Europe Spreads to Africa The greatest imperial shift during the 19th century was Europe’s changing stance regarding Africa
2.07: LISTING 3. List the few places where European colonization had taken place in Africa prior to the nineteenth century. (p. 44) Portugal in West Africa (Angola) French in Senegambia region (Senegal) Dutch and English settlers on the Cape of Good Hope
Early interactions Most Europeans had limited knowledge and interest in Africa prior to the late 18 th century – This indifference and ignorance stemmed from a lack of __________ with Africa – Only a few European interactions had occurred by this time period Portuguese slave traders settled in ______________ on the western coast The Senegambia region, specifically Senegal, served as a home to ______________ traders Dutch and English settlers had established a colony on ________________________________________ Europeans represented Africa as outside ______________ in writings, visual imagery, and maps – Africans were ostensibly savage brutes Africans as a _________source only reinforced the idea of Africans remaining outside of humanity
Europeans Interact with Africans Proponents of a free market saw Africa as potential market – dumping ground for European _________________ Africa also served as a source for _____________ – West Africa exported ________oil and _______oil – These goods lubricated European __________________________________ This economic prosperity led to Europeans visualizing Africa as a potential site for Civilization If Africa became a European trading partner, Africa had markets, cities, and states of its own
Growing Public Awareness of Africa The rise of the _____________________demonstrated the sudden awareness of Africa’s economic potential – This company dedicated itself to the African commercial expansion of ______________ – Scottish explorer ______________worked for the company He led expeditions on the _______________in West Central Africa in 17____ and 18__ These voyages led Park to encounter the _____________and _____________states These two societies________________ _______________ confirmed beliefs that Africa could become a British trading partner – Mungo Park wrote ________________________________about his expeditions in West Africa included a piece of art showing __________ in ___________ country Explorers’ accounts of Africa proved enormously popular and helped spark public interest in Africa
Europeans Face Multiple Obstacles in Africa ____________devastated Mungo Park’s two expeditions of the Niger River – Until the mid_______century, disease posed a threat to European-African commercial ties – Europeans had previously held the upper hand in immunity to diseases African diseases now overwhelmed Europeans much as European diseases had overwhelmed ______________________
Europeans Face Multiple Obstacles in Africa these 4 diseases ravages Europeans: – DYSENTERY – YELLOW FEVER – TYPHOID – MALARIA 19th century Africa is often known as the ___________________________as a result of the potency of diseases Methods for treating malaria were ineffective or __________in themselves – Some Europeans attempted to cure malaria with __________________
Dealing with Malaria European chemists discovered that_____________could cure malaria in the 1820s – Quinine derived from the bark of the ______________ tree in _______________________ – By the 1850s, Europeans used quinine ___________________ in order to avert contraction of malaria Europeans faced incredibly high death rates from African diseases – Disease killed more European soldiers than warfare in Africa through the 1870s
High Death Rates from Disease Europeans faced incredibly high death rates from African diseases – Disease killed more European soldiers than ______________ in Africa through the 1870s
African physical features created great challenges for European explorers – The invention of the ________________in the ____th century partially fixed this problem The steamboat applied James Watt’s steam engine to transportation Europeans could now explore continental rivers in – Africa, – Australia, and – Asia At rapid speeds even against the wind and the current Geographic Obstacles
_____________ exploration of Africa, however, remained difficult for a substantial period of time – Steamboats had to be dismantled, carried around ___________and then reassembled Europeans gained access to almost all areas of Africa following the use of steamboats – Areas that lacked ______________________remained largely untouched by Europeans – These regions were among the last parts of Africa to be ______________________ Geographic Obstacles
Movement towards colonization Most challenges facing Europeans in the penetration of Africa had been removed or solved by the mid _____ century – ______________________ were often among the first people to enter into regions of Africa Many of these missionaries were ___________________ who sought to end ________________in Africa These religious zealots sought to convert people to Christianity and westernize “primitive” natives To these people, conversion to Christianity and cultivating beneficial __________________ relationships went hand in hand – Both of these goals moved Africans along the civilizing process of Westernization
Movement towards colonization African mission stations attracted other Europeans – ______________ often utilized the knowledge of missionaries for economic benefit – Missionaries sought _________________ protection These desires involved European governments in Africa
Explorers raised public interest about Africa Many explorers embarked on ______________ to raise money from these 3 sources – government, – general public, and – scientific authorities ….for further African expeditions – The most successful African explorers were often the most skilled ____________________ – Quite a few of these men became national heroes _______________________is one such man
Quick Facts: David Livingstone Dr. David Livingstone was a Scottish minister. He is the most famous European missionary of the Age of Imperialism. Livingstone traveled to South Africa as a missionary in 1840 at the age of 27. Livingstone went on to become one of most famous explorers of central Africa. He is known as the first European to travel the breadth of the continent of Africa from east to west. He was also the first known European to see Victoria Falls. Livingstone is best know for his disappearance and the subsequent search for him be the American newspaper reporter, Henry Stanley. From 1863- 1869, Livingstone completely lost contact with the outside world. When found, Stanley uttered the famous words, “Livingstone, I presume?”. Livingstone died in Africa in 1873.
Explorers raised public interest about Africa __________________ represented a different take on the African explorer – The ________________ hired this Anglo- American to locate Livingstone after the latter went missing in Central ______________
Explorers raised public interest about Africa – After the ________ publication of ___________________, Stanley became an instant hero
Misinformation & Negative Stereotypes Explorers often misinformed their audiences and perpetuated negative stereotypes of Africans – Henry Stanley was instrumental in associating Africa with ____________ in the European mindset – Stanley used imagery such as (3) immorality, savagery, and irrationality to describe Africans
Writers captivated by Stanley’s Account Edgar Rice Burroughs American novelist wrote : WHEN? in 1912 Joseph Conrad Polish-English novelist Conrad published WHEN? In 1902
Expanding into the Interior Europeans began expanding from their existing bases in Africa during this time The Portuguese started exploring from their ___________ settlements
Expanding into the Interior The French moved from Saint Louis into ____________ Similarly, the French moved from ____________ farther into the interior of Algeria – French took Algiers in ___________ – The French fought a costly war in the 1840s and 1850s against Algerian guerillas __________________headed these well-armed African troops By _________, France could claim Algeria as a colony
FYI Summary: South Africa Boers were descendants of Dutch sailors who had settled in southern Africa in the mid 1700s. The Boers lived a relatively solitary, agrarian/rancher lifestyle. By the early 19 th century the British took control of the Cape of Good Hope and the Cape Colony. The Boer farmers clashed with their new British rulers. In the 1830s, the Boer farmers migrated north (the GREAT TREK) from the Cape Colony and established three independent Dutch colonies (Natal, Transvaal, and the Orange Free State). In 1867, diamonds were discovered in the Orange Free State. Thousands of British colonists migrated to OFS. There was strife between the Boers and British in the OFS. In 1887, gold was discovered in the Transvaal.
The Great Trek The Great Trek from ______ to ______resulted from _________Afrikaners fleeing British control in southern Africa – These Africans migrated north of the __________ River seeking land of their own – By the late 1830s, the Afrikaners established independent republics in the ___________, the ___________________, and the _______________ It’s easy as 3,4,5!
Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) “The Colossus of Rhodes”
Boer-British Tensions Increase 1877 – Britain annexed the Transvaal. 1883 – Boers fought British in the Transvaal and regained its independence.. 1880s – Gold discovered in the Transvaal
The Boer War: 1899 - 1900 The Boers The British
AFRIKANERS The Afrikaners were largely self- employed as _____________________ They also engaged in ongoing territorial battles with the ________ – The ________often fought the Afrikaners – This tribe was a southern Bantu people
Afrikaner Expansion The __________felt threatened by Afrikaner expansion – Britain annexed the__________ province in ______to cut off the Afrikaners from the _______ – Officially, the British recognized the sovereignty of the _____________________and the _____________in _________ The British, however, constantly intervened in Bantu- Afrikaner conflicts
Europeans: violent confrontations with African political entities in a state of flux – The __________ of South Africa = perfect example During the ________, King __________________built a powerful Zulu empire in the ___________ region – King Shaka lived from ________o _________ – This sparked disturbances throughout southern Africa The raiding armies of Shaka sent many Bantu peoples seeking refuge – The________________were one of these peoples – Bantu peoples fled south into British territory or north into ________________land _____________ and Afrikaners thus warred constantly over land
Slide 48 People in History: Shaka and Resistance Zulu Wars
Anglo-Zulu War Zulus began to migrate north from ______to _____ – led to an armed conflict The Anglo-Zulu War lasted from ______to ______ – conflict erupted from tensions due to____________ expansionism into Zulu territory – The Zulus temporarily defeated the British at the ________________________: key importance= first victory of an African force over a European power – BUT….the British went on to crush the Zulus
European expansionism : opportunity to control Egypt Egypt was coveted because of its location on the _______________ – This represented a strategic post on the trading route to______________ – The _________________________had controlled Egypt since the ___________century
________________took the opportunity to invade Egypt in__________when Ottoman control weakened – British forces backed by Ottoman Turks defeated Napoleon’s troops at the __________________________________
The sultan of the Ottoman Empire lost control of Egypt when ____________________ seized power – This _____________officer served in the Ottoman empire of reoccupation – British and French commercial interests as well as the sultan’s continued resistance spoiled Ali’s plans for _____________________
EGYPT and COMMERCE Europeans controlled a large portion of Egypt’s _____________by the mid 19th century – European __________________ often financed Egyptian modernization projects – These projects included the ______________and an Egyptian _______________system The Suez Canal connected the __________Sea and the __________________________Sea ___________________________oversaw this project that lasted from ____________o _____________ The railway system ran from ___________________ to __________________
Industrial Revolution Source for Raw Materials Markets for Finished Goods European Nationalism Missionary Activity Military & Naval Bases European Motives For Colonization Places to Dump Unwanted/ Excess Popul. Soc. & Eco. Opportunities Humanitarian Reasons European Racism “White Man’s Burden” Social Darwinism
Pp. 44-45 1. Europeans who had previously ignored Africa began to see it as a potential marketplace as a…___ & _____ source of raw materials and an outlet for the sale of manufactured goods.
Pp. 44-45 2. The African Association was dedicated to… British commercial expansion in Africa.
Pp. 44-45 3. Mungo Park, the best known associate of the African Association, explored… up the Niger River in West Central Africa in 1795 and 1805, bringing him in contact with the advanced states of Fulani and Bambara.
Pp. 44-45 4. Africa became known as “The White Man’s Grave” because… so many Europeans died from African diseases like dysentery, yellow fever, typhoid, and malaria
Pp. 44-45 5. Africa’s topography proved to be difficult for Europeans until the invention of the… steamboat which allowed for the exploration of the interior of the African continent.
Pp. 44-45 6. Missionary work in Africa wasn’t only about saving souls anymore; rather, attention was turned to… ‘Europeanizing’ the natives through the cultivation of commerce.
Pp. 44-45 7. Many Europeans who sought to explore Africa publicized their travel through… books and lecture tours in hopes of raising money for future expeditions.
Pp. 44-45 8. An explorer’s ability to publicize and raise money for his campaigns often depended on his… skill as a speaker and rhetorician
Pp. 44-45 9. David Livingstone was the author of Missionary Travels and a… missionary-explorer who became a national icon.
Pp. 44-45 10. Henry Stanley became an overnight celebrity when he was hired to… find Livingstone when he was missing and published a work about it in 1872 called How I Found Livingstone.