3Key QuestionHow effectively did the federal government from 1933 to 2000 respond to the challenges it faced?
4Specified Content The New Deal 1933-39 Cash and Carry and Lend-Lease policiesGovernment in wartimeThe policy of containment: the Truman Doctrine 1947 & the Marshall Plan 1948Brown v. Board of Ed 1954The end of Jim Crow laws , Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965Vietnam : reasons for involvement, military events, & their consequencesCuban Missile CrisisProliferation and arms control,Equal Rights Amendment 1972
5Politics and Prosperity Warren G. Harding was elected as the new President in World War I helped the economy. Factories expanded rapidly to meet the need for military supplies. When the war was over more than 2 million soldiers came home looking for jobs. At the same time factories slowed production. The result was a sharp recession, or economic slump.Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven children, age 32, in Nipomo, California, March 1936.Warren G. Harding
6Presidents of 1920s Calvin Coolidge Herbert Hoover Pro Business High Tariffs on ImportsCauses Americans to buy AmericanHerbert HooverLow TaxesBusiness profit up whichcreates expansion
7Post World War I Automobile Paved Roads Gasoline Stations Repair Shops Motels
8Electric Power and Appliances Electricity wired in most of American homes by 1920AppliancesRefrigeratorsCooking RangesToasters
9Debt Installment Plan Credit Buy goods over an extended period, without having to put down much money at the time of purchase.Ex. – Rent A CenterCreditTimes goodPeople live beyond meansBuy now and pay later.
10Speculation Buying stocks and hoping for a quick profit Form of Gambling
11Buying on the Margin Pay a small price for stock Borrow to pay for restof stockLarge amount of stockbeing bought
12Over-production Too many goods, too little demand More products for sale then people wanting to buy product.Company loses money.Business start to fail.
13Black Thursday September October 24, 1929 Stocks peak and fall People get scared start to saleOctober 24, 1929Stocks plungeInvestors panic and start to sale
14Black Tuesday October 29, 1929 Bottom Fell Out Stock tried to be sold No BuyersBorrows stuck with debt
15Great DepressionEconomy Plummeted and Unemployment Rose
16Banks Invested in Stock People pull money out of banks Banks unable to pay people because they lost money on stocksGov’t did not insure savingsBanks went Bankrupt and people lost their money
17Banks and Business Close 1929 – 600,000Business90,000 Bankrupt
18Effects of Depression Hoovervilles Herbert Hoover believed things would fix themselves (did very little)People lost housesTowns constructed of shacks pop up.
30Background The French had a colony called Indochina During WWII, Japan took over Indochina (and much of Eastern Asia)Japan lost WWII and therefore they lost IndochinaThe French tried to retake IndochinaHowever, Communists were causing troubleTruman gave military aid to the French
31Geneva Conference Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam created out of Indochina Vietnam was split by the 17th parallelElections were going to be held to unite Vietnam under one governmentNorth Vietnam had a communist governmentSouth Vietnam had a democracyWhen the US realized they were going to lose the election, they cancelled them
32Causes of the Vietnam War U.S. Participation"Domino Theory"if a country falls to communism, so will the other nations around itKennedyincreased # of military advisorstrained South Vietnamese troopsTonkin Gulf ResolutionNorth Vietnamese fired upon U.S. warship according to President JohnsonCongress gave him authority to use all necessary measures to protect U.S. interests in Vietnam
33Vietnam Johnson escalates war by sending troops in March 1965 An elusive enemyjungle terrain and guerilla war tactics made it difficult to know and find enemyVietcong’s underground tunnel systembooby traps and land minesWar of attritionstrategy used by Westmoreland to wear down enemy by continual harassmentthe more Vietcong dead, the quicker they will be to surrender
34Vietnam cont... Battle for “Hearts and Minds” Sinking Morale winning support from South Vietnam’s rural populationmade difficult with napalmgasoline based bomb used to set fire to the jungle to expose Vietcong tunnels and hideoutsAgent Orangeleaf-killing toxic chemicalsearch-and-destroy missionsuprooting civilians with suspected ties to Vietcong, killing livestock, burning villagesSinking Morale
35Mass MediaIn the US, the Vietnam was not widely supported, due partly to the fact that the media showed the realities of the war to the average American
361968Tet Offensivesurprise attack by the North on South Vietnam during Vietnamese New Year celebrationslasted a monthU.S. forces do regain control of the citiesshook American publichad thought Vietcong were almost defeatedchanged American’s views on the war from mostly positive to very negative
37End of the War Richard Nixon’s plan Vietnamization gradual withdrawal of U.S. troops so South Vietnamese could take more control“Peace with Honor”maintain U.S. dignity as troops continued to be pulled outorders massive bombing campaign on North Vietnam, Laos and Cambodiainvasion of Cambodiaclear out communist supply centers
38Negative effects of the War My Lai Massacre200 innocent South Vietnamese villagers shotWhen this became public knoweldge, it caused an outrage in AmericaPresident Johnson did not run for re-election due to the unpopularity of the war
39Negative effects of the War Credibility GapThe US government told the people the war was almost over, but the Tet offensive showed that it was not. This caused the people to distrust the government
40Berlin Wall, 1961 Soviets under Khrushchev demand U.S. troops to be pulled out of Berlin which had been divided after WWIIKennedy refusedEast Germans build wallpurpose to stop East Germans from fleeing to West Germany
41Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962U.S. planes discover Russian underground sites in Cuba for launching missilesThese missiles could reach U.S. in minutesKennedy sets up naval blockade of Cuba until weapons are removedSoviets sent ships to stop blockadeKhrushchev agree to remove missiles from Cubain exchange for Kennedy's pledge not to invade Cuba
42Proliferation and Arms Control Proliferation- build up of nuclear weaponsArms ControlLimited Test Ban Treaty of 1963important precedent for future arms controlThe Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), 1968agreement signed by several of the major nuclear and non-nuclear powers that pledged cooperation in stopping the spread of nuclear technology
43End of the Cold War Under President Reagan, the US won the Cold War The USSR could not keep up with US speningThe Berlin Wall, a symbol of the separation of the East (USSR) and West (US) came down in 1989The USSR suffered several protests and riots by its own peoplesGorbachev was the right leader at the right time and allowed the USSR to end peacefully
46A history of segregation After the Civil War, African Americans were freed from slaver, granted citizenship and the right to vote. However, the introduction of Jim Crow laws and Black Codes limited the rights of Aftican Americans for the next 100 years
47Move toward equality Brown V Board of Education In 1896, the Plessy v Ferguson court case declared that segregation (separating people based on race) was legal as long as both races had access to equal accommodations, such as schoolIn 1954, several families filed lawsuits arguing that segregation is illegal and should not be allowed. The decision delcared segregation was illegal
48Move toward equality1955- Emmett Till was an African-American boy from the North who was visiting family in Mississippi. Emmett flirted with a white woman. As a result, White Supremists killed Emmett.This incident opened the nation’s eyes to the problems faced by minorities
49Move toward equality 1955 – Rosa Parks Ms Parks was an activist in her community who made the decision to stand up to racial inequality by sitting down on a bus when it was not allowed. Ms Parks set off the Montgomery Bus Boycott during which activists refused to use public transportation until they had been integrated (allowed everyone, regardless of race, to ride).
50Freedom Summer* 3 groups for the Mississippi Freedom Party and more than 80,000 people join it*They establish 30 Freedom Schools throughout Mississippi in order to address the racial inequalities in Mississippi’s education system*The schools and volunteers became the target of white racists, and there were bombings and assaults on minorities.* 3 Civil Rights workers were later found shot and buried in Mississippi by the KKK.
51King Minister chosen to lead Montgomery Bus Boycott because he was new inspired others with his energy and enthusiasm and idea of nonviolenceestablished Southern Christian Leadership Conferencecoordinate and assist local organizations to work for equality of blacksled the March on Washington and Selma campaign
52March on Washington *August 28, 1963 *250,00 demonstrators assemble in Washington DC to support the passage of Kennedy’s Civil Rights Bill.*Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his famous “I Have A Dream Speech” on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial* After the march, King and the other leaders met President Kennedy to discuss civil rights legislation.
53Malcolm X most famous member of the Nation of Islam promoted separatismfelt violence was justified in self-defense and to secure a separate black nationviews changed after visit to Meccaleft and form own organization called the Organization of Afro-American Unity to promote closer ties between Africans and African-Americanspushed to end racial discriminationassassinated by Black Muslims in February 1965
54Black PowerRiots erupt to protest discrimination, poverty, and unemployment of African AmericansBlack Power movement emergedpromote blacks taking responsibility for their own livesexhibit pride in black heritage “Black is beautiful”Black Panther Partyformed by Huey Newton and Bobby Sealeadvocated for full employment, good housing, adequate educationprepared to use violencedied out by 1969 due to policy confrontations and deaths of members
55King’s Assassination April 4, 1965 Memphis, Tennessee was supporting a black workers strike for equal treatmentassassinated by James Earl Rayoutburst of riot on this day across the country
56Accomplishments Civil Rights Act of 1957 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Established federal commission on Civil RightsEnlarged federal power to protect voting rightsCivil Rights Act of 1964Banned discrimination in public places, in federally assisted programs and in employment
57Accomplishments 24th Amendment Voting Rights Act of 1965 Abolished the Poll TaxVoting Rights Act of 1965Ended literacy tests to voteCivil Rights Act of 1968Prohibited discrimination I the sale or rental of most housingStrengthened anti-lynching lawsMade it a crime to harm civil workers