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Presentation On RF Heating By :- Saurabh Kumar Vij University of Delhi, India IPR, Bhat, Near Indira Bridge Gandhinagar, Gujarat 25-03-20111Presentation.

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Presentation on theme: "Presentation On RF Heating By :- Saurabh Kumar Vij University of Delhi, India IPR, Bhat, Near Indira Bridge Gandhinagar, Gujarat 25-03-20111Presentation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presentation On RF Heating By :- Saurabh Kumar Vij University of Delhi, India IPR, Bhat, Near Indira Bridge Gandhinagar, Gujarat Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij

2 Plan of the talk RF Heating Why is heating required? Methods of heating the plasma ICRH and Requirements ECRH Results so far Summary Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij2

3 RF Heating Radio-Frequency Heating is one of the most efficient way to heat the Tokamak plasma. RF Range – 3KHz to 300 GHz Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij

4 Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij4

5 Why do we need to Heat the Plasma? Lawson Criterion derived by John D. Lawson in To achieve the stage of ignition in a Fusion reactor. Attaining conditions to satisfy the Lawson criterion ensures the plasma exceeds Breakeven – the point where the fusion power out exceeds the power required to heat and sustain the plasma. Later on, a new much improved version was found. The Triple Product serves as a criterion to reach ignition. e >= keV s/m 3 Power required is about 20 MW Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij

6 Different methods of Heating Ohmic Heating - Q = I 2 R RF Heating ICRH ECRH LHCD Neutral Beam Injection Adiabatic Compression Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij

7 Why Not just Ohmic Heating? For Fusion Plasma, we need Temperature around 10 KeV. Ohmic Heating has a limit of 2KeV. Because R = C. T -3/2, So as temp. Increases resistance decreases. Auxiliary Heating like RF heating is required which could provide the remaining 8-9KeV of power. Additional Power Required: P = 3V. n e ) n Additional rise in density and temperature Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij

8 Why RF is a better method? Ohmic Heating cannot go beyond a limit of 2KeV. Neutral beam injection is not fully developed and is also quite difficult to achieve. Difficult to inject NB at high density because of collisions, leading to Plasma Disruption. With NBI, particles hitting the inner wall is a problem. Can also puncture the walls if NB particles hit normally. ICRH and ECRH provides much more localized heating because B varies inversely with R. Absence of density limit and direct Ion heating in case of ICRF. Most important, RF heating at ITER can lead to temperatures of 150 Million 0 C Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij 8

9 RF Heating ICRH – Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating ECRH – Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating LHCD – Low Hybrid Current Drive Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij

10 ICRH Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating Mechanism Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij10 Plasma ions are confined to rotating around the magnetic field lines in the Tokamak. If the waves have the correct frequency and polarization, their energy can be transferred to the charged particles in the plasma Cyclotron Frequency, W ci = e.B/m i The EM waves of a frequency matched to the ions are able to resonate – or damp its wave power into the plasma ions. Which in turn collide with other plasma particles and heat up the Plasma. Increasing the temperature of the bulk plasma. Localised heating of Plasma.

11 Fundamental and Second Harmonics Fast RF wave is required for ICRH an it is Left hand circularly polarized. Ions are right hand circularly gyrating around the magnetic field. So at the fundamental mode W = W ci There is no heat transferred to the ions by the RF wave. So at W = 2W ci, there is an energy transfer by RF wave to the ions. This is referred to as Second Harmonic heating Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij

12 Requirements for ICRH A.CD.COscillator Control System P.m Interface Hybrid coupler Antenna Phase Shifter InterfaceAntenna Faraday Shield Phase Shifter Faraday Shield Stub Matching Network Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij Tokamak Region

13 Requirements for ICRH Generator sources – Tetrode tubes, Klystrons and Gyrotrons. Transmission Lines Interface Window – Interface between Transmission line and Tokamak. Antenna Faraday Screens/Shields Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij 13

14 Antenna(JT-60) Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij

15 Antenna(JET) Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij

16 Antenna Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij

17 Faraday shield The Faraday shield forms the plasma facing component of the antenna. It blocks all the plasma particles from entering the Antenna. But allows the passage for EM waves towards Plasma. They are a series of parallel metal rods. This reduces the RF resistive losses. Can also improve the heating efficiency by 2.3 times Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij

18 ECRH Electron Cyclotron Resonance heating It is similar to ICRH, the only difference being that it specifically heats the electrons only. Electrons being almost 2000 lighter than the ions, have higher cyclotron frequencies. W ce = eB/M e M i >>> M e W ce > W ci Thermalization is low as compared to ICRH Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij

19 ECRH Advantages over ICRH ICRH with its frequencies much lesser than ECRH cannot penetrate much in the vacuum vessel. ECRH waves can propagate in vacuum and can be steered with high precision. In ECRH beam can be transmitted through air which simplifies the design and allows the source to be far away from the plasma, simplifying maintenance Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij

20 Results so Far At JT-60U, a strongly peaked T e profile was observed and the central electron temperature increased up to 15KeV under ECRH with power of 9 MW. Temperature in excess of 10KeV are a routine now in JET with central temperature of 16KeV with ICRH with power of 32 MW Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij20

21 Summary To achieve Fusion, we require many Auxiliary heating methods. Only one of them is not sufficient enough. So a combined effort of methods like ICRH, ECRH, NBI is the best way to reach the desired goal. With experiments like Aditya, JET, JT-60, Textor etc. and the most ambitious ITER project, we can definitely create a star like Fusion on Earth Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij21

22 Thank You Presentation on RF Heating by - Saurabh Kumar Vij22


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