2BASIC ERGONOMICS Instructor: David Ellsworth Edmonds Community College This course is being supported under grant number SH16637SH7 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.With Thanks to & Cooperation of the Tulalip Occupational Safety & Health Administration (TOSHA)
4ERGONOMICS WHAT IS “ERGONOMICS”??” Ergos = work Nomos = laws Ergonomics = the laws of work
5ERGONOMICS What Does Ergonomics Mean? Designing jobs, equipment, and work tasks to fit human physical characteristics and energy limitationsIt considers body dimensions, mobility, and the body’s stress behavior“Make the work fit the person, not the person fit the work”
6ERGONOMICS Benefits of Ergonomics Include: safer jobs with fewer injuriesincreased efficiency and productivityimproved quality and fewer errorsimproved moraleErgonomics is a science that takes what we know about people’s capabilities and limitations, and applies that knowledge to the workplace.Ergonomics is a tool that employers can use to make jobs, workstations, and tools to fit the worker. Employers who have implemented ergonomics in their workplaces have found that it greatly reduces injury claims and costs. They’ve found other benefits as well, such as increased productivity and product quality, and improved morale among employees.
7ERGONOMICS Ergonomic Goals: Finding ways to make strenuous, often repetitive work, less likely to cause muscle and joint injuries -- and still get the job done.Keeping young bodies from wearing out prematurely, and mature bodies from giving out early.
8ERGONOMICSWork-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) accounted for an average total of $410.3 million of worker’s compensation claims in the years
9ERGONOMICS Enough People to Fill Safeco Field!! This type of injury affects nearly 50,000 Washington workers each yearEnough People to Fill SafecoField!!It is estimated that the actualcost including lost taxes, wages,fringe benefits, administrativecosts, etc. is close to $1.5 billion per year.
10ERGONOMICS State Fund Claims - Statewide 1990-98* Number of ClaimsCost of ClaimsWMSDsAllother claimsWMSDsAll other claims26%40%74%60%* Note: This data does not include lower extremity WMSDs.Source: SHARP Report No. 40-4a-2000
11ERGONOMICSNationally, almost 60% of allwork-related illnesses areMSDs
12The Problem is Widespread The Top 12 Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) IndustryWMSDs per year805Nursing, Personal Care Facilities2,177421Trucking and Courier Services (non-air)1,591541Grocery Stores1,486152General Bldg Contractors, Residential1,361174Masonry, Tile, Plaster703445836Residential Care242Sawmills, Planing Mills432175Carpentry, Floor Work429078Landscape, Horticultural420451Air Transportation, Air Courier411176Roofing, Siding, Sheet Metal388177Concrete Work287Total10,130These 12 SICs alone account for 20% of WMSDsSource: SHARP Report No. 40-4a-2000
14The Cost-Benefit Ratio Is Substantial Statewide estimated annual costs saved by ergonomics preventionStatewide estimated annual costs to comply with the rule:$80 Million$340 MillionThe Estimated Savings to Business Is $4 for Every $1 Invested
16ERGONOMICS Current Federal Law OSHA: The federal law (OSHA Ergonomics Standard) was issued on November 14, and was scheduled to be effective on January 16, 2001
17REGULATIONSCongress utilized the little known Congressional Review Act (CRA) to pass a joint resolution of disapproval of the new OSHA Ergonomics Standard with the Senate voting 56 to 44 on March 7 and the House voting 223 to 203 on March 8, 2001President Bush signed the joint resolution on March 20, 2001
18REGULATIONSThe effect is that the OSHA Ergonomics Standard is REPEALED – There is no Federal Law!!NOTE: OSHA still has some regulatory “bite” in this area by virtue of the infamous “General Duty Clause” (OSHA Sec. 5(a)(1))
19OSHA General Duty Clause REGULATIONSOSHA General Duty ClauseEach employer “shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees”
20REGULATIONS What’s Next ? Several interested parties including Labor Unions, Business and associations such as ASSE have been meeting with Secretary of Labor, Elaine Chao to formulate a new standard that will be acceptable to all stake-holdersThe federal ergonomics regulations are being proposed on an industry by industry basis
22ERGONOMICSWork-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) are occupational disorders that involve soft tissues such as muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, blood vessels and nerves
23ERGONOMICSWMSDs are:Daily stress to anatomical structures that may occur when a person is exposed to certain high risk activitiesIf the accumulating stress exceeds the body’s normal recuperative ability, inflammation of the tissue can followChronic inflammation may lead to the development of WMSDsMay require weeks, months or years for development - and for recovery
24ERGONOMICS What is The Musculoskeletal System? The Musculoskeletal System includes the following:Bones – The load-bearing structure of the bodyMuscles- Tissue that contract to create movementTendons – Tissues that connect muscles to bonesLigaments – Tissues that connect bones to bonesCartilage – Tissue that provides cushioning and reduces friction between bonesNerves – Communication system that links muscles, tendons and other tissue with the brainBlood Vessels – Tubes that circulate nutrients throughout the body
25What Are Examples of WMSDs? ERGONOMICSWhat Are Examples of WMSDs?Sprain – Overstretching or overexertion of a ligament that results in a tear or rupture of the ligamentStrain – Overstretching or overexertion of a muscle or tendonTendonitis – Inflammation of the tendon inside the sheathTenosynovitis – Inflammation of the sheath around the tendonCarpal Tunnel Syndrome – Compression of the median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel in the heel of the hand
26What are Examples of WMSDs? ERGONOMICSWhat are Examples of WMSDs?Tennis elbow or Golfer’s elbow – Medical term is Epicondylitis – inflammation of the tendons at the elbow.Trigger Finger – Common term for tendonitis or tenosynovitis that causes painful locking of the finger(s) while flexingPitcher’s Shoulder – Rotator cuff tendonitis – inflammation of one or more tendons at the shoulderWhite Finger – Medical term is Reynaud’s Phenomenon – constriction of the blood vessels in the hands and fingersDigital Neuritis – Compression of the nerves along the sides of the fingers or thumbs
30Tendonitis Tendon function: Micro tears of tendon occur daily Transmit force from muscle to boneMicro tears of tendon occur dailyTypically repair themselvesWith repeated loading repair is not adequatePain / Inflammation
44ERGONOMICSWMSDs are sometimes referred to using other unfamiliar terms such as :Cumulative Trauma Disorders – CTDRepetitive Trauma Disorders – RTDRepetitive Strain Injuries – RSIRepeated Motion Disorders – RMDOveruse Syndromes
45Signs or Symptoms of WMSDs ERGONOMICSSigns or Symptoms of WMSDsPainful jointsPain in wrists, shoulders, forearms, knees, etc.Pain, tingling or numbness in hands or feetFingers or toes turning whiteShooting or stabbing pains in arms or legsBack or neck painSwelling or inflammationStiffnessBurning sensationsWeakness or clumsiness in hands; dropping things
48Look for These Indicators: "Caution Zone"Look for These Indicators:Awkward PosturesHigh Hand ForceHighly Repetitive MotionRepeated ImpactHeavy, Frequent or Awkward LiftingModerate to High Hand-Arm VibrationCautionZone
49Awkward Postures "Caution Zone" Being in these work positions for more than 2 hours total per dayHands above headElbows above shoulderBack bent forward more than 30 degreesNeck bent more than 30 degreesSquattingKneeling"Caution Zone"
50Working with the Hands Above Head For more than 2 hours per day"Caution Zone"
51Working with the Elbows Above Shoulders For more than 2 hours per day"Caution Zone"
52Neck or Back Bent Forward More than 30º For more than 2 hours per dayYour head weighs 10 to 12 pounds, so it can be quite a strain to work with your neck bent.Neck posture is only covered by the rule if the worker is not able to vary his or her posture. Working with the neck bent like this is pretty common in inspection jobs, such as with this cherry sorter. It also is common in job such as:welding,microscope work,dental hygienistsYour upper body is 60 percent of your total body weight, so like your neck holding up your head, it’s also a strain for your back to hold you in a bent over position for more than two hours per day, such as landscapers who work near ground level.Like neck posture, back posture is only covered if the worker is not able to vary his or her posture."Caution Zone"
53Neck or Back Bent Forward More than 30 For more than 2 hours per day"Caution Zone"
54Neck or Back Bent Forward More than 30 For more than 2 hours per day"Caution Zone"
55Squatting "Caution Zone" For more than 2 hours per day Squatting is one alternative to bending at the back to get down low, and it’s fine to do for short periods of time. Unfortunately it creates a lot of pressure behind the knee cap and can cause knee injuries over time.Kneeling also is a risk factor for knee injuries, since it creates pressure both in front of and behind the knee cap.A lot of construction work requires kneeling for jobs like concrete finishing, carpentry, and carpet and floor laying."Caution Zone"
56Kneeling "Caution Zone" For more than 2 hours per day Squatting is one alternative to bending at the back to get down low, and it’s fine to do for short periods of time. Unfortunately it creates a lot of pressure behind the knee cap and can cause knee injuries over time.Kneeling also is a risk factor for knee injuries, since it creates pressure both in front of and behind the knee cap.A lot of construction work requires kneeling for jobs like concrete finishing, carpentry, and carpet and floor laying."Caution Zone"
57High Hand Force "Caution Zone" More than 2 hours per day of: Pinching 2 or more pounds weight or 4 or more pounds forceUsing a lot of hand force increases the risk for hand, wrist and elbow injuries, and in some cases shoulder injuries.Holding something between the tips of the fingers and the thumb is called a pinch grip. This type of grip uses very small muscles in the hand and wrist, so even holding something that weighs only 2 pounds can be a risk for injury if it’s done for more than 2 hours per day.Because you can’t get as good a grip with your fingertips as with your whole hand, you tend to use more force to hold onto something than just the weight of the object. For example, in order to hold onto a stack of paper that weighs two pounds, you actually have to use four pounds of grip force.Jobs involving pinch force of 4 pounds are also covered, even if the weight being handled is really low. An example would be an assembly job where one of the parts inserted are spring clips that require a pinch force of 4 pounds to open.When you grip something with your whole hand you’re able to use the larger muscles in your forearm, and this gives you a grip that’s five times stronger than a pinch grip. You’re also able to get a better grip so the amount of grip force you use is pretty much equal to the weight of the object you’re holding.Therefore, grip force only enters the caution zone if it’s 10 or more pounds of weight held or 10 or more pounds of force exerted, and it’s done for more than 2 hours per day."Caution Zone"
58High Hand Force "Caution Zone" More than 2 hours per day of: Gripping 10 or more pounds weight or forceUsing a lot of hand force increases the risk for hand, wrist and elbow injuries, and in some cases shoulder injuries.Holding something between the tips of the fingers and the thumb is called a pinch grip. This type of grip uses very small muscles in the hand and wrist, so even holding something that weighs only 2 pounds can be a risk for injury if it’s done for more than 2 hours per day.Because you can’t get as good a grip with your fingertips as with your whole hand, you tend to use more force to hold onto something than just the weight of the object. For example, in order to hold onto a stack of paper that weighs two pounds, you actually have to use four pounds of grip force.Jobs involving pinch force of 4 pounds are also covered, even if the weight being handled is really low. An example would be an assembly job where one of the parts inserted are spring clips that require a pinch force of 4 pounds to open.When you grip something with your whole hand you’re able to use the larger muscles in your forearm, and this gives you a grip that’s five times stronger than a pinch grip. You’re also able to get a better grip so the amount of grip force you use is pretty much equal to the weight of the object you’re holding.Therefore, grip force only enters the caution zone if it’s 10 or more pounds of weight held or 10 or more pounds of force exerted, and it’s done for more than 2 hours per day."Caution Zone"
59Highly Repetitive Motion Workers repeat same motion every few seconds for more than 2 hours per day with:neckshoulderselbowswristshands"Caution Zone"
60Highly Repetitive Motion Intensive keying for more than 4 hours per day"Caution Zone"
61Repeated Impact "Caution Zone" Using hands or knees as a hammer more than 10 times per hourmore than 2 hours per day"Caution Zone"
62Repeated Impact "Caution Zone" Using hands or knees as a hammer more than 10 times per hourmore than 2 hours per day"Caution Zone"
63Heavy, Frequent, or Awkward Lifting Lifting objects more than:75 lbs. once/day55 lbs. more than ten times/day10 lbs. more than twice/minute for more than 2 hours per day25 lbs. above shoulders, below knees, or at arms length for more than 25 times/dayJust about every job requires some lifting, but lifting only becomes a risk for injury if it’s heavy lifting, it the lifting is done frequently, or if it’s done in an awkward posture.For the caution zone, heavy lifting is any lift of 75 lbs or more once per day, or 55 lbs ten or more times per day.Frequent lifting is 10 lbs or more, more than twice per minute, for more than 2 hours per day.Awkward lifts are lifts of 25 lbs or more above the shoulders, below the knees, or out at arms’ length done more than 25 times per day."Caution Zone"
66Moderate to High Hand-Arm Vibration Moderate Levelmore than2 hours/day"Caution Zone"
67Moderate to High Hand-Arm Vibration High LevelMore than30 Min/day"Caution Zone"
68If the Employer Has “Caution Zone” Jobs, They Should: Begin an employee awareness education program Analyze the workplace for hazards Reduce any hazards they findEmployees in caution zone jobs (and their supervisors) need to be provided with general ergonomic awareness education.These jobs also need to be looked at in more depth to determine if they have hazards that require controls and to discover what is causing the hazards identified.If hazards are identified, they need to be reduced below the hazardous level, or to the degree feasible. We’ll talk more about hazard levels and feasibility later.
69Ergonomics Awareness Education Should: Show the types, symptoms and impacts of WMSDsShow the importance of early reporting of symptomsProvide information on all “caution zone” risk factorsIdentify the hazards and measures to reduce themThese are the specific elements listed in the rule that need to be covered in the ergonomics awareness education.Notice that information on all the caution zone risk factors is covered - this helps to make the education truly portable so that employees will be aware of different risk factors that may be present in any job they perform.
71Analyzing Caution Zone Jobs for Hazards Use a systematic method to look at:-physical demands-layout of work area-size, shape, and weight of objects handledThe results will help to determine controlsIf you have employees whose jobs involve one or more of the risk factors we’ve talked about, then they are in the caution zone and they need to receive the awareness education. You also need to analyze these jobs to see if they are hazardous and need to be corrected. Your analysis needs to go beyond just whether or not there are risk factors, to try and find out what about the workplace or the job is creating the risk factors.Physical demands include the risk factors we’ve talked about, but also the pace of work, whether the tasks are all the same or if there’s variety, and how much recovery or rest time there is between tasks.Layout of the work area includes things like reaches, height of the workstation, chair, conveyor or whatever it is the employee works with or on to see if it is causing awkward postures.Things you need to analyze for lifting jobs are the size, shape and weight of objects being lifted.The point of this analysis is to see if a caution zone job is hazardous, and to help figure out the best way to control the hazard. For example, if the size and shape of a box requires workers to reach way out when lifting it, maybe a smaller box could be used."Hazard"
72Hazard Zone "Hazard" Risk factors become hazardous when: -there is a longer duration of exposure-there is greater intensity-there is a combination of risk factors"Hazard"
73FREQUENCY FORCE POSTURE The ERGONOMIC TRIANGLE "Hazard" THE GOAL IS TO ELIMINATEAT LEAST ONEFROM EVERYTASKPOSTURE"Hazard"
74Awkward Postures "Hazard" Shoulders: Hands above Head Elbows above shouldersFor More Than 4 hrs/day"Hazard"
75Awkward Postures "Hazard" Shoulders Repetitive : raising >once/minuteFor More Than 4 hrs/day"Hazard"
76Awkward Positions "Hazard" Neck Bent >45° without support or ability to vary postureMore than 4 hrs/day"Hazard"
77Awkward Positions "Hazard" Back Bent forward >30° Without support or ability to vary postureMore than 4 hrs/dayBent forward >45° Without support or ability to vary postureMore than 2 hrs/day"Hazard"
78Awkward PositionsKnees - SquattingMore than 4 hrs/day"Hazard"
79Awkward PositionsKnees -kneelingMore than 4 hrs/day"Hazard"
80High Hand Force + "Hazard" Arms, Wrists, Hands Pinching unsupported object 2 or more pounds/handOrPinching with force of 4 or more pounds/hand (1/2 ream of paper)+Highly repetitive motionMore than 3 hrs/day"Hazard"
81High Hand Force + "Hazard" Arms, Wrists, Hands Pinching unsupported object 2 or more pounds/handOrPinching with force of 4 or more pounds/hand (1/2 ream of paper)+Wrists bent in flexion 30° or more, or in extension 45° or more, or in ulnar deviation 30° or moreMore than 3 hrs/day"Hazard"
82High Hand Force + "Hazard" Arms, Wrists, Hands Pinching unsupported object 2 or more pounds/handOrPinching with force of 4 or more pounds/hand (1/2 ream of paper)+No other risk factorsMore than 4 hrs/day"Hazard"
83High Hand Force + "Hazard" Arms, Wrists, Hands Gripping an unsupported object 10 lbs or > per handOrGripping with force of 10 lbs or > per hand (clamping light duty jumper cables onto battery)+Highly repetitive motionMore than 3 hrs/dayHigh Hand Force"Hazard"
84High Hand Force + "Hazard" Arms, Wrists, Hands Gripping an unsupported object 10 lbs or > per handOrGripping with force of 10 lbs or > per hand (clamping light duty jumper cables onto battery)+Wrists bent in flexion 30° or more, or in extension 45° or more, or in ulnar deviation 30° or moreMore than 3 hrs/day"Hazard"
85High Hand Force + "Hazard" Arms, Wrists, Hands Gripping an unsupported object 10 lbs or > per handOrGripping with force of 10 lbs or > per hand (clamping light duty jumper cables onto battery)+No other Risk FactorsMore than 4 hrs/day"Hazard"
90Highly Repetitive Motion Neck, Shoulders, Elbows, Wrists, HandsSame motion every few seconds with little variation(Except Keying)+-No Other Risk FactorsMore than 6 hrs/day"Hazard"
91Highly Repetitive Motion Neck, Shoulders, Elbows, Wrists, HandsSame motion every few seconds with little variation(Except Keying)+-Wrists bent in flexion 30° or more, or in extension 45° or more, or in ulnar deviation 30° or more ANDHigh, forceful exertions with the handsMore than 2 hrs/day"Hazard"
92Highly Repetitive Motion Intensive KeyingAwkward posture, including wrists bent in flexion 30 or more, or in extenson 45 or more, or in ulnar deviation 30° or moreMore than 4 hrs/day"Hazard"
93Highly Repetitive Motion Intensive KeyingNo Other FactorsMore than 7 hrs/day"Hazard"
94Repeated Impact "Hazard" Hands More than 2 hrs /day Using Hand (heel/base of palm) as a Hammer more than once per minuteMore than 2 hrs /day"Hazard"
95Repeated Impact "Hazard" Knees More than 2 hrs /day Using Knee as Hammer more than once per minuteMore than 2 hrs /day"Hazard"
98Heavy, Frequent or Awkward Lifting How many lifts For how many hours per day? per minute? hr. or less hr. to 2 hrs hrs. or more 1 lift every 2-5 mins lift every min lifts every min lifts every min lifts every min lifts every min lifts every min"Hazard"
99Manual Handling "Hazard" Manual handling is transporting or supporting a load by hands or bodily force - This includes:LiftingCarryingPutting downPushingPullingMovingSupporting"Hazard"
101Hand-Arm Vibration "Hazard" Step 1: Find the vibration value for the tool. (manufacturer or web site: or measure it yourself. The vibration value will be in units of meters per second squared (m/s²) - Using a hand-arm vibration graph find the point on the left side that is equal to the vibration value"Hazard"
102Hand-Arm Vibration "Hazard" Step 2: Find out how many total hours per day the employee is using the tool and find that point on the bottom of the graphStep 3: Trace a line in from each of these two points until they cross"Hazard"
103Hand-Arm Vibration "Hazard" Example:An impact wrench with a vibration value of 12 m/s2 is used for 2½ hours total per day.Note: The caution limit curve (bottom) is based onan 8-hour vibration value of 2.5 m/s². The hazard limitcurve (top) is based on an 8-hour vibration value of 5 m/s²"Hazard"
104Hand-Arm Vibration "Hazard" Step 4: If that point lies in the crosshatched “Hazard” area above the upper curve, then the vibration hazard should be reduced below the hazard level or to the degree technologically and economically feasibleIf the point lies between the two curves in the “Caution” area, then the job remains a “Caution Job”If it falls in the “OK” area below the bottom curve, then no further steps are necessary"Hazard"
105Reducing Identified Hazards Employers should reduce hazards to below hazard level, or to a degree technologically and economically feasible through:Engineering and administrative controls (preferred) and/orIndividual work practices and PPEEmployers might also consider reducing employee hours performing a particular task to lower the hazard of the jobHazards that are identified during the job analysis need to be reduced below the hazardous level or to the degree technologically and economically feasible. The hazardous level would be that level specified in the General Performance Approach method chosen or in Appendix B if the employer is using the Specific Performance Approach.We expect that in the large majority of situations there will be simple and affordable controls to reduce hazards, however the concept of feasibility recognizes there may be special situations where we may not yet know how to reduce the hazard below the hazardous level, or the control would not be economically possible for an employer. This feasibility issue is one we deal with in other safety and health rules too.Engineering or administrative controls such as changes to workstations and tools, process redesign to eliminate unnecessary steps, or job rotation are preferred hazard control methods. If these are not effective in reducing the hazards below the hazardous level, the employer needs to use individual work practices or personal protective equipment (if feasible) as interim measures to supplement the other hazard controls.The rule does not require an employer to replace full-time employees with part-time employees or otherwise reduce worker’s hours of employment to comply."Hazard"
107Illustrations from Ergonomic Checkpoints by the International Labour Organization (ILO), and Practical Ergonomics by the UAW-GM Ergonomics Task Force"Solutions"
108ERGONOMICSErgonomic hazards are prevented primarily by the effective design of a job or job-site and the tools or equipment used in that jobBased on information gathered in the work-site analysis, procedures can be established to correct or control ergonomic hazards using either engineering controls or work practice controls
109ERGONOMICSThoughtful arrangements reduce stress and eliminate many potential injuries and disorders associated with the overuse of muscles, with bad posture, and with repetitive motionSome jobs expose workers to excessive vibration and noise, eyestrain, repetitive motion, and heavy liftingMachines, tools, and the work environment may be poorly designed, placing stress on workers' tendons, muscles, and nerves and in addition, workplace temperature extremes may aggravate or increase stress
110ERGONOMICS Engineering Controls Work stations should be ergonomically designed to accommodate the full range of required movements of a workerSufficient space should be provided for the knees and feetMachine controls should be reachable and equally accessible by both right and left-handed operatorsOther factors to look at include hard or sharp edges, contact with thermally conducting work surfaces, proper seating, work piece orientation, and lay-out of the workstation
111ERGONOMICS Engineering Controls Attention must be given to the selection and designs of the tools used in the workplace to prevent the tools from having a negative effectWorkers should be permitted to test tools in the actual work environment before purchasing new toolsA variety of tool sizes should be available with consideration to handle sizes, right and left-handed workers, weight, center of gravity, and adequacy for gloved handsEngineering adaptations may be made to tools and tool handles
112ERGONOMICS Work Practice Controls Key elements of a good work practice program include instruction in proper work techniques, employee training and conditioning, regular monitoring, feedback, adjustments, modification, and maintenanceAfter workers are trained in a particular work activity, such as proper lifting, they should be monitored to ensure that they continue to use the proper techniquesImproper practices should be corrected to prevent injury
113STAY FIT FOR THE JOB... "Solutions" Abdominal muscles are most important muscles for preventing back strain/sprain/injury“C’mon! Keep those stomachs over the handle! Let the fat do the work!… That’s it!”"Solutions"
114Stretching "Solutions" Prepares muscles to do work Flexible muscles not easily injuredTight muscles easily injuredMorning/After LunchStressPrevious strain/sprainPRO ATHLETESRAILROADMAJOR CONSTRUCTION CO."Solutions"
115StretchingPRO ATHLETESRAILROADMAJOR CONSTRUCTION CO."Solutions"
116StretchingPRO ATHLETESRAILROADMAJOR CONSTRUCTION CO."Solutions"
117"Solutions" 90-degree" posture: Sit upright with your elbows, hips and knees bent at right angles and your feet flat on the floor or on a footrestThis position is biomechanically correct, but it can fatigue your back muscles over timeFatigue can lead to slouching, even on a chair with lumbar support"Solutions"
118"Solutions" Forward tilt posture: Raise the height of your chair's seat a few inches and tilt the front of it downward about 8oThis will open up your hip angle and allow you to support some of your weight using your legs rather than having it all rest on your hips and the backs of your thighsYou may not find this posture comfortable if you have knee or foot problems, or if you feel like you are sliding off the front of the seat - A contoured chair seat can help to hold you in place"Solutions"
119"Solutions" Reclining posture: Lean back 10o - 20o into the chair's backrest and put your feet out in front of you to open up the angle at your hips and kneesThis helps relax your back muscles and promotes blood circulationLeaning back too far however, can result in an awkward neck posture when trying to keep your head upright"Solutions"
120"Solutions" Standing posture: Standing provides the biggest change in posture, and is a good alternative to prolonged sitting, which can aggravate low back injuriesIt can be fatiguing, however, so have a counter-height chair available at standing workstations, or use a height adjustable sit/stand workstationAlso, prop one foot up on a low footrest occasionally to help shift your weight"Solutions"
121ERGONOMIC INJURY FACTORS Lesions to tendons of the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists or handsPrimary causes:Repetitive movements over long periods of timeAwkward posturesUse of excessive forces"Solutions"
122ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS: POSTURE NEUTRAL & COMFORTABLE:Wrists straightShoulders relaxed with elbows close to bodyHead / shoulders & back in vertical alignmentFrequent breaks when bent postures can’t be avoided"Solutions"
123ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS: REPETITION Use automatic tools for repetitive tasks (screw and bolt tightening)Eliminate unnecessary tasks / movements by redesigning maintenance procedures and workstationsTake short, frequent breaksAlternate tasks and processes to use different muscle groups"Solutions"
124ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS: HIGH REPETITION Job Enlargement- More variety in tasksMechanization –fit speed to safe work rateWork-to-Worker. Rather than lifting, turning, repositioning have work arrive at worker in right position."Solutions"
125ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS: HIGH REPETITION Job EnlargementReduce SpeedsMechanical Assists / PositioningJigs/vices to hold partsMove work to workerVoice-recognition softwareMacrosMini-BreaksJob Enlargement- More variety in tasksMechanization –fit speed to safe work rateWork-to-Worker. Rather than lifting, turning, repositioning have work arrive at worker in right position."Solutions"
130ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS: HIGH HAND FORCE Use clamps and fastenersReduce weight of tool or objectRedesign tool/user interfaceLook at Material Handling AlternativesUse Two Hands /Alternate HandsSharp, well-maintained toolsAlternate Positions/TasksIdea is to reduce the force exerted. Look for ways to mechanically hold, lift, manipulateRemember drawbacks to weight reduction (increase vibration)Mat’l Handling alternatives. Rather than hand carrying items, use toolHammer with either hand. Grip or pinch with both hands"Solutions"
132ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS "Solutions" Shoulder harness for landscaping tool to reduce hand forces"Solutions"
133ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS: REPEATED IMPACT Use rubber mallets & padded toolsUse leversMechanical devicesMechanical devices – carpet stretcher rather than knee hammer"Solutions"
134ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS: HEAVY, FREQUENT, AWKWARD LIFTING Reduce or Increase load weight, capacityHandholds, rigid containersStore objects 30” or more above floorSlides, gravity chutesHoists, lifts, forklifts, ConveyorsReduce horizontal distanceHandle items onceMobile racks, storageArrange to avoid twistIncrease weight – forces use of mechanical device, team lift, etc.Handholds – increase lifting capacity by 15%Horizontal distance – from pick-up point, to put down point, remove barriers, access obstacles"Solutions"
135ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS "Solutions" Wallboard lifting system for installing drywall"Solutions"
136ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS "Solutions" Lift assist device to eliminate heavy, awkward lifts in nursing homes and home health care"Solutions"
137Smarter, Not Harder: Bend & Brace "Solutions" Repetitive Motion Awkward LiftingBack AngleGrippingSmarter, Not Harder:Bend & BraceCommon Work-Related Musculoskeletal DisordersKeep in mind, WMSDs are not diagnoses; they are work-related disorders with similar characteristics.Common WMSDs include:Tendonitis (also Tendinitis). This condition is an irritation (inflammation) of a tendon resultingfrom repeated force or stress on that muscle/tendon group.Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). This condition is an irritation (inflammation) of the tendonsattached on the outside of the elbow caused by activities that have jerky throwing motions orimpact (e.g., turning a screwdriver).Medial epicondylitis (golfer's elbow).This condition is an irritation (inflammation) of the tendonattachments on the inside of the elbow resulting from activities that require repeated or forcefulrotation of the forearm and bending of the wrist at the same time.Tenosynovitis. Tenosynovitis is an irritation (inflammation) of the tendon and the lining of thesmooth sheath surrounding the tendon, resulting from repeated movement of the tendon in thesheath.Synovitis.Synovitis is an irritation (inflammation) of the inner lining of the membrane surrounding ajoint or tendon.Stenosing tenosynovitis of the finger (trigger finger).This condition results from a tendonsurface becoming irritated and rough. If the tendon sheath also becomes inflamed and presses onthe tendon, a progressive constriction of the tendon can occur, resulting in a loss of free movementin that joint area. This disorder is commonly caused, for example, by repeated use of a staple gunor pair of pliers.de Quervain's disease.This "disease" is a stenosing tenosynovitis affecting the tendons on theradial side (e.g., thumb side) of the wrist. Constriction of these tendons pulls the thumb back awayfrom the hand, causing severe pain and limited thumb movement or use.Raynaud's phenomenon (white finger or vibration syndrome).This "phenomenon" is causedby the reflexive constriction of the small arteries, which causes the fingers to become white (pale)and feel cold, numb, and tingly. This disorder may be caused, in part, by prolonged hand-armvibration from powered hand tools.Thoracic outlet syndrome..This syndrome involves compression of the nerves and bloodvessels between the neck and shoulder. Symptoms include numbness of the fingers and hand.Compression is due to various postures or activities, such as working with the arms aboveshoulder height and pulling the shoulders back and down."Solutions"
139Manual Handling - Work Smarter Not Harder Minimize the manual handling as much as possible.Plan your equipment/material dropsUse hoists, carts, wheelbarrowsPlan your lift. Check for:Ease of route, obstacles, adequate space"Solutions"
144ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS "Solutions" Using a carpet stretcher to eliminate knee impacts"Solutions"
145ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS "Solutions" Redesign hand-tool Reduce weight of toolRotate jobsUse clamps or vises"Solutions"
146ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS: HAND TOOLS The design of grips for hand tools can be crucial:Grip shape and size appropriate to the task and userIsolate cold temperatureKeep wrist and elbow in a "neutral" positionEliminate sharp edges or pressure pointsUse two-handed grips (where possible)Attenuate vibration"Solutions"
147Redesign the Work Station "Solutions"Courtesy of UCDavis
148Bring the load down or lift yourself "Solutions"
154HAND-ARM VIBRATIONS (HAVS) A disorder which affects the blood vessels, nerves and muscles of the hand, wrist and forearmCan be severely disablingIs better known as Vibration White FingerThe term HAVS is used to describe any damage to the blood vessels, nerves or muscles that is caused by vibration.It is an encompassing title used to replace such terms as vibration white finger, drumstick finger and beat hand.Numbness in fingers is dangerous as dexterity is lost. Any injury to the finger may not be felt and the body is then much more susceptible to disease and infection as the blood circulation to the finger is lost and the bodies defence system cannot reach the affected area."Solutions"
155HAND-ARM VIBRATIONS "Solutions" Regular Maintenance Balancers, isolators, damping materialTool Selectionlow-vibration toolsBattery rather than pneumatic operated toolsHigh power to weight ratioLow torque w/cutoff rather than slip-clutchNon-slip surfaceContoured handles"Solutions"
156Why talk about HAVS? "Solutions" 1 Million workers are exposed to high levels of vibration, of those 460,000 are estimated to be working in construction242,000 cases of HAVS are reported every yearSource HSE press release Press Release E218: November 1999."Solutions"
157What are the Symptoms? "Solutions" Tingling and numbness in the fingersIn the cold and wet, fingers go blue then red and are painfulYou can’t feel things with your fingersPain or tingling in your forearms at night which stop you from sleepingLoss of strength in your arms and handsThe symptoms are usually after exposure to vibration.When the fingers turn white blood flow is impaired and feeling is lost. As the blood returns the finger changes colour and becomes extremely painful."Solutions"
158What are the Symptoms?. Stage 1 is where the tips of the fingers turn white. This is the point where the operative should raise the issue with site management.
159Who is at Risk? "Solutions" Users of breakers and pokers, sanders and angle grindersUsers of scabblers (to clean concrete) and needle gunsUsers of drills and jigsaws"Solutions"
160Who is at Risk? Those with a disease that reduces blood flow Workers in cold and damp conditions"Solutions"
161Who is at Risk? Workers using vibrating tools Workers in contact with cold tools"Solutions"
162How Can I Prevent it? "Solutions" Ask for low vibration tools Try a different approach to your jobUse the right tool for the jobKeep blades and cutting edges sharpHAVS is such a big issue that many companies who manufacture tools now make them low vibration. It is also mandatory for information on vibration created by tools is made available by the supplier.The supplier has to provide the acceleration level of the tool expressed as m/sec2. The maximum exposure level is 2.8m/sec2 over 8 hours.An assessment should be carried out to ensure that staff are not exposed to high levels of vibration. This can be carried out by the safety department."Solutions"
163How can I Prevent it? "Solutions" Check to ensure that the tool has been properly maintainedReduce the amount of time you use the toolKeep the handles warmBlunt blades and worn bearings can increase vibration in toolsMachines that are defective or not working correctly should be changed or repaired.If possible reduce your exposure by job rotation, more or longer breaks ( not in the canteen, on different types of work!).Use tools with plastic handles, steel handles are cold and tend not to keep warm.Keep you hands warm to improve circulation, wear gloves and keep steel handles warm."Solutions"
164How can I Prevent it? Improve your blood circulation by: "Solutions" Keeping warm, wearing gloves etc.Giving up smoking - Smoking drastically impairs blood flow through the bodyMassaging and exercising fingers during work breaksSmoking significantly reduces the bloods ability to flow to the extremities of the body.In low temperatures the body attempts to keep the warm blood close the vital body organs such as the heart, lungs and kidneys etc. As a result the extremities of the body such as fingers and toes are starved of blood and sacrificed as part of the bodies defence mechanism.Keeping the whole body warm and the hands ensures better flow of blood to the extremities.Apparently placing your fingers in the warmest parts of your body when resting helps, such as your armpits and groin!"Solutions"
165Prevention "Solutions" Low vibration tools Use the right tool for the jobTool maintenanceReduce amount of time using the toolKeep hands & handles warmNew approach to your jobAnti-vibration glovesHAVS is such a big issue that many companies who manufacture tools now make them low vibration. It is also mandatory for information on vibration created by tools is made available by the supplier.The supplier has to provide the acceleration level of the tool expressed as m/sec2. The maximum exposure level is 2.8m/sec2 over 8 hours.An assessment should be carried out to ensure that staff are not exposed to high levels of vibration. This can be carried out by the safety department.Blunt blades and worn bearings can increase vibration in toolsThere are many styles and manufacturers of anti-vibration and impact gloves available on the market today -all with many different damping materials. Only gloves that are full finger in design should be considered “anti-vibration.” How do you know what to recommend to your employees? Proper glove selection largely depends on the type of job and the risk factors involved. The operation of a power tool requires an effective vibration-adsorbing material.The U.S. currently does not have a standard in place to test the effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves. However, the International standard ISO 10819, followed by Europe and most of Asia, offers an effective guideline for anti-vibration certification. If vibration damping is the main concern, then you should only recommend the full finger certified glove.Machines that are defective or not working correctly should be changed or repaired.If possible reduce your exposure by job rotation, more or longer breaks ( not in the canteen, on different types of work!).Use tools with plastic handles, steel handles are cold and tend not to keep warm.Keep your hands warm to improve circulation, wear gloves and keep steel handles warm."Solutions"
166What Else Can I Do? "Solutions" Learn to Recognize the signs of HAVS Stop work and report any symptoms to your supervisor immediatelyUse any control measures provided, i.e. gloves etc., that your employer has providedAsk for advice from your safety department or safety repNot reporting HAVS will mean that the disease will only get worse. The fingers will eventually turn red then black. Infection can follow and in extreme circumstances fingers can be lost. Pain is severe and often felt only when resting."Solutions"
167RememberOnce you have had an attack of HAVS, you will always be at risk (it is a chronic condition)Tell your supervisor as soon as you suspect any symptomsTreatment and understanding at an early stage is crucial. HAVS is a chronic condition which means that it cumulates over a period of time. White finger will not occur straight away but builds up and can creep up on people unless they are aware of the symptoms.It is a widely held opinion that many operatives detect the symptoms away from work and do not associate the problems with work activities and carry on until they can no longer work and drift away to other industries, or become so bad they never work again."Solutions"
170CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME Occurs with repetitive motion of hands & wrists--especially with high force levelsIncidence up to 15% in certain industriesA “natural” keyboard and good wrist support can help most PC users avoid problemsGOOD NEWS: Have dropped about 30% since which most attribute to strong workplace ergonomics programs"Solutions"
171Computer Ergonomics "Solutions" Routine PC user defined as spending 20 hours or more per week working at a computerStudies of PC users have not shown a risk of eye damage...although fatigue very possibleNIOSH studies have not indicated a radiation hazard nor pregnancy risk from PC usageWorkers using bi/tri-focal glasses before beginning PC use may need special purpose glasses for computer work"Solutions"
172“NATURAL” KEYBOARDS "Solutions" Three types: 1. Fixed split 2. Adjustable split3. “Sculptured”Awkward wrist postures minimized with 15 to 25 horizontal degree key split AND 8 to 66 degree vertical incline"Solutions"
175“NATURAL” KEYBOARDS "Solutions" Key Layout Design Changes Have: - increased comfort (81% of users)improved posturesreduced muscle activitylowered carpal tunnel pressure in lab settingsObtained primarily to alleviate an injury"Solutions"
176WRIST RESTSNo medical evidence that they reduce Repetitive Strain Injuries...As they work for some, but not for othersUsage Guidelines:Buy a rest that is even with top of keyboardMaterial should be “medium-soft” (foam--gel mix) so foam doesn’t break down - AVOID hard plastic typesDON’T leave wrists on rest...which compresses carpal tunnel - Palm rest insteadChanging typing habits more critical than wrist supportMOST APPROPRIATELY USED TO REST HANDS DURING PAUSE IN TYPINGLEARN TO TYPE CORRECTLY WITH “FLOATING WRISTS” FIRST!!!"Solutions"
177Ergonomic chairs "Solutions" Adjustable back height Adjustable arm rest**Chair on left NOT ergonomically designed"Solutions"
198Mouse – What it DoesIn order to operate the mouse while typing, the operator is frequently forced to reach forward or sideways, or even both at the same timeIn order to operate the mouse while typing, the operator is frequently forced to reach forward or sideways, or even both at the same time.
199Mouse – Common Complaints The main complaint is pain in the neck and shoulder region.This is due to reaching forwards and sideways.Repetitive movements are not so much to blame; rather it is the effort of holding one's arm with little or no support, often in an unnatural position, for a long time.Therefore our focus must be on eliminating or at least reducing the need to place one's forearm and hand to the side of the keyboard.
200Mouse Platform Advantages of this platform: Reduces side- and forward movementsReduces the overall area of mouse operationDisadvantages:The mouse is located slightly higher then the keyboard – this defect can be alleviated by using a slightly higher arm support.
201Notice that reaching forwards and sideways is substantially reduced. Mouse PlatformNotice that reaching forwards and sideways is substantially reduced.Notice that reaching forwards and sideways is substantially reduced.
202Keyboard with a Touch Pad A keyboard with a touch pad for those applications that don’t require frequent and precise placement of the cursorHere is a keyboard with a touch pad for those applications that don’t require frequent and precise placement of the cursor.
203Short KeyboardA narrower keyboard (14”) allows one to operate the mouse without side movementsA narrower keyboard (14”) allows one to operate the mouse without side movements.A cordless mouse further minimizes discomfort, as one is not fighting a tangled cord all the time.The minor disadvantage of having to adjust to a slightly different key arrangement is well counterbalanced by substantially increased comfort.
204Where Else Can You Keep the Mouse? Placing the mouse between the operator and the keyboard requires using cordless mousePlacing the mouse between the operator and the keyboard requires using cordless mouse.Individuals with shorter arms (and those who cannot get closer to the desk) may not benefit from such an arrangement.
205Proof-ReadingHere's a solution for proof-reading thick and heavy documents.
206Targeting the WorkTargeting of large objects can be performed at a distance > 15 inchesTargeting of small objects need to be performed at 6-10 inches, ie., needle and thread
220MODEL COMPUTER WORKSTATION Keyboard trays WITH wrist supportSplit "Natural" keyboards to facilitate neutral wrist angleFully adjustable ergonomic chairDocument holder to minimize head / eye & neck movements"Solutions"
221MODEL COMPUTER WORKSTATION Corner desk units to position monitor directly in front of employeeFoot rest where requestedRe-organization of working materials within employee arm reachAlternative pointing devices (e.g., scrolling mouse or trackball devices"Solutions"
226Columns of Support Posterior column of support made up of the facet columnvery stablereflects an upright postureAnterior column of supportmade up of body of vertebra and the discless stablereflects a flexed posture
227The Disc & Nerve Root The disc is the shock absorber of the spine 85% water at the age of 1525% water at the age of 75
240*The Forces Involved07/16/96The amount of force you place on your back in lifting may surprise you!Think of your back as a lever - with the fulcrum in the center, it only takes ten pounds of pressure to lift a ten pound object.*3##
241*The Forces Involved07/16/96If you shift the fulcrum to one side, it takes much more force to lift the same object. Your waist acts like the fulcrum in a lever system, on a 10:1 ratioLifting a ten pound object puts 100 pounds of pressure on your lower back*4##
242The Forces Involved When you add in the 105 pounds of the *The Forces Involved07/16/96When you add in the105 pounds of theaverage human uppertorso, you see thatlifting a ten poundobject actually puts1,150 pounds ofpressure on thelower back!*5##
243The Forces Involved If you were 25 pounds overweight, it would add *The Forces Involved07/16/96If you were 25 poundsoverweight, it would addan additional 250 poundsof pressure on your backevery time you bend over!*6##
244Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesAnytime you find yourself doing one of these things, you should think:DANGER! My back is at risk!Try to avoid heavy lifting. . Especially repetitive lifting over a long period of time*7##
245Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesTwisting at thewaist whilelifting orholding a heavyload thisfrequently happenswhen using a shovel.*8##
246Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesReaching and lifting . . .over your head, acrossa table, or out the backof a truck*9##
247Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesLifting or carryingobjects with awkwardor odd shapes*10##
248Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesWorking in awkward,uncomfortable positions . . .*11##
249Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesSitting or standingtoo long in oneposition sittingcan be very hardon the lower back*12##
250Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesIt is also possibleto injure yourback slipping ona wet floor or ice . . .*13##
251Prevent Back Injuries Avoid lifting and bending whenever you can *Prevent Back Injuries07/16/96Avoid lifting and bending whenever you canPlace objects up off the floorRaise/lower shelves.Use carts and dolliesUse cranes, hoists, lift tables, and other lift-assist devices whenever you canTest the weight of an object before lifting by picking up a cornerGet help if it’s too heavy for you to lift it alone*14##
252Prevent Back Injuries Use proper lift procedures *07/16/96Prevent Back InjuriesUse proper lift proceduresFollow these steps when lifting . . .*15##
253STEP ONEStand close to the load with your feet spread apart about shoulder width, with one foot slightly in front of the other for balanceTo evaluate a worker's lifting habits, consider the following variables: frequency of lifting, duration of such activities, and type of lifting, as well as the worker's state of health, body size, age and general physical fitness.
254STEP TWOSquat down bending at the knees (not your waist). Tuck your chin while keeping your back as vertical as possible
255STEP THREEGet a firm grasp of the object before beginning the lift
256STEP FOURBegin slowly lifting with your LEGS by straightening them - Never twist your body during this step.
257STEP FIVEOnce the lift is complete, keep the object as close to the body as possible. As the load's center of gravity moves away from the body, there is a dramatic increase in stress to the lumbar region of the back
258Safe Lifting For those Awkward Moments... If you must lift or lower from a high place:1. Stand on a platform instead of a ladder2. Lift the load in smaller pieces if possible3. Push the load to see how heavy and stable it is4. Slide the load as close to yourself as possible before lifting up or down5. Get help when needed to avoid an injury
259Safe Lifting From hard-to-get-at places... Get as close to the load as possibleKeep back straight, stomach muscles tightPush buttocks out behind youBend your kneesUse leg, stomach, and buttock muscles to lift -- not your back
260Team liftingAll participants should be of similar height, build and genderOne person should take control of the lift, command attention, inform others and co-ordinate the liftDouble the people DOES NOT MEAN double the capacity
261If one person can lift 100 pounds: How much can two people lift?Only 70 % or 140 poundsPercentages: 1 person = 100 lbs, wrongly presume 2 people = 200 Rather take the 200 * .70 = 140 lbs 3 person presume 300 lbs, Rather take the 300*.50 = 150 lbs.How much can three people lift?Only 50 % or 150 pounds
262Q. Will wearing a back support belt increase my maximum lifting potential? A. No. Manufacturers of back support belts do not claim they increase maximum lifting potential.
266*07/16/96Things You Can DoMinimize problems with your back by exercises that tone the muscles in your back, hips and thighsBefore beginning any exercise program, you should check with your doctor*18##
267Exercise! Warm up slowly . . . A brisk walk is a good way to warm up Exercise regularly, every other dayWarm up slowly A brisk walk is a good way to warm upInhale deeply before each repetition of an exercise and exhale when performing each repetition
268Exercises To Help Your Back *Exercises To Help Your Back07/16/96Wall slides to strengthenyour musclesStand with your backagainst a wall, feetshoulder-width apart.Slide down into a crouchwith knees bent to 90 degreesCount to 5 and slide back upthe wall - Repeat 5 times"Solutions"*19##
269Exercises To Help Your Back *Exercises To Help Your Back07/16/96Leg raises to strengthen back and hip muscles . . .Lie on your stomachTighten muscles in one leg and raise leg from floorHold for count of 10, and return leg to floorDo the same with your other legRepeat five times with each leg"Solutions"*20##
270Exercises To Help Your Back *Exercises To Help Your Back07/16/96Leg raises to strengthen back and hip muscles . . .Lie on back, arms at your sidesLift one leg off the floor andhold for count of tenDo the same with the other legRepeat 5 times with each legIf this is too difficult… keepone knee bent and the foot flaton the floor while raising theother leg"Solutions"*21##
271Exercises To Help Your Back *Exercises To Help Your Back07/16/96Leg raises while seated ...Sit upright, legs straight and extended at an angle to floorLift one leg waist highSlowly return to floorDo the same with the other legRepeat 5 times with each leg"Solutions"*22##
272Exercises To Help Your Back *Exercises To Help Your Back07/16/96Partial sit-up to strengthen stomach muscles . .Lie on back, knees bent and feet flat on floor Slowly raise head and shoulders off floor and reach both hands toward your kneesCount to 10Repeat 5 times"Solutions"*23##
273Exercises To Help Your Back *07/16/96Exercises To Help Your BackBack leg swing to strengthen hip and back musclesStand behind chair, hands on chairLift one leg back and up, keepingthe knee straightReturn slowlyRaise other leg and returnRepeat 5 times with each leg"Solutions"*24##
274Exercises To Decrease the Strain on Your Back *07/16/96Exercises To Decrease the Strain on Your BackLie on back, knees bent, feet flaton floorRaise knees toward chestPlace hands under knees & pullknees to chestDo not raise headDo not straighten legs as youlower themStart with 5 repetitions, severaltimes a day"Solutions"*25##
275Exercises To Decrease the Strain on Your Back *07/16/96Exercises To Decrease the Strain on Your BackLie on stomach, handsunder shoulders, elbowsbent and push upRaise top half of bodyas high as possibleKeep hips and legs onfloorHold for one or twosecondsRepeat 10 times, severaltimes a day"Solutions"*26##
276Exercises To Decrease the Strain on Your Back *07/16/96Exercises To Decrease the Strain on Your BackStand with feet apartPlace hands in small of backKeep knees straightBend backwards at waist as far aspossible and hold for one or twosecondsRepeat as needed"Solutions"*27##
277A FEW SOLUTIONS... "Solutions" Reduce manual material handling Pre-Plan material dropsUtilize material handling equipmentKeep materials in “neutral zone”EquipmentUse the right tool for the jobEvaluate new tools for ergonomicsKeep sharp & in good repairUse vibration dampening tools / glovesReduce DurationMini-breaksMulti-taskEmployee rotation/job sharePreplan – ties to be delivered for a retaining wall. Arrange delivery at a location nearest the work area and oriented so they don’t need re-arranging. ½ at one end of the project, ½ at the other end. Or 1/3, 1/3, 1/3Equipment – wheelbarrows, hoists,Neutral zone – self-adjusting carts, stacks on more than 1 pallet to reduce bending for lowest items"Solutions"
279Ergonomics at Work "Solutions" Risk of injury - Heavy lifting These pictures show the difference between lifting and moving something heavy and awkward by hand (in this case a roll of carpet) and moving the same thing with the help of a co-worker and mechanical assistance (in this case a carpet dolly).You can see where lifting by hand might create a risk for back or shoulder injury. The science of ergonomics teaches us that using the dolly puts a lot less strain on the back and shoulders, and it’s also less tiring overall. The worker who gets help is a lot more likely to have a little energy left at the end of the day, and in the long run is a lot less likely to have injuries and miss work.Help may not always be available and it may not always be possible to use mechanical assistance. In some cases this type of help isn’t even needed. But when it is available and makes the job easier, then there’s no reason not to use it.Ergonomics can be as simple as using a dolly to move something instead of lifting by hand. Ergonomics is about making jobs easier and reducing the risk of injury.Risk of injury - Heavy liftingCart reduces risk of injury"Solutions"
286WE ARE HERE TO SHARE IDEAS! “Okay! I’ll talk! I’ll talk…. Take two sticks of approximately equalsize and weight -- rub them together at opposing angles using short,brisk strokes…”
287START WITH A STEERING COMMITTEE Designated Safety CoordinatorsField SupervisionWho must be involved-- to make a positive impact in your company?
288STEP ONE: THE “CAUTION ZONE” INVENTORY Awkward Work PosturesHigh Hand ForceHighly Repetitive MotionRepeated ImpactHeavy, Frequent or Awkward liftingModerate to High Vibration
289STEP TWO: EMPLOYEE AWARENESS Education for affected employeesCauses of musculoskeletal disordersCaution Zone Jobs of concernHow to identify and prevent WMSDsNon-work related physical activitiesPromote physical fitness...
290STEP THREE: ANALYSIS OF CAUTION ZONE JOBS By the steering committee?By all field employees?By selected crafts or professions?Checklists or Pocket Cards?General or Specific Performance?
291STEP FOUR: SET REASONABLE OBJECTIVES “If we pull this off, we’ll eat like kings!”
292STEP FIVE: GET EMPLOYEE INPUT & IDEAS Changes in tools or equipmentUse of ergonomic PPEReducing the size & weight of loadsIdeas for task variety or job rotationRemember the impact of peer pressure
294STEP SIX: PRIORITIZE HAZARD REDUCTION Senior management support is neededConsider cost/benefits of changesAssign trial teams and a trial scheduleReduce exposures below hazardous levels, or to the extent technologically and economically feasible
295STEP SEVEN: COMPANY-WIDE APPLICATION Discuss experiments at safety meetingsAssign new equipment or proceduresEncourage continuing suggestionsKeep ergonomic awareness high at safety meetings, and during new employee orientation
297TOOLS & RESOURCES WorkSafe Institute of Washington OSHA Website Dept. of Labor & IndustriesThe Internet – general information searchErgonomic Equipment SuppliersTraining Materials & ConsultantsOther?
298Discrimination & Retaliation are Illegal ! Employees have a legal right to report injuries and raise safety and health concerns without fear of retaliation or discriminationIf an employee becomes disabled, an employer must still comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)For ADA information, contact the federal Department Of Labor at or the Northwest Disability Business Technical Assistance Center at HELP-ADAFor example, an employer cannot terminate an employee because he or she files a claim for worker'scompensation or complains about safety or health hazards.