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Unit 3 Political Change 1919 to 2000.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3 Political Change 1919 to 2000."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 3 Political Change 1919 to 2000

2 Unit Themes Great Depression WWII Civil Rights

3 Key Question How effectively did the federal government from 1933 to 2000 respond to the challenges it faced?

4 Specified Content The New Deal 1933-39
Cash and Carry and Lend-Lease policies Government in wartime The policy of containment: the Truman Doctrine 1947 & the Marshall Plan 1948 Brown v. Board of Ed 1954 The end of Jim Crow laws , Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965 Vietnam : reasons for involvement, military events, & their consequences Cuban Missile Crisis Proliferation and arms control, Equal Rights Amendment 1972

5 Politics and Prosperity
Warren G. Harding was elected as the new President in World War I helped the economy. Factories expanded rapidly to meet the need for military supplies. When the war was over more than 2 million soldiers came home looking for jobs. At the same time factories slowed production. The result was a sharp recession, or economic slump. Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven children, age 32, in Nipomo, California, March 1936. Warren G. Harding

6 Presidents of 1920s Calvin Coolidge Herbert Hoover Pro Business
High Tariffs on Imports Causes Americans to buy American Herbert Hoover Low Taxes Business profit up which creates expansion

7 Post World War I Automobile Paved Roads Gasoline Stations Repair Shops

8 Electric Power and Appliances
Electricity wired in most of American homes by 1920 Appliances Refrigerators Cooking Ranges Toasters

9 Debt Installment Plan Credit
Buy goods over an extended period, without having to put down much money at the time of purchase. Ex. – Rent A Center Credit Times good People live beyond means Buy now and pay later.

10 Speculation Buying stocks and hoping for a quick profit
Form of Gambling

11 Buying on the Margin Pay a small price for stock
Borrow to pay for rest of stock Large amount of stock being bought

12 Over-production Too many goods, too little demand
More products for sale then people wanting to buy product. Company loses money. Business start to fail.

13 Black Thursday September October 24, 1929 Stocks peak and fall
People get scared start to sale October 24, 1929 Stocks plunge Investors panic and start to sale

14 Black Tuesday October 29, 1929 Bottom Fell Out Stock tried to be sold
No Buyers Borrows stuck with debt

15 Great Depression Economy Plummeted and Unemployment Rose

16 Banks Invested in Stock People pull money out of banks
Banks unable to pay people because they lost money on stocks Gov’t did not insure savings Banks went Bankrupt and people lost their money

17 Banks and Business Close
1929 – 600 ,000 Business 90,000 Bankrupt

18 Effects of Depression Hoovervilles
Herbert Hoover believed things would fix themselves (did very little) People lost houses Towns constructed of shacks pop up.


20 More Problems Dust Bowl Drought in Central U.S. Plowing mixed soil up
Wind Storms blew top soil away. Farmers unable to grow crops


22 Roosevelt Elected New Deal Relief for the needy Economic Recovery
Financial Reform

23 First Hundred Days 15 major policies passed
Closed Banks to prevent further withdrawals. Only sound banks could reopen Those who could not were given loans

24 Alphabet Agencies Federal Agencies that were created as part of the New Deal Aim of these agencies was to give Americans jobs and economic relief.

25 Second New Deal Continued to help farmers
Educate youth to create more jobs Social Security Insurance for those over 65 in form of money Unemployment Compensation Aid for children and disabled.

26 Limitations of New Deal
Women Jobs given to men Lower minimum wage then men African Americans FDR did not fully support Civil Rights Agencies discriminated against African Americans.

27 Critics of New Deal Many felt Government was too large.
Stopped free Enterprise Many felt U.S. was becoming socialist.


29 ELP Cold War Era

30 Background The French had a colony called Indochina
During WWII, Japan took over Indochina (and much of Eastern Asia) Japan lost WWII and therefore they lost Indochina The French tried to retake Indochina However, Communists were causing trouble Truman gave military aid to the French

31 Geneva Conference Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam created out of Indochina
Vietnam was split by the 17th parallel Elections were going to be held to unite Vietnam under one government North Vietnam had a communist government South Vietnam had a democracy When the US realized they were going to lose the election, they cancelled them

32 Causes of the Vietnam War
U.S. Participation "Domino Theory" if a country falls to communism, so will the other nations around it Kennedy increased # of military advisors trained South Vietnamese troops Tonkin Gulf Resolution North Vietnamese fired upon U.S. warship according to President Johnson Congress gave him authority to use all necessary measures to protect U.S. interests in Vietnam

33 Vietnam Johnson escalates war by sending troops in March 1965
An elusive enemy jungle terrain and guerilla war tactics made it difficult to know and find enemy Vietcong’s underground tunnel system booby traps and land mines War of attrition strategy used by Westmoreland to wear down enemy by continual harassment the more Vietcong dead, the quicker they will be to surrender

34 Vietnam cont... Battle for “Hearts and Minds” Sinking Morale
winning support from South Vietnam’s rural population made difficult with napalm gasoline based bomb used to set fire to the jungle to expose Vietcong tunnels and hideouts Agent Orange leaf-killing toxic chemical search-and-destroy missions uprooting civilians with suspected ties to Vietcong, killing livestock, burning villages Sinking Morale

35 Mass Media In the US, the Vietnam was not widely supported, due partly to the fact that the media showed the realities of the war to the average American

36 1968 Tet Offensive surprise attack by the North on South Vietnam during Vietnamese New Year celebrations lasted a month U.S. forces do regain control of the cities shook American public had thought Vietcong were almost defeated changed American’s views on the war from mostly positive to very negative

37 End of the War Richard Nixon’s plan Vietnamization
gradual withdrawal of U.S. troops so South Vietnamese could take more control “Peace with Honor” maintain U.S. dignity as troops continued to be pulled out orders massive bombing campaign on North Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia invasion of Cambodia clear out communist supply centers

38 Negative effects of the War
My Lai Massacre 200 innocent South Vietnamese villagers shot When this became public knoweldge, it caused an outrage in America President Johnson did not run for re-election due to the unpopularity of the war

39 Negative effects of the War
Credibility Gap The US government told the people the war was almost over, but the Tet offensive showed that it was not. This caused the people to distrust the government

40 Berlin Wall, 1961 Soviets under Khrushchev
demand U.S. troops to be pulled out of Berlin which had been divided after WWII Kennedy refused East Germans build wall purpose to stop East Germans from fleeing to West Germany

41 Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 U.S. planes discover Russian underground sites in Cuba for launching missiles These missiles could reach U.S. in minutes Kennedy sets up naval blockade of Cuba until weapons are removed Soviets sent ships to stop blockade Khrushchev agree to remove missiles from Cuba in exchange for Kennedy's pledge not to invade Cuba

42 Proliferation and Arms Control
Proliferation- build up of nuclear weapons Arms Control Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963 important precedent for future arms control The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), 1968 agreement signed by several of the major nuclear and non-nuclear powers that pledged cooperation in stopping the spread of nuclear technology

43 End of the Cold War Under President Reagan, the US won the Cold War
The USSR could not keep up with US spening The Berlin Wall, a symbol of the separation of the East (USSR) and West (US) came down in 1989 The USSR suffered several protests and riots by its own peoples Gorbachev was the right leader at the right time and allowed the USSR to end peacefully


45 ELP Civil Rights Movement

46 A history of segregation
After the Civil War, African Americans were freed from slaver, granted citizenship and the right to vote. However, the introduction of Jim Crow laws and Black Codes limited the rights of Aftican Americans for the next 100 years

47 Move toward equality Brown V Board of Education
In 1896, the Plessy v Ferguson court case declared that segregation (separating people based on race) was legal as long as both races had access to equal accommodations, such as school In 1954, several families filed lawsuits arguing that segregation is illegal and should not be allowed. The decision delcared segregation was illegal

48 Move toward equality 1955- Emmett Till was an African-American boy from the North who was visiting family in Mississippi. Emmett flirted with a white woman. As a result, White Supremists killed Emmett. This incident opened the nation’s eyes to the problems faced by minorities

49 Move toward equality 1955 – Rosa Parks
Ms Parks was an activist in her community who made the decision to stand up to racial inequality by sitting down on a bus when it was not allowed. Ms Parks set off the Montgomery Bus Boycott during which activists refused to use public transportation until they had been integrated (allowed everyone, regardless of race, to ride).

50 Freedom Summer * 3 groups for the Mississippi Freedom Party and more than 80,000 people join it *They establish 30 Freedom Schools throughout Mississippi in order to address the racial inequalities in Mississippi’s education system *The schools and volunteers became the target of white racists, and there were bombings and assaults on minorities. * 3 Civil Rights workers were later found shot and buried in Mississippi by the KKK.

51 King Minister chosen to lead Montgomery Bus Boycott because he was new
inspired others with his energy and enthusiasm and idea of nonviolence established Southern Christian Leadership Conference coordinate and assist local organizations to work for equality of blacks led the March on Washington and Selma campaign

52 March on Washington *August 28, 1963
*250,00 demonstrators assemble in Washington DC to support the passage of Kennedy’s Civil Rights Bill. *Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his famous “I Have A Dream Speech” on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial * After the march, King and the other leaders met President Kennedy to discuss civil rights legislation.

53 Malcolm X most famous member of the Nation of Islam
promoted separatism felt violence was justified in self-defense and to secure a separate black nation views changed after visit to Mecca left and form own organization called the Organization of Afro-American Unity to promote closer ties between Africans and African-Americans pushed to end racial discrimination assassinated by Black Muslims in February 1965

54 Black Power Riots erupt to protest discrimination, poverty, and unemployment of African Americans Black Power movement emerged promote blacks taking responsibility for their own lives exhibit pride in black heritage “Black is beautiful” Black Panther Party formed by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale advocated for full employment, good housing, adequate education prepared to use violence died out by 1969 due to policy confrontations and deaths of members

55 King’s Assassination April 4, 1965 Memphis, Tennessee
was supporting a black workers strike for equal treatment assassinated by James Earl Ray outburst of riot on this day across the country

56 Accomplishments Civil Rights Act of 1957 Civil Rights Act of 1964
Established federal commission on Civil Rights Enlarged federal power to protect voting rights Civil Rights Act of 1964 Banned discrimination in public places, in federally assisted programs and in employment

57 Accomplishments 24th Amendment Voting Rights Act of 1965
Abolished the Poll Tax Voting Rights Act of 1965 Ended literacy tests to vote Civil Rights Act of 1968 Prohibited discrimination I the sale or rental of most housing Strengthened anti-lynching laws Made it a crime to harm civil workers

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