting a black workers strike for equal treatment c. assassinated by James Earl Ray d. outburst of riot on this day across the country
Accomplishments ■Civil Rights Act of 1957 Established federal commission on Civil Rights Enlarged federal power to protect voting rights ■Civil Rights Act of 1964 Banned discrimination in public places, in federally assisted programs and in employment
Accomplishments ■24 th Amendment Abolished the Poll Tax ■Voting Rights Act of 1965 Ended literacy tests to vote ■Civil Rights Act of 1968 Prohibited discrimination I the sale or rental of most housing Strengthened anti-lynching laws Made it a crime to harm civil workers