Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "NEW IMPERIALISM: MOTIVES AND TACTICS Nineteenth-Century Empires"— Presentation transcript:

SUPERQUIZ Section II – PART 5 13 questions – 32.5%

2 The Tools of Empire The Tools of Empire: Technology and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century (Excerpts) By Daniel R.Headrick

3 Momentous consequences
Two events of the 19th century had momentous consequences for the entire world European domination and exploitation of ____________and ________________ the power and progress of _______________________ _______________________ traces the connections between these two events Historians up to now have only studied these occurrences separately instead of in tandem Asia Africa industrial technology Daniel Headrick

4 New imperialism new imperialism 35% 67% 84%
European imperialism of the 19th century differed in its extent and legacy from previous forms of imperialism Called _____________________ In 1800, Europeans controlled or occupied ________of the land surface of the world _____ by 1878 _____ by 1914 new imperialism 35% 67% 84%

5 New imperialism 1.5 20 million 7x 2,000 %
The British Empire alone experienced substantial increases in influence in the 19th century In 1800: British empire ________million square miles and Population: ______________ During the 19th Century The amount of land increased _____________ the population jumped by _____________ 1.5 20 million 7x 2,000 %

6 Legacy of New Imperialism
The legacy of new imperialism is hard to quantify European religious and political ideas marginally remain in Asia and Africa These ideas are modern equivalents of Hadrian’s Wall the Mosque of Cordoba

7 The Triumph of Europe technology ideology
The real triumph of European civilization has been ___________________ not ________________ Europeans have prevailed in plastics, electricity, printing presses, radio, vaccines, aircraft, napalm, and ships Very few people currently live without industrial products The Western conquest of the world with industrial technology remains unchallenged technology ideology

8 The Triumph of Europe hardware
The European technological triumph began in the 19th century Europeans wove their technology into their expanding European empires Connections between technology and history must be studied from both a technological and a historical viewpoint The history of technology remains a popular form of literature Bookstores often offer a wide variety of books detailing histories of cars, planes, guns, and furniture Most of these books are ________________histories compilations of facts and pictures but are separated from their historical context hardware

9 causes, development, consequences
HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY The social history of technology aims at comprehending the ________,___________, and _____________of technology Social historians take a piece of technology and examine it in this view e.g.,“How did firearms change warfare during the late Middle Ages?” Reversing these questions also yields insight into the historical process Examining how technological forces shaped the development of a particular historical phenomenon is an important skill Historians have failed to answer the question of how technological forces shaped the development of new imperialism causes, development, consequences

10 Article Focus: The Period of Imperial Expansion
Stages: European imperialism in Asia and Africa at different times and in different ways KEY TECH - Europeans penetrated and explored new regions: Steamers quinine KEY TECH -The conquest of indigenous peoples and the imposition of European rule followed Rapid-firing rifles machine guns KEY TECH – estab. of a communications and transportation network The Suez Canal, colonial railroads, steamship lines, and submarine telegraph cables Each of these steps involved hundreds of products and processes Headrick focuses on innovations which either made imperialism possible or cost-effective

11 economically profitable politically submissive
DANIEL R. HEADRICK Headrick Doesn’t destroy other interpretations provokes fresh thinking Technology = added to the list of factors that historians have explored regarding European imperialism Imperialism sought to create ___________________ and ________________________colonies Most territories achieved these aims prior to decolonization The resulting economic networks and technologies that entered into the development of colonial societies must be left alone for now economically profitable politically submissive

12 According to Headrick…
DIFFERENT ____________parts of the world experienced ____________effects from technological change during the 19th century India and Africa were much more affected than Persia or China; the KEY = The proximity The attention Headrick gives to different world regions is representative of the attention that Europeans gave those same regions in the 19th century DIFFERENT

13 The European Penetration of Africa: EARLY EXPLORATION
Portugal _________________ - coast of Africa in the 1430s remained the dark continent for years The interior of Africa often blank on maps Europeans chose to explore and conquer the Americas, Oceania, and Asia Little motivation to penetrate Africa prior to the 19th century Slave traders sought no disruptions to their profitable operations Merchants had little evidence of the profitability of penetrating Africa The penetration of Africa resulted from missionary and abolitionist movements against the slave trade

14 European Penetration of Africa
means Europeans lacked the ___________ to penetrate Africa Entering Africa had to be done in dugout canoes or on foot A series of _______________ covers most of Africa Rivers flow through a series of __________________from the highlands to the sea Mangrove swamps and ___________________line African coasts Animal trypanosomiasis nagana ….kill off pack animals in African tropical regions Europeans, however, had explored the Americas with primitive transportation means Disease The effect of European steamships did not have an impact on Africa until decades after their arrival H.G. Wells could have been writing about it in ______________ aliens invade Earth in futuristic vehicles142 As the aliens are about to conquer Earth, an invisible _______________forces them to flee plateaus waterfalls sandbars War of the Worlds microbe

15 Portuguese Expeditions
Diego Cão Portuguese captain _________sent an expedition up the ____________River Casualties reached such high levels within a few days that Cão cancelled the expedition Francisco _________ led a voyage up the ____________ valley in ________ The objective was to establish contact with the kingdom of __________________ _____________________ claimed the cattle and horses miles upriver The men contracted _________________ African or part-African agents carried on Portuguese communications with the Zambezi valley until _____ CONGO Baretto Zambezi 1569 Monomotapa Trypanosomiasis malaria 1835

16 Early European Expeditions
132 _____ out of 152 Europeans died during William _____ exploration of __________ Bay This journey lasted from _______ to ________ Mungo _____ _______ expedition of the upper _______River led to the death of all Europeans involved Captain James ________ led a party up the ________ River from ______ to _____ _____ of the 54 Europeans on the voyage died Bolt’s Delagoa Park’s 1805 Niger Tuckey Congo 19

17 Disease did not restrain European attempts to explore Africa
Each generation: new explorers willing to risk death in order to explore the unknown regions 19th century: New reasons to explore Africa A resurgence of Christian mission work, the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade, and scientific research funded by the wealthy provided ample motivation to enter Africa

18 Macgregor Laird Nigeria William
played a key role in opening _________to Britain son of shipbuilder ___________Laird whose early _____s: firm began building iron steamboats Macgregor was 23 Macgregor did not want to remain the junior partner in a struggling business A restless spirit of exploration stirred him scientific curiosity, missionary fervor, and commercial hope William 1830


1832 In _____: Laird’s explores the Niger River _________________had reached the upper reaches of the river in the first decade of the 19th century Park reached the __________ Rapids Brothers Richard and John ___________ traveled downriver in a canoe in 1830 first ventured north from Lagos proved that the Niger River and____River were the same river The Niger River flows into the ________________through a mangrove swamp Laird realized that a steamer carrying a cargo of trade up the Niger River could open up a large section of Africa to British influence Mungo Park Bussa Lander Does that make them “Waters?” Oil Bight of Benin

21 Laird realized steamer’s potential Niger River trade could open up a large section of Africa to British influence …and dats DE truff! ‘‘[This journey will please] those who look upon the opening of Central Africa to the enterprise and capital of British merchants as likely to create new and extensive __________ markets for our manufactured goods, and fresh sources whence to draw our supplies; and those who, viewing mankind as one great _________, consider it their duty to raise their fellow creatures from their present DE________, DE_________________, and DE______________ state, nearer to Him in whose image they were created. markets family graded nationalized moralized

22 The African Inland Commercial Company
established “for the commercial development of the recent discoveries of the brothers __________ on the River Niger” Lander founded by __________________and __________ merchants The treasury refused to grant the company a __________ and a charter, but these setbacks did not slow down the company ___________Lander was hired to lead the expedition Macgregor Laird Liverpool subsidy Richard

23 The African Inland Commercial Co.’s THREE SHIPS:
COLUMBINE The brig _____________- storeship Steamships Quorra Alburkah

24 Quorra – Seddon Langley wood 112 16 5 1/2 7 40 26 24 18 4
the larger steamship of the journey ________ and __________ built the ship out of ____________ measured _______by _______ feet drew _______ feet on the river and _____ feet at sea __________-horsepower engine needed a _____-man crew carried a _____-pound swivel gun, an ___-pound carronade, and 8 ____-pound carriage guns, as well as plenty of handguns Seddon Langley wood 5 1/ 40 26 24 18 4

25 The Alburkah 70 13 4 9 15 Fawcett Preston 14 9 1
M. Laird built the smaller steamship Alburkah The boat measured ___by ___feet drew _____feet ____ inches made of iron except for the deck Powered by a _____-horsepower _________ and ___________ engine crew of _______men Firepower aplenty! In addition to handguns, a _____-pounder and Six ____-pounder swivel guns 15 Fawcett Preston 14 9 1

26 Columbine Benin Benue palm oil
The expedition reached the Niger delta without incident left the ____________ in the Bight of ________, continuing upriver in the two steamers Laird hoped to found a trading post at the convergence of the Niger and _________ Rivers sought to buy _________ at low prices Columbine Benin Benue palm oil


steamers succeeded in navigating the Niger River Laird earned his reputation as an explorer and innovator The expedition as a whole failed to accomplish its ___________ and _____________objectives Only______out of the 48 Europeans survived the African diseases Laird returned in a weakened state to England in ______ He never fully recovered his health CULTURAL COMMERCIAL 9 Jan. 1834

29 2.18 LISTING (pp ) 1. List two momentous events of the nineteenth century according to Headrick. -industrialization -colonization of Asia and Africa

30 2.18 LISTING (pp ) 2. List two ways in which the “new” imperialism of the nineteenth century was different according to Headrick. -its extent -its legacy

31 2.18 LISTING (pp ) 3. According to Headrick, the goal of imperialism was to create colonies that were -politically submissive -economically profitable

32 2.18 LISTING (pp ) 4. Headrick writes that the three stages of imperialism were -penetration and exploration by first European travelers -conquest of indigenous peoples -forging of communication and transportation networks

33 2.18 LISTING (pp. 55-57) 5. Key technologies in phase one were
-steamers -prophylactic use of quinine

34 2.18 LISTING (pp. 55-57) 6. The key technologies in phase two were
-rapid-firing rifles -machine guns

35 2.18 LISTING (pp. 55-57) 7. The key technologies in phase three were
Steamship lines Suez canal submarine telegraph cables colonial railroads

36 2.18 LISTING (pp. 55-57) 8. Macgregor was motivated by
-missionary fervor -scientific curiosity -commercial hope

37 2.19 MATCHING (pp. 56-57) F G B A C E D
a. Diogo Cao b. Francisco Barreto c. William Bolts d. Mungo Park e. Capt. James Tuckey f. William Laird g. Macgregor Laird _____ 1. Scottish shipbuilder _____ 2. founder of the African Inland Commercial Company who led an expedition up the Niger River without incident until most of them died of disease _____ 3. explorer who led an expedition up the Zambezi River where many of his men succumbed to malaria in 1569 _____ 4. Portuguese captain whose men died in great numbers exploring the Congo River in 1485 _____ expedition leader at Delagoa Bay where 132 out of 152 Europeans died _____ 6. leader of exploring party up the Congo River in which 19 out of 54 Europeans died _____ 7. leader of a 1805 venture into the upper Niger River which resulted in the death of all Europeans present G B A C E D

38 2.20 FILL IN THE BLANK (p. 57) Richard Lander Columbine steamers
You’re cordially invited to join us on a monumental journey led by _______________________. On our passage, the ship _______________________ will be used as a storeship and two ______________________ will also accompany us up the __________________ . Richard Lander Columbine steamers Niger River

39 2.20 FILL IN THE BLANK (p. 57) Quorra Seddon Lander 26 40
The larger of the two steamers, the ___________________, is made of wood and was constructed by ____________ and ___________. She measures 112 x 16 feet and is powered by a ____________ - horsepower engine. Altogether _________ men will sail on the Quorra, which will be armed with a 24-pound swivel gun, eight 4-pound carriage guns, and an 18-pound carronade, a small cannon. Seddon Lander 26 40

40 2.20 FILL IN THE BLANK (p. 57) Macgregor Laird William Laird Alburkah
The smaller of the two ships built by _______________________, son of the great shipbuilder _______________________, is called the _______________________. She is 70 x 13 feet and carries a crew of ______the Quorra, which is made of ______________, the Alburkah is made almost entirely from ______________, except for the deck. She has a 15-horsepower Fawcett and Preston engine and carries a 9-pounder and six 1-pounder ____________ guns. William Laird Alburkah 14 wood steel swivel

41 2.20 FILL IN THE BLANK (p. 57) The previous travels of Richard and John Landers prove that a steamer like ours sailing up river with a cargo of trade will open up an immense part of Africa to the commerce and influence of Great Britain. Join us on our great adventure!

42 A substantial number of Europeans traded along the coasts of Africa prior to the mid 19th century
The British government stationed a fleet along the West African coast after __________ This attempt to end the slave trade searched slaving ships suspected of carrying human cargo The British placed small ___________throughout the coast to enforce the abolitionist goal Christian missions popped up along the African coasts 1807 army units

All of these Europeans fell ill from African diseases Statistics regarding mortality rates of British _______________ in West Africa are more plentiful than the rates among _________________ British troops were stationed in their posts as _________________ became important to Western society Military criminals and offenders constituted the __________________________ men traded their ____ sentences for military service in Africa This swap often constituted a death sentence The Royal African Corps covered ground from the __________ to the _____________ military personnel slave traders recordkeeping Royal African Corps. jail Gambia Gold Coast

44 1840 MEDICAL ARTICLE on troops in Africa
The United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine an _____ article concerning the health of these troops in Africa 1840

45 TROOPS in SIERRA LEONE 890 48.3 % 1825 447 78.3 % 100
From 1819 to 1836, _____ of the 1,843 troops who served in Sierra Leone died _________of soldiers ________worst year for British soldiers in Sierra Leone ______ out of the 571 men _________died from disease The size of the Sierra Leone force decreased by more than ______each year, despite the constant arrival of men 48.3 % 1825 447 78.3 % 100

46 THE GOLD COAST The Gold Coast proved just as deadly as Sierra Leone _______ of Europeans who arrived between 18__ and 18__ died in Africa ______ of the 224 men died in 1824 ______of white soldiers sent to West Africa died Another __________ became invalids Only _______of white soldiers returned “fit for future service” 2/3 221 77 % 21 % 2 %

47 CAUSES of MORTALITY - Misunderstood
The authors of the 1840 article did not understand the causes of the high mortality rates The writers did not blame ______________________for contracting diseases ___________could not take the blame Dry and windy stations produced as much death as stations next to marshes The authors faulted _____ fever and __________ fever The article also featured the death rates of white missionaries to Africa _____ such men ventured to West Africa between 1804 and 1835 _______of these men died of disease, while 14 more returned in poor health the men themselves Climate Yellow intermittent 89 54

48 West Indians vs. Europeans
West Indians only experienced a mortality rate ____ of the white mortality rate This rate still was double the disease mortality rate of native Africans An epidemic from 18___ to 18___ in the Gambia killed ______ out of 399 whites Only ________in 40 to 50 West Indians perished Yellow fever likely caused this epidemic Many West Indians had developed a resistance to this disease endemic to the West Indies By _____, the British government stopped sending white troops to West Africa Only a half dozen white ___________ arrived in the region to lead West Indian troops 1/10 276 1 1830 sergeants

49 Philip Curtin: CHARTMAN!
Faster than a speeding CRAY! More accurate than, well….Rush Limbaugh! Sees dead people and loves counting them!

50 Philip Curtin : British personnel mortality rates

51 Curtin: additional statistics for different military groups

52 Malaria vivax falciparum Africa temporary
Malaria was the chief killer of Europeans in Africa OTHER MAJOR KILLERS: dysentery, yellow fever, typhoid Malaria has likely caused more deaths in human history than any other disease The protozoan Plasmodium __________ causes TERTIAN malaria endemic throughout much of the world leads to a general weakening of the body intermittent fevers Plasmodium_______________causes a far deadlier type of malaria This strain of malaria is endemic only to tropical _____________ Savannas, swamplands, and rainforests all house the protozoan Surviving this type of malaria grants the body only _____________ resistance Africans often suffered repeated low-level bouts of malaria throughout their lives Without this limited resistance, however, plasmodium falciparum is often fatal vivax falciparum Africa temporary

53 “BAD AIR” 19th-century European medical experts blamed malaria on putrid smells and humid air This diagnosis stemmed from the ancient association of malaria and swamps In ________, mal’aria means “bad air” The_________word paludisme means “swamp” Italian French

54 Laird’s Theory PEACOCK Fernando Po wood
strangest theory of all in 1837 to Thomas _____________ regarding Laird’s expedition of the Niger River ‘‘Captain Grant mentioned the possibility of getting firewood at _____________, nothing can be more injurious both to the Vessel and the Crew…to the Crew, as the miasmatic exhalations from it will infallibly produce fever and disease. I have had melancholy experienced of the effects of_________taken on board & used as Firewood for the Engines on the Coast of Africa.’’ ~ Macgregor Laird PEACOCK Fernando Po It’s real PO WOOD! wood


56 This organism invades the
French scientist Alphonse Laveran discovered Plasmodium in 1880 This organism invades the bloodstream

57 VECTOR: Anopheles mosquito
97 In 18_____, the British _________, the Italian ____________ and the Italian __________________ discovered the Anopheles mosquito was the __________of malaria Ronald Ross Giovanni Batista Amico Bignami VECTOR

58 theoretical technology
Jesuit’s Bark: a remedy for malaria prior to Plasmodium’s 1880 discovery Technological advances often preceded _________explanations before the 20th century Science was “_________________” in the age before the 19th century Nowadays, technology has become “______________” The ________introduced the bark of the cinchona tree as a cure for _____ malaria in the ___th century The religious denomination spread news of the remedy throughout Europe An engraving from the 17th century reads, “______ offers a branch of cinchona to science” scientific theoretical technology applied science Jesuits vivax 17 Peru

59 Peru, say what? Yo, science! Wanna’ branch?
If you need to treat malaria, it’s a CINCHona! #$%^& JESUITS made me do it!

60 Britain’s PROTESTANT-in-CHIEF
CINCHONA’S DRAWBACKS Andes None of that “POPISH” CURE for me! The tree only grows in the ______ Mountains in South America Limited supplies reached Europe Often deteriorated or adulterated _______________doubted the effectiveness of cinchona bark because of the Jesuit connections Oliver Cromwell supposedly refused the “_____________” cure even when dying of malaria The bark also had no effect on __________ fever or other widespread fevers at the time Protestants Popish Yellow Cromwell Britain’s PROTESTANT-in-CHIEF

61 New “Killer” Treatments
Up through the 18th century, doctors prescribed cinchona bark for malaria By the turn of the century, however, medical authorities used _________ and ___________ Mercury helped with ______________ calomel used for its ____________qualities Doctors also began using __________and ______ These ineffective remedies killed many more patients than they saved The high death rates of British military personnel in West Africa are partially caused by these deadly “treatments” Mercury calomel salivation purgative bleedings blisters

62 1820: Pelletier and Caventou’s big breakthrough
French chemists __________________________and _______________________extracted the ________ quinine from cinchona bark in _________ Commercial production of quinine began in_________ By _______, the drug had reached manufacturing levels that allowed it to be used by the general public Pierre Joseph Pelletier Joseph Bienaimé Caventou alkaloid 1820 1827 1830

63 ALGERIA Algeria 1830 Typhoid cholera Malaria
Physicians in areas with malaria infestations began conducting quinine experiments in the late 1820s These medical experts often published results of their investigations The first important experiments occurred in __________ following the ______ French invasion __________ and __________outbreaks plagued French troops in Algeria _____________remained the most common problem Algeria 1830 Typhoid cholera Malaria

64 Bône experienced the highest Algerian incidence of disease
Swamps surrounded the city Malaria outbreaks occurred every summer in 18____: __________of the 2,788 French soldiers in Bône were hospitalized _________ out of 5,500 troops were hospitalized For every 7 of these soldiers that were hospitalized, _______died 32 1,626 Good doc 33 4,000 2 Mon DIEU, the mortality… 2 :7 !

65 Both malaria and its treatments contributed to patient deaths
Starve the fever and purge the patient! NO quinine until the 7th or 8th attack! Mon dieu! It’s way TOO expensive! Dr. J Broussais _______________heavily influenced French army physicians headed \medical school of ___________________ According to Broussais, treat fever with… bleedings, leeches, purgatives, a starvation diet Quinine should only be administered after the _____ or ____ ___attack The drug was too expensive for military use One ounce cost ________francs Val-de-Grâce Bad Doc! 7th 8th 25

66 2 French army docs just say, “NO!”
Jean-André Antonini François Clement Maillot chose not to follow the accepted medical practices at the time

67 ANTONINI intermittent typhoid
Antonini noticed that quinine appeared to help _________________ fevers This realization allowed Antonini to differentiate between malaria and ___________fever The physician lessened the __________ of his patients and gave them more __________ intermittent typhoid bleedings food

68 MAILLOT MAILLOT Antonini Bône malaria 24 40 Broussais 1 2
______ went further than _________ The physician arrived in ______in 1834 during the height of the____________ epidemic At the first sign of malaria, Maillot prescribed ___to ____ grams of quinine immediately _______________ believed that quinine should be given 4 to 8 days after the first signs of malaria Maillot put his patients on a nutritious diet Only________in 20 of Maillot’s patients died in 1834 Recall the figure was _______ in 7 for 1833 Bône malaria Broussais 1 2

69 Recognition for Maillot
35 In 18___ Maillot described his treatment methods for malaria to the _________________________in Paris In 18___, he published his findings in the work ________________________________________ The French military ___________accept Maillot’s methods for years In 18___, Maillot received the recognition he deserved France revered Maillot as a ________of French science The ____________________________stated, Académie de Médecine 36 Traité des fièvres ou irritations cérébro-spinales intermittentes did NOT 81 hero Scientific Congress of Algiers “It is thanks to Maillot that Algeria has become a French land; it is he who closed and sealed forever this ________________________” Tomb for Christians

70 QUININE West Africa pills vivax falciparum BEFORE prophylactic
Quinine use became more widespread in _________________as well Purgings and bleedings gradually fell into disuse By the 1840s, Gold Coast Europeans kept jars of quinine _______ around their house The first sign of chills or fever resulted in ingesting this medicine Quinine use after infection only combated ___________malaria To prevent Plasmodium_____________, quinine needed to saturate the human bloodstream _________infection occurred Quinine was taken as a ________________ during one’s stay in areas known to be infested with falciparum West Africa pills vivax falciparum BEFORE prophylactic

71 Two events led to discovery of quinine as a prophylactic
the ship ___________was stationed off the coast of Sierra Leone _______ crew members took cinchona bark regularly, while _____officer refrained from doing so Only ___________died of malaria 1839 The North Star 20 1 the officer

72 EVENT #2: 41 In 18______, the British government sponsored the largest ever Niger expedition Captain H.D. _________ led ________Europeans up the Niger River aboard the 457-ton Albert, the 457-ton Wilberforce, and the 249-ton Soudan Every known precaution was taken to protect these men from disease Only young and athletic men of “good breeding” had been selected The ships had fans to dispel bad air The expedition barreled at top speed up the malaria-infested Niger delta to reach the dry upper river as soon as possible Malaria still appeared on board the ships within three weeks The Wilberforce and the Soudan returned to the Atlantic Ocean as floating hospitals Within two months, ________ Europeans had died Another _____ perished before the expedition ended Trotter 159 48 7

73 Dr. T.R.H.Thomson Dr. T.R.H. Thomson used the opportunity as the physician on board one of Trotter’s ships to experiment with different drugs Some crew members received cinchona bark with wine while others got quinine Thomson gave quinine to himself and stayed healthy The physician published his findings in the article On the Value of Quinine in African Remittent Fever The work appeared on February 28, 1846 in the British medical journal The Lancet

74 Dr. Alexander Bryson’s Report
in 18________ published Report on the ___________ and ________________of the African Station advocated the use of quinine as a _________________ to Europeans in Africa By 18____, the director-general of the Medical Department of the ______________sent a notice to all West African British __________ recommending quinine prophylaxis 47 Climate Principal Diseases prophylactic 48 BRITISH ARMY governors

75 Quinine prophylaxis still did not receive immediate adoption by the medical community
Macgregor Laird _____________________proposed another African expedition in 18_____ Laird had the ship __________specifically built under his contract with the Admiralty This ________ propeller-steamer weighed ______ tons The ship rigged as a schooner She had the capacity to pull 2 or 3 barges up the Niger A ____-pounder pivot gun, 3 smaller swivel cannons, rifles, and muskets defended the Pleiad _____Europeans and ___Africans formed the ship’s crew 54 Pleiad IRON 220 12 54 12

76 BRYSON & BAIKIE BRYSON 6 8 BAIKIE captain Niger Benue Hutchinson
Dr. Alexander ___________ gave a set of instructions to protect the crew’s health These directions delineated clothing, diet, activities, and moral influences Bryson recommended the crew take ____ to ____ grams of quinine per day during the Voyage The time period of this quinine use spanned from the time the ship crossed the sandbar to 14 days after venturing back into the Atlantic Ocean Dr. William _________ made sure the crew followed these instructions Baikie served as ______________ of the Pleiad After 112 days on the ________&_________Rivers, all European crew members returned alive Thomas _________________ gave Dr. Bryson the credit he deserved for this technological miracle BAIKIE captain Niger Benue Hutchinson

77 ______________________: Pleiad’s Senior Surgeon
THOMAS HUTCHINSON ‘‘Since my first visit to Africa in 1850, I have felt firmly convinced----and that conviction urges me to impress my faith on all who read this work----that the climate would not be so fatal as it has hitherto proved to Europeans, if a different mode of daily living, a proper method of ________________________ hygiene, and another line of therapeutic practice in the treatment of fevers, were adopted. Before, and beyond all others, is the ____________ influence of quinine as it was used in the ‘‘______________,’’ in the mode here described…’’ ~ Thomas Hutchinson prophylactic preventative PLEIAD

78 _______________’s Mortality Stats
PHILIP CURTIN Death rates from malaria plummeted as quinine as a prophylactic spread Bleedings and purgings fell out of favor as accepted medical practices

79 Philip Curtin 50 Kumasi First-year 250-750 50-100 5 to 10
‘‘The improvement over the recent past was understood well enough in official and missionary circles to reduce sharply the most serious impediment to any African activity.’’ 50 Only _____ of the 2, European soldiers involved in a two-month military expedition against ________ died _____________mortality rates for Europeans in West Africa also rapidly dropped off The rate fells from ________-per 1,000 to __________ per 1,000 This lower rate still represents ____________times the death rate of European people in the same age bracket back in Europe Kumasi First-year 50-100 5 to 10

80 European exploration of Africa continues
European exploration of Africa increased in the mid 19th century with the advent of successful malaria prevention Expeditions remained dangerous but no longer had ______________levels of danger Countless Europeans volunteered to search for glory and wealth in Africa The most celebrated of these celebrities was _________________________ suicidal DAVID LIVINGSTONE

81 LIVINGSTONE Bechuanaland 1843 50 56 Zambezi 58 3 Livingstone
Livingstone first heard of quinine prophylaxis in ________________________in ________ He took quinine daily while marching across southern Africa from 18____to 18____ By 1857, Livingstone became convinced that quinine prevented malaria When preparing for an expedition of the __________ River in 18____, Livingstone made his crew take two grams of quinine a day in their sherry Many of the crew suffered from malaria on the trip Only _______of the 25 died Livingstone developed a remedy for malaria from rhubarb, quinine, calomel, and resin of julep The explorer modestly called this concoction ___________________ pills (“LIVINGSTONE ROUSERS”) Livingstone came to doubt quinine’s efficacy, as it only lessened the impact of malaria Bechuanaland 1843 Zambezi 58 3 Livingstone

82 Growing demand for quinine
Europeans followed the footsteps of intrepid explorers into Africa Planters, engineers, traders, missionaries, administrators, tourists, and soldiers, as well as their wives and children, ventured into Africa All of these groups needed daily quinine to treat malaria Europeans in ________ and other tropical areas also demanded quinine India

83 Growing demand for quinine
Until the 1850s, these areas served as the only sources for the world’s cinchona bark supply Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru in 1881 Bark exports rose from ____million pounds in 1860 to ____ million In 1881, Indian and ____________________ cinchona bark took bark from the Andes off the market The _____________and _______________caused this market shift to occur Ideas about growing cinchona trees in Asia circulated for a long time While demand for cinchona bark was small, the plans never came to fruition 2 20 Indonesian DUTCH BRITISH


85 CINCHONA in ASIA JAVA 50 53 54 HASSKARL Buitenzorg 58 60 Markham Weir
In the early 18____s, Dutch botanists in ______ advocated for the government of the Netherlands East Indies to import cinchona seedlings From 18___to 18___, Justus Charles ____________ traveled to the Andes under an assumed name This superintendent of the _____________________Botanical Gardens secretly collected seeds Most of these seeds died on Hasskarl’s journey back From 18___to 18___, Clements ___________ and _______ traveled to Bolivia and _______ Markham worked as a clerk at the __________ Office Weir found employment as a gardener at the British Royal Botanic Gardens at ____________ Markham and Weir sought to collect seeds of the Cinchona ____________________tree HASSKARL Buitenzorg Markham Weir Peru India KEW calisaya

86 CINCHONA at OOTACAMUND in INDIA’s ___________ Hills
Nilgiri Spruce English botanist Richard ________ and Kew gardener Robert _______ traveled to ______ at the same time as Markham and Weir’s mission Spruce and Cross collected 100,000 Cinchona ____________ seeds and 637 plants ______ seedlings reached India These plants formed the center of cinchona plantations at _______________________in the Nilgiri Hills near Madras Cross Ecuador succirubra 463 Ootacamund

87 A period of experimentation followed these secret expeditions
Horticulturists and other scientists exchanged seeds and information at botanical gardens in Java, Madras, Ceylon, and Bengal These gardens provided cheap seedlings and advice to planters After 1874, Cinchona calisaya __________________ formed the basis of Javanese cinchona plantations This hybrid species grafted onto the stem of the C. ________________ tree __________and____________also increased the quinine yield Mossing - cutting strips of bark and placing moss around the trees Coppicing -deals with cutting trees to the ground after 6 or 7 years Peruvian cinchona bark had a ________sulphate of quinine content Breeding in Java raised this figure to ________ by 1900 Scientists later improved this number to _______ or ________ Ledgeriana succirubra Mossing coppicing 2% 6% 8% %

88 Military administrative
The British and Dutch reached a compromise after the collapse of the Andean bark industry Indian ___________ plantations produced a cheaper but less potent bark From which chemists extracted ____________________ Totaquine : a mixture of antimalarial ________________ Almost all of India’s production of cinchona bark went to British ___________&_________________personnel stationed in the tropics The excess was sold in the Indian market _____________horticulturists produced the more expensive and potent pure quinine This version of quinine captured over ________% of the world quinine market by the early 20th century Scientific cultivation methods and a marketing ___________caused this monopoly The Kina Bureau of Amsterdam coordinated the purchase of bark as well as the price and quantity of quinine sold _____________control of the quinine market only ended after the Japanese conquest of Indonesia in World War II The development of _____________________malaria suppressants also contributed to the decline of this monopoly totaquine alkaloids Military administrative Javanese 90 cartel Dutch synthetic

89 Scientific cinchona production – A high point of imperial technology
European could not have colonized Africa without it Colonization in other areas would have been much more ______________ This new advancement, however, was as much a _____________ of new imperialism as it was a consequence Several botanical gardens shared their scientific expertise ___________& ___________colonial government encouraged the development of scientific cinchona production ___________&___________________land and labor contributed to the technology costly cause British Dutch Indian Indonesian

90 2.21 CHARTING (pp. 57-61) Liverpool Niger River Gambia Africa
West African coast Gambia Africa

91 Forests of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Columbia in the
2.21 CHARTING (pp ) Algeria Forests of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Columbia in the Andes Mts. Sierra Leone Niger & Benue Rivers Bechuanaland

92 2.22 TRUE OR FALSE (pp ) West Indian soldiers on the West African coast had a better resistance to disease than the white soldiers they served with True

93 2.22 TRUE OR FALSE (pp ) 2. The British government never recognized the significance of soldier death rates in West Africa due to disease. False—They finally recognized the significance in 1830 and began sending mostly West Indian soldiers there because of their greater resistance to disease.

94 2.22 TRUE OR FALSE (pp ) 3. The principal killer of Europeans in Africa was yellow fever. False—The principal killer was malaria.

95 2.22 TRUE OR FALSE (pp ) 4. Macgregor Laird believed that malaria was caused by firewood from a certain location. TRUE

96 2.22 TRUE OR FALSE (pp ) 5. Alphonse Laveran discovered that malaria was transferred via mosquito bites. False—He discovered that malaria was caused when Plasmodium invades the bloodstream but didn’t know that mosquitos were the vector.

97 2.22 TRUE OR FALSE (pp ) 6. A remedy for malaria was discovered long before the 19th century through trial and error. TRUE

98 2.22 TRUE OR FALSE (pp ) 7. The bark of cinchona trees was an effective and easily disseminated cure prior to the 19th century. False—It was effective but it only grew in the Andes Mountains so the supply in Europe was limited and often deteriorated by the time it reached the European continent.

99 PF PV PV PV 2.23 COMPARISON (pp. 58-60)
This or that? For each item below, determine whether it describes the Plasmodium Vivax strain (PV) or the Plasmodium Falciparum (PF) strain of malaria. 1. Endemic only in tropical Africa 2. Endemic throughout much of the world 3. The less deadly of the two strains 4. Causes a general weakening of the body and produces intermittent fevers PF PV PV PV

100 PV PF PF PF PV 2.23 COMPARISON (pp. 58-60)
5. Generally can be treated with quinine pills at the first sign of chills or fever 6. The body’s resistance to this strain is only temporary 7. The bloodstream must be saturated with quinine before the onset of first infection in order to cure this strain 8. The deadlier of the two strain 9. Jesuits introduced the bark of the cinchona tree as a cure to this strain PV PF PF PF PV

101 Extracted alkaloid of quinine From cinchona bark; worked
2.24 CHARTING (pp ) Extracted alkaloid of quinine From cinchona bark; worked With Caventou Scientist France Rebelled against common practice Of giving only a little quinine late in treatment; noted that intermittent Fevers responded to quinine, which Helped him distinguish malaria from Typhoid fever France Physician Rebelled against common practice Of giving only a little quinine late in treatment; gave it at first sign of Illness; idolized as French hero of Science late in life Physician France

102 2.24 CHARTING (pp. 58-60) Physician Britain France Scientist Italian
Experimented with various Drugs while aboard an 1841 Niger River expedition; wrote “On the Value of Quinine In African Remittent Fever” Physician Britain Succeeded in extracting The alkaloid of quinine from Cinchona bark; worked With Pelletier France Scientist Identified the Anopheles mosquito as the vector of malaria in 1897 (along with Ross and Bignami Italian Scientist

103 Identified the Anopheles Identified the Anopheles
2.24 CHARTING (pp ) Identified the Anopheles mosquito as the vector of malaria in 1897 (along with Ross and Grassi Italy Scientist Identified the Anopheles mosquito as the vector of malaria in 1897 (along with Grassi and Bignami Scientist Britain

104 Steamers: Comparison to quinine
Steamers helped Europeans overcome the stumbling block of poor transportation Similarly, quinine cleared the obstacle of malaria for Europeans Quinine and steamers worked hand in hand to open much of Africa to colonialism The scramble for Africa is often explained as a complex interplay of political factors The French political psychology following the __________________ War ostensibly allowed new imperialism to take place ________________ also held lofty ambitions for an expanding empire Historians also attribute the scramble for Africa to be a byproduct of the _____________________ Headrick feels that technology such as these equally contributed to the scramble for Africa steamers, quinine prophylaxis, and the quickfiring rifle Quinine prophylaxis protected European crews aboard steamers heading into Africa Franco-Prussian King Leopold II Suez Canal

105 Macgregor Laird’s Back: Economic Motives
The Niger trade proved both lucrative and necessary for Britain After the fall of the slave trade, _____________served as southern Nigeria’s chief export Europeans used palm oil to make soap and lubricate industrial machinery Niger delta middlemen kept the price of palm oil unreasonably high These merchants brought palm oil to the coast to trade with Europeans Small European traders who shipped palm oil to Europe also raised the price of palm oil PALM OIL

106 Laird believed that the ____________would break these _____________ grips on the __________export business Laird wrote to ____________in 1851 that steam engine MONOPOLISTIC palm oil Earl Grey STEAM _________________ “will convert a most uncertain and precarious trade into a regular and steady one, diminish the risk of life, and free a large portion of the capital at present engaged in it…”

107 The double application of steam
Europeans required the double application of steam One application was a regular steamboat service along ____________________________ This service bypassed the Nigerian middlemen in the palm oil industry The other was the development of a steamship line between _________and______________ the Niger River Britain West Africa

108 Royal Geographical Society
Macgregor Laird Laird’s first appeals were rejected The 1854 expedition of the Pleiad gave credence to Laird’s ideas The _____________________________convinced the British government to support Laird’s projects in ____ In 1857, the Foreign Office sent Dr. _______ to open relations with the Caliphate of ________on the middle Niger The Admiralty signed a contract with Laird Three steamers would be sent up the Niger River annually for the next _______years Royal Geographical Society 1857 Baikie Sokoto 5

109 Niger River Steamers Rainbow 59 two warship
John Laird’s Birkenhead shipyard built the Dayspring, Rainbow, and Sunbeam for this service ….DRS of British commerce! These three ships’ journeys angered the Nigerian middlemen whom they were bypassing Traders attacked the _____________ in 18____, killing _______ crew members Laird subsequently asked the British government to have a _______________accompany the steamers Rainbow 59 two warship

110 United African Company
WARSHIPS and GUNBOATS 61 Espoir In 18___, the H.M.S. _________entered the Niger River This warship destroyed the villages that had been responsible for the Rainbow attack By the 1870s, several British companies traded with armed steamers on the Niger A military expedition annually destroyed towns that resisted the British invasion By the 1880s, the ________________________kept a fleet of light gunboats on the Niger River throughout the year Sir George _________ headed this company that united all trading interests in the region In 1885, the British government declared the Niger delta a ___________________ Sporadic resistance occurred in the region No African river town could effectively fight against British gunboats United African Company Goldie protectorate

111 Beyond the Niger The Niger River became the earliest and most active background for the use of steamers by Europeans This river was the easiest African tropical river to navigate Other African Rivers: The Congo, Zambezi, and upper Nile as well as their tributaries all contained waterfalls that blocked steamers’ progress Boats needed to be disassembled, portaged, and then reassembled to bypass the cataracts These portages required large-scale financing, labor, organization, and technology that Niger explorers never acquired

112 Livingstone’s Steamers
In 1858, David Livingstone used the ______________to explore the Zambezi River up to the ________________ Rapids Livingstone utilized 2 others: the Pioneer in 1861 and the Lady Nyassa The MA ROBERTS MA ROBERTS Kebrabasa

The Lady Nyassa had to be carried in pieces around the waterfalls leading to _________________ LAKE NYASSA

114 Various Explorers Used Small Steamers
Samuel White Baker ____________________ explored the upper Nile with the steamer Khedive __________________had the nine-ton steamer En Avant carried in pieces from the Atlantic Ocean to Stanley Pool _____________________soon appeared on the Congo River with his Ballay Henry Stanley Savorgnan de Brazza Samuel White Baker

115 Savorgnan de Brazza Congo on the _______ River with his __________

116 The number of European steamers on African rivers soon drastically increased
MOTIVATION: Missionary work, trade, exploration, and conquest

117 Small Belgian Trading Steamer

118 GENTIL Chad Ubangi Shari
French lieutenant ___________ conquered Lake __________ and the area of the _________and ________Rivers from 18__ to 18__ Gentil used the first aluminum steamer _______ in these expeditions Chad Ubangi Shari Lion Blot

119 Commandant Marchand 98 Nile Kitchener Fashoda
Marchand embarked on a cross-Africa adventure in 18______ Two steamers and three rowboats portaged from the Ubangi to the _____ for this expedition After reaching the Nile, Marchand rode his steamboats up to his confrontation with ___________at________ 98 Nile Kitchener Fashoda

120 Without Steamers, Europeans Couldn’t Have Penetrated Africa
pack animals The lack of ____________ and Africa’s harsh ______________would have slowed down expeditions that traveled on foot African regions that lacked good water transportation were some of the last global regions to be colonized These areas included Ethiopia, the Kalahari, Central Sudan, and the Sahara The ease of water transport and difficulty of land transport defined European interactions with Africa during the 19th century topography

121 2.25 COMMONALITIES (pp. 61-63) Hasskarl Markham Weir Spruce Cross
Attempted to get cinchona seeds to plant

122 2.25 COMMONALITIES (pp. 61-63) Quinine, Calomel, Rhubarb,
Resin of Julep Ingredients in “Livingstone Pills”

123 2.25 COMMONALITIES (pp. 61-63) Peru Ecuador Bolivia Colombia
The only sources of cinchona bark until the 1850s

124 2.25 COMMONALITIES (pp. 61-63) Missionaries Soldiers Traders
Administrators Planters Tourists “Lesser protagonists” in imperialism who could finally travel inland once a preventive cure for malaria was discovered

125 2.25 COMMONALITIES (pp. 61-63) Bengal Ceylon Madras Java
Places were horticulturists and quinologists exchanged seeds and information

126 2.25 COMMONALITIES (pp. 61-63) Dayspring Rainbow Sunbeam
Ships built by Laird’s Birkenhead shipyard for service between Britain and West Africa

127 2.26 DEFINITIONS (pp ) A technique used to increase the yield of alkaloids where one cuts strips of bark and wraps cinchona trees in moss Coppicing Quinine prophylaxis David Livingstone

128 2.26 DEFINITIONS (pp ) Captain of the Pleiad and a doctor who made sure his crew took quinine during their travels up the Niger and Benue rivers Palm Oil A marketing cartel which coordinated the purchase of bark and the price and quantity of quinine sold until the early 20th century

129 2.26 DEFINITIONS (pp. 60-63) Niger River
First steel steamship which Livingstone used to explore the Zambezi River in 1858

130 2.27 QUOTING (pp. 57-62) Macgregor Laird
Written about Laird’s missionary fervor and desire to Christianize and civilize Africans Dedication to Maillot who was finally honored at the end of his life for his contributions to science because of his use of quinine to cure malaria Scientific Congress of Algiers

131 2.27 QUOTING (pp ) Written in a letter to Thomas Peacock in 1837, Laird tried to explain the origin of the malaria epidemic Macgregor Laird Thomas Hutchinson Written by a member of the crew of the Pleiad about the suggestions for the prevention of malaria given to them by Dr. Alexander Bryson

132 2.27 QUOTING (pp. 57-62) Philip Curtain
Comments about the way in which Africa was no longer the “white man’s grave” once an effective cure for malaria was found Written in 1851 to Earl Grey, Laird believed that the steamship was the key to successful commerce in the interior of Africa Magregor Laird

133 2.28 ANALOGIES (pp. 57-62) RIVER STEAMERS
1. ____________________________: poor transportation :: quinine : malaria 2. Alburkah : ____________________________:: Quorra : wood iron

134 2.28 ANALOGIES (pp ) 3. Mungo Park : Niger River :: Francisco Barneto : ____________________________ 4. Paludisme : French :: mal’aria : ____________________________ Zambezi Valley Italian

135 2.28 ANALOGIES (pp. 57-62) gardener
5. Weir : ____________________________:: Spruce : botanist 6. Bark of cinchona tree : prevention of malaria :: ____________________________: lubrication of industrial machinery Palm oil

136 2.28 ANALOGIES (pp ) 7. Macgregor Laird : Scotland :: King Leopold II : ____________________________ 8. Pelletier : chemist :: Cross : ____________________________ Belgium gardener

137 ______ ___ ______ 2.29 EITHER/OR (pp. 61-62)
In order to address the growing (DEMAND FOR, SUPPLY OF) quinine an attempt was made by the British and the (DUTCH, FRENCH) to grow (CINCHONA, POPLAR) trees in areas outside of the Andes Mountains ___ ______

138 ___ ___ ___ 2.29 EITHER/OR (pp. 61-62)
. In Justus Charles Hasskarl traveled to the (ANDES, HIMALAYAS) under an assumed name and (SECRETLY, ALLEGEDLY) collected seeds, most of which (DIED, SPROUTED). ___ ___ ___

139 ___ ___ ___ ___ 2.29 EITHER/OR (pp. 61-62)
Later in , Markham and Weir traveled, again secretly, to collect (SEEDS, YOUNG PLANTS) of the Cinchona Calisaya tree. At the same time, an (ENGLISH, AMERICAN) botanist Robert (SPRUCE, PINE) and a gardener Robert Cross collected specimens in (ECUADOR, PERU). ___ ___ ___ ___

140 ___ ___ 2.29 EITHER/OR (pp. 61-62)
Of the 100,000 seedlings and 637 young plants only 463 seedlings reached (INDIA, ALGERIA) forming the nucleur of the cinchona plantations at Ootacamund in the Nilgiri Hills near (MADRAS, BENGAL). ___ ___

141 ___ ___ ___ ___ 2.29 EITHER/OR (pp. 61-62)
After extensive experimentation and the eventual demise of the Andean bark industry, a compromise was worked out between the (BRITISH, FRENCH) and the (DUTCH, GERMANS). Plantations in (INDIA, CHINA) produced a cheaper, less (POTENT, CONTAMINATED) bark from which chemists extracted totaquine, a mixture of antimalarial alkaloids. ___ ___ ___ ___

142 ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
2.29 EITHER/OR (pp ) Most of this product was reserved for (FRENCH, BRITISH) military and personnel stationed in the (TROPICS, COASTAL AREAS). The rest of the product was sold in (FRANCE, INDIA). The quinine made by the (DUTCH, FRENCH) was more potent, (PURE, CONTAMINATED), and (CHEAP, EXPENSIVE). It made up over (FIFTY, NINETY) percent of the world market in the early twentieth century. ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

143 2.30 ORDERING (pp ) 3 1 7 4 5 2 6 ____Laird’s expedition on the Pleiad ____ Two French chemists Pelletier and Caventou extracted the alkaloid of quining from the bark of cinchona trees ____ The Espoir destroyed the villages that had been responsible for the previous assault on the Rainbow ____ Foreign office agreed to send Dr. Baikie to open relations with the Caliphate of Sokoto on the Middle Niger ____ Livingstone used the Ma Roberts to explore the Zambezi River up the Kebrabasa Rapids ____ David Livingstone first heard of quinine prophylaxis ____ Delta traders whose business was threatened attacked the Rainbow

144 IN ORDER (1820) Two French chemists Pelletier and Caventou extracted the alkaloid of quining from the bark of cinchona trees (1843) David Livingstone first heard of quinine prophylaxis (1854) Laird’s expedition on the Pleiad (1857) Foreign office agreed to send Dr. Baikie to open relations with the Caliphate of Sokoto on the Middle Niger (1858) Livingstone used the Ma Roberts to explore the Zambezi River up the Kebrabasa Rapids (1859) Delta traders whose business was threatened attacked the Rainbow (1861) The Espoir destroyed the villages that had been responsible for the previous assault on the Rainbow

145 STOP

Download ppt "NEW IMPERIALISM: MOTIVES AND TACTICS Nineteenth-Century Empires"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google