4 Functions of blood Supply cells with food and oxygen Remove waste productsFight disease germs
5 Blood Stats Blood is a liquid tissue. Adults have 3-5 quarts of blood. 80 pound child has approximately 2.5 quarts9 pound infant has approximately 10 ounceshigh altitudes - has less oxygen - may have up to 2 quarts more blood
6 blood has 4 main partsplasmaerythrocytesleukocytesplatelets
7 ERYTHROCYTES – red blood cells appear as red, biconcave discsdon't have nucleimost numerous of all blood cellscan't move by themselves
8 ERYTHROCYTES – red blood cells carry oxygen from lungs to body cellscarry carbon dioxide from body cells to lungshemoglobin: iron-containing pigment; gives it its red color
9 ERYTHROCYTES – red blood cells formed primarily by your spleen, liver, and red bone marrowlife span approximately days
10 ERYTHROCYTES – red blood cells normal person contain 25 trillion erythrocytes - enough to go around the earth at the equator 4 times
11 ERYTHROCYTES – red blood cells old red blood cells are removed from the blood at a rate of 2 million per seconddestroyed mainly in your liver and spleen
12 LEUKOCYTES – white blood cells lack hemoglobinabout twice the size of erythrocytespossess no definite shapeability to move by themselves
13 LEUKOCYTES – white blood cells have nucleiin a healthy person - ratio of leukocytes to erythrocytes is approximately 1:600
14 LEUKOCYTES – white blood cells some are made in bone marrow and others in spleen, tonsils, and thymus glandlife span is approximately 1 to 12 days
15 LEUKOCYTES – white blood cells the body needs leukocytes to defend itself from bacteria, viruses, and other harmful substances
16 LEUKOCYTES – white blood cells there are different types of leukocytes, but all have 1 of 2 functions:(1) engulf and digest(2) produce antibodies (chemicals that attack invading organisms or poisons)
17 An infection is the invasion of harmful organisms into the body. When the firstleukocytes are not successful in stopping theinfection, the invading organisms are free tomultiply and injure body cells, which resultsin a swelling and redness called aninflammation in the infected part of the body.Chemicals that are released from the injuredcells cause additional leukocytes to move outof blood vessels in order to engulf and digest,or to kill, the harmful invaders.
18 The leukocytes also digest and remove injured and dead body cells. Theaccumulation of dead leukocytes, deadorganisms, and broken cells forms athick fluid called pus, which ischaracteristic of infections.
19 PLATELETSvery small cell fragments that help in blood clottingdevelop from large cells in the red bone marrowlacks a nucleusless than 1/2 or 1/3 the size of an erythrocytelife span is approximately 1 week
20 BLOOD PLASMA - fluid portion of blood approximately 90% waterremaining 10% is mostly proteins (also dissolved gases, minerals, nutrients, hormones, and wastes)
23 Blood PressureAs your heart beats and the left ventricle forces blood into the aorta, the elastic walls of the arteries expand.This wave of expansion moves down the aorta and along smaller arteries.As the wave passes, the elastic walls of the arteries resume their normal size.
24 Blood PressureThis dilation and rebounding of an artery is the PULSE.There is no pulse in a vein because the force of the heart contraction has been absorbed by the blood flowing into the numerous capillaries.The velocity of blood flow is not uniform throughout the body.
25 blood pressure: the pressure of blood against the walls of arteries it is the same pressure that causes the pulseblood pressure can be measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER.
26 systolic pressureblood pressurewhen the heart iscontracting
27 Diastolic pressureblood pressurewhile the heartis relaxing
28 normal blood pressure120 (systolic)80(diastolic)
29 high blood pressure 150 (systolic) 90(diastolic) If the systolic pressure rises to 200 mm Hg or above, there is real danger that an artery may rupture.
30 Blood Grouping (Blood Types) Quiz 25B Continued
31 Blood TypesDetermined by the presence or absence of certain molecules in the membranes of the erythrocytes.These molecules, called antigens, stimulate the production of antibodies.Specialized blood cells produce these antibodies, which are located in the blood plasma.
32 Important in blood transfusions Blood TypesImportant in blood transfusions(the giving of blood):donor - person who gives bloodrecipient - person who receives blood
33 The two blood type classifications: (that are most important in blood transfusion) ABO groupRh system
34 ABO blood groupdiscovered in 1901 by Karl Landsteinerdetermined by the presence or absence of two antigens A and B
35 ABO blood group blood types: A - has antigen A B - has antigen B AB - has both antigens A and B O - has neither antigen
36 ABO blood groupIn addition to antigens, 3 of these 4 blood types also possess antibodies. The particular antibodies, however, were not present at birth but were produced between the 2nd and 8th months of life as the body responded to antigens A and B in the person's food, especially meat. Therefore if a person has type A blood, his body produces anti-B antibodies.
37 ABO blood group Blood Type Antigen Antibody A anti-B B anti-A AB A & B NoneOanti-A & B
38 ABO blood group Antigens: in red blood cell membrane Antibodies: in blood plasmamost common - type O rare - type AB
39 ABO blood groupType% of PopulationA40%B10%AB4%O46%
40 Preferred type for transfusion Other types used in emergencies Blood TransfusionsRecipients’Blood typePreferred type for transfusionOther types used in emergenciesAOBABA, B, or Onone
41 Blood TransfusionsThe first successful human blood transfusion was accomplished in 1818 by James Blundell.universal recipient: type AB universal donor: type O
42 The Rh SystemNamed after the rhesus monkey from which the Rh antigen was first isolated.It too is based on the presence or absence of an antigen in the red blood cell's membrane.
43 The Rh System Rh types: Rh+ (have the Rh antigen; 85% of population) Rh- (does not have the Rh antigen; 15% of population)
44 The Rh SystemNormally, human blood plasma does not contain anti-Rh antibodies, but these antibodies can be stimulated into production in an Rh- person.For example, when and Rh- person receives Rh+ blood, his body begins to form anti-Rh antibodies. These antibodies remain in his blood plasma. Later, if a second transfusion of Rh+ blood is administered, the anti-Rh antibodies react with the Rh antigens of the donor's blood.
46 Typing BloodO Obtain a Blood Test Card and 3 toothpicks. Place a drop of Anti-A serum (blue) in the circle labeled “Anti-A.” Replace the cap on the Anti-A vial. Always replace the cap on one vial before opening the next vial to prevent cross contamination.Place a drop of Anti-B serum (yellow) in the circle labeled “Anti-B” and then replace the cap.
47 Typing BloodPlace a drop of Anti-D serum (clear) in the circle labeled “Anti-D.” Replace the cap on the Anti-D vial.Place a drop of blood in each “blood” circle.
48 Mix each drop of blood with the anti-serum adjoining it. Typing BloodMix each drop of blood with theanti-serum adjoining it.
49 Typing BloodIf your blood cells stick together when mixed with anti-A serum, then you have type A blood.If your blood cells stick together when mixed with anti-B serum, then you have type B blood.
50 Typing BloodIf your blood cells stick together when they are mixed with both anti-A and anti-B serums, then you have type AB blood.If your blood cells do not stick together in the presence of either serum, then you have type O blood.
51 Typing BloodIf your blood cells stick together when mixed with anti-Rh serum, then you have type Rh-positive blood.If your blood does not clot when mixed with anti-Rh serum, then you have type Rh-negative blood.