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ACIDS AND BASES. Distinguish between strong and weak acids and bases. Include: electrolytes and non-electrolytes Additional KEY Terms concentrateddilute.

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Presentation on theme: "ACIDS AND BASES. Distinguish between strong and weak acids and bases. Include: electrolytes and non-electrolytes Additional KEY Terms concentrateddilute."— Presentation transcript:

1 ACIDS AND BASES

2 Distinguish between strong and weak acids and bases. Include: electrolytes and non-electrolytes Additional KEY Terms concentrateddilute monoproticdiprotic

3 For a solution to conduct an electric current, charged particles or ions must be present in the solution.

4 Electrolytes conduct an electric current when in aqueous solution or when in a molten state. All ionic compounds act as electrolytes (as do highly polar molecular compounds) Most molecular compounds are non-electrolytes. NaCl (s) Na + (aq) + Cl – (aq) C 11 H 22 O 11(s) C 11 H 22 O 11(aq) non-electrolytes electrolytes

5 Only hydrogen in a very polar bond is ionizable (H must be bonded to a very electronegative element) Cl H H O H H H H H C C ++ δ+δ+ δ-δ- δ+δ+ δ-δ- + +-

6 Electrolytes are classified as strong OR weak Strong: produces many ions in solution. dissociates 100% in water (NaCl) Weak: partially dissociates (<<100%) in solution. usually weak polar molecules (vinegar) A (s) B + (aq) + C – (aq)

7 ionic polar

8 ionicpolar

9 easily donate protons completely dissociate or ionize Strong acids are strong electrolytes: HCl (s) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) water Indicate complete dissociation using single arrow [HCl] i = [H + ] e = [Cl - ] e

10 Name of Strong AcidFormula perchloric acidHClO 4 hydrochloric acidHCl sulfuric acidH 2 SO 4 nitric acidHNO 3 hydroiodic acidHI hydrobromic acidHBr

11 Weak acids are weak electrolytes: HC 2 H 3 O 2 + H 2 O H 3 O + + C 2 H 3 O 2 - acetic acid The reverse reaction is favored over the forward one. The ions formed react very easily to reform the acid and the water. incompletely ionize equilibrium reached between ions and acid Indicate equilibrium using reversible arrow

12 Name of Weak AcidFormula carbonic acidH 2 CO 3 hydrofluoric acidHF acetic acidHC 2 H 3 O 2 phosphoric acidH 3 PO 4

13 Strong bases are strong electrolytes: NaOH (s) Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) water Indicate complete dissociation using single arrow. [NaOH] i = [Na + ] e = [OH - ] e easily accept protons completely dissociate into OH -, or oxide, (O -2 )

14 Basically, any hydroxide and Alkali (1A) or Alkali-Earth Metal (2A) would be a strong base because of 100% dissociation Name of BaseFormula barium hydroxideBa(OH) 2 strontium hydroxideSr(OH) 2 lithium hydroxideLiOH

15 NH 3(g) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) Does not produce hydroxide ions readily. The reverse reaction is favored. Weak bases are weak electrolytes: incompletely ionize equilibrium reached between ions and base Indicate equilibrium using reversible arrow

16 Common weak bases are usually conjugate bases of strong acids. In fact: The stronger the A/B, the weaker its conjugate. The weaker the A/B, the stronger its conjugate. HA + H 2 O base acid H 3 O + + A - Con. baseCon. acid weak

17 Acid Strength Table

18 Any acid that contains only one ionizable hydrogen is called monoprotic. Contains two ionizable hydrogens - diprotic Three - triprotic Cl H H O O H O O s H O O H O O s p H Sulfuric acid Phosphoric acid

19 Acid Strength Table

20 The equilibrium reaction favours the strongest acid.

21 HCO 3 – + PO 4 3–  Which direction is favoured and why? HCO 3 – + PO 4 3–  CO 3 2– + HPO 4 2– acid 1 base 2 C base 1 C acid 2 fwd reaction is favoured HCO 3 – is the stronger acid

22 THOUGHTS: Don't confuse weak and strong with dilute and concentrated Weak and strong indicates the proportion of an acid or base which ionized Dilute and concentrated refer only to the volume of acid and base dissolved in a total solution volume It is possible to have a concentrated weak acid/base or dilute strong acid/base

23 HAH + + A - HA + H 2 OH 3 O + + A - Strong Acid Weak Acid HA + H 2 O+ A - H+H+ H2OH2O H3O+H3O+ 9.0 M 1.0 M [E][E] +x - x [C][C] M [I][I] M [E][E] +x - x [C][C] M [I][I]

24 CAN YOU / HAVE YOU? Distinguish between strong and weak acids and bases. Include: electrolytes and non-electrolytes Additional KEY Terms concentrateddilute monoproticdiprotic


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