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Dr. Elizabeth A. Erickson ASCD Leadership Conference April 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Elizabeth A. Erickson ASCD Leadership Conference April 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Elizabeth A. Erickson ASCD Leadership Conference April 2012

2 Most instruction is done through reading. Texts are often 1-3 grades levels above. (Guthrie, Davis, in press; Schoenbach et al.,1999) Poor reading causes academic and social problems. ( Showers et al., 1998) Despite assistance, students who received remediation were less likely to earn a post secondary degree/certificate. ( NCES Condition of Ed. Report, 2004; Joyce, 1999b; Showers et al., 1998)

3 NCLB has placed renewed emphasis on the importance of all children becoming proficient readers. 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (PL 107-110) Educators need to be well-versed on scientifically based practices. (NCLB, 2001)

4 Early intervention has been found to increase students chances of success in HS. (Showers, Joyce, Scanion, and Schnaubelt, 1998; Schoenbach, Greenleaf, Cziko, and Hurwitz, 1999) To be successful, students need to be taught strategies of how to be engaged in text and to become aware of their reading processes. (Aarnoutse and Schellings, 2003; Durkin, 1978; Pressley & El-Dinary, 1997; Pressley, Yokoi, Ranking, Wharton-McDonald, & Mistretta, 1997) Classrooms need to change from work sites to communities of learning and interpretation. (Brown, 1992)

5 The problem? You cant put a good strategy on poor curriculum choices Is it authentic text? Are we differentiating or requiring all students to do the same strategy? Are we giving students texts they can read?

6 The close monitoring of reading hinders the actual reading process. Taylor, Harris, Pearson(, 1995; Fountas & Pinnell, 2001; Paris & Paris, 2001; Smith 2003) Poor readers tend to receive instruction that is qualitatively different from that offered to better readers... which can adversely affect reading development. (Taylor et al., 1994) They lack silent reading, lack modeling, and teaching of questioning text on their own. (Taylor et al., 1994; Fountas & Pinnell, 2001) Struggling readers were already disengaged from literacy and lacking strategies. (Guthrie and Davis, in press: Flippo, 2003; Kohn, 1999; Guthrie et al., 2004)

7 How and under what conditions the individual assembles, coordinates, or integrates his existing knowledge and skills into new learning. (Flavell, 1976) Why is it that learning sometimes fails, as it sometimes does for all of us, so that something that even the learner wants to master remains unlearned? (Smith, 2004)

8 Increases comprehension levels. (Vygotsky, 1978; Myers II & Paris, 1978; Miller, Kessel & Flavell, 1976, 1979; Huitt, 1977; Jacobs & Paris, 1987) Engages the reader in the text, helps problem- solving. (Dewey, 1932) Teaching readers to be strategic at an early age is critical not only to prevent failure in school, but to enable readers to enjoy and get the most out of the reading context. (Joyce, 1999a)

9 Construct knowledge goals for learning (Vygotsky, 1978; Fountas & Pinnell, 2001; August, Flavell, & Clift, 1984; Davey & McBride, 1986; Paris & Paris, 2001; Maitland, 2000; Dayton-Sakari, 1997) Use authentic interactions to connect reading to experiences ( Brown, 1992; Dewey, 1932; Showers, et al. 1998; F & P, 2001; Flavell, 1976, 1979; Huitt, 1977; Jacobs and Paris, 1987; Miller, Kessel & Flavell, 1970; Myers II & Paris, 1978; Pressley et al.,1997; Aarnoutse and Schellings, 2003) Have abundance of books (Showers et al., 1998; F & P, 2001; Farstrup, 2005; Krashen, 1995, 2004) Let students self-select (Showers et al., 1998; F & P, 2001; Maitland, 2000; Aarnoutse & Schellings, 2003; Durkin, 1978; Pressley & El-Dinary, 1997; Pressley, Yokoi, Ranking, Wharton-McDonald, & Mistretta, 1997)

10 Collaborations (Guthrie, Davis, Ned.; Vygotsky, 1978; Showers et al., 1998; Pressley & El-Dinary,1997; Glanz, 2003; Schoenbach et al.,1999; Stanovich & Stanovich, 2003; Pressley et al.,1997; Pressley et al.,1998; Pressley et al., 2001; McKibbin & Joyce, 2001) Strategy instruction (Vygotsky, 1978; Brown, 1992; Showers et al, 1998; Fountas & Pinnell, 2001; Flavell, 1976, 1979; Huitt, 1977; Jacobs and Paris, 1987; Miller, Kessel & Flavell, 1970; Myers II & Paris, 1978; Crain, 1998; Davey & McBride, 1986; Maitland, 2000; Dayton-Sakari, 1997; Pressley et al.,1997; Pressley et al.,1998; Pressley et al., 2001) Metacognitive was bridge to transferring ideas (Brown, 1992; Dean & Kuhn, 2003; Caldwell & Leslie, 2004) Metacognitively aware readers know that reading is helped by active reading ( Sadoski,1985; Davey and McBride, 1986).

11 Self- efficacy Motivation Meaning to Learning

12 The purpose of this program was to take 6 th graders who were not proficient and not in a special education or ESL program and: develop reading levels 2+ years have them graduate

13 Piloted 2001-2002 2002-2005 in all 10 MS Chosen from lowest of ITBS ranking to 43 rd percentile 6 students per class-also took core reading class-this was an intervention Workshop format Goal to catch up to peers

14 There will be no significant pretest or posttest differences in reading scores for students participating in the Intensive Reading Program.

15 A quasi-experimental design using a non- equivalent comparison group. Quantitative analysis using descriptive statistics, paired-samples t-tests, MANOVA, and ANCOVA to adjust for pretest differences.

16 Independent Reading model SCR IR 3 dependent ITBS national standard scores on the reading comprehension subtest 2 years prior to intervention 1 year post intervention

17 Pretest scores (ANCOVA) Mobility Location

18 All three cohorts were significantly significant by p <.0005, rejecting the Null Hypothesis with medium-large ES (.5,.7,.4) on paired- samples t-tests 2002-2003 gained.9 NGE 2003-2004 gained 1.5 NGE 2004-2005 gained 1.2 NGE

19 Intensive Reading made a significant impact each year of implementation.

20 Yeah. Because I think I understand more stuff than last year. Last year was constant chaos. {I-Do you feel better about yourself?} Yeah. {I-Do you read more?} Yeah, the books I like.

21 I think this program really worked a lot because it was like back then I wouldnt even touch a book and now its like everything I do and everywhere I go I read. Im the best reader in my family. Nobody in my family can read basically.

22 Last year I wouldnt read s much. I wouldnt read as much as I do now. When I get done with a book, I compare it to another book. When I am done with a book, I just get another one. I am reading right now the series cuz its just like me and my sister. Sweet Valley High is about two twins who get in arguments all the time just like me and my sister.

23 You can read in half the time. When I first came to this class I did not know what to do, and then we started having fun. We were making things. In [another reading class] all we do is read. Its like reading an article or something, she dont make it into fun. [In reading intervention] we can make it into a song {interviewers note: we did raps for fluency practice}.... in here you let us do plays and stuff.

24 The class was awesome, was nice. It was way better than I thought it would be. {I thought} it would be like the other reading class-{doing worksheets and study guides-never getting to talk about books}

25 If you have a job interview and you have to read the survey. Or if you have to have a five page report on your bosss desk.

26 I think what is going to happen next. If everyone would think out loud, I think they would be much better readers. I-Do you think [think alouds] were a key to helping you? Uh huh. And inferences, where we have to think of clues for the answers. [Learning improved] to think about my thinking.

27 Keep the programs with recommended class sizes. Adhere to criterion of <43 rd percentile Maintain teacher training and supervision. Have all teachers incorporate active learning and metacognitive strategies to aid transfer (Durkin,1978; Joyce and McKibbin, 2001; Pressley and El-Dinary, 1997, Fountas & Pinnell, 2001) (Fountas & Pinnell, 2001; Schoenbach, Greenleaf, Cziko, & Hurwitz, 1999; Stanovich & Stanovich, 2003) Consider the use of interesting, authentic texts with a range of readability to teach concepts, skills, and strategies over the traditional same text for all in all classes.

28 Further studies on designing and using metacognitive strategies to help students understand the reading process could be conducted. Correlations on whether better libraries are associated with better reading could be done.

29 Better learning will not come from finding better ways for the teacher to instruct but from giving the learner better opportunities to construct. -Seymour Papert

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