2 Provisional Government Russia – a republic, PG – made up of members of State Duma - ‘interim government’ - Warmly welcomed!Faced problems from the startProblems of legitimacyRivals for political power (Soviet) – Order No. 1 – (requires all officers in army to be elected by their own troops etc, establishing power)… shared power with Soviet (Bols dominant in it by Oct 1917)
3 More problems facing the PG; The War – biggest problem, morale low, stayed in war (duty?)… conflict with Soviet over decisionJune Offensive – failure, fatal blow to PG…. Led to ‘July Days’ demonstrationsCrisis in the countryside – PG had little control over countryside.. Taking law into own hands, taking land from landowners… PG lacks ability to impose its authority
4 LENIN RETURNS!1917 – Lenin’s return transforms political situation in Russia.Clear vision of what wanted to achieveNo Lenin, no October Revolution in RussiaLenin’s idea;Instead of the industrial working class leading a socialist revolution, this role would be taken by a small disciplined party of professional revolutionaries, a ‘vanguard’ party at the head of the revolution
5 Lenin’s April ThesesLenin delivered a 90min speech where he condemned PG… he demanded an immediate revolution.His ideas were published in Pravda as ‘the April Theses’He rewrote Marx’s ideas… believed a bourgeois revolution could be followed immediately by a socialist revolution.Had to win Bolsheviks in Russia to his view
6 Exploited the fact the war was unpopular Political power should be handed over the sovietsRallying cry…. ‘Peace, Land and Bread… All power to the Soviets!!’Popular message as country was exhausted by war! Highlighted inadequacies in PG!NO SUPPORT FOR PG!Lenin’s early attempts to seize power failed… but he continued to be the thorn in PG’s side.
7 JULY DAYS Temporarily greatly damaged Bolsheviks Several arrested and Lenin fled to FinlandDescribed as ‘Lenin’s worst blunder’ - believing PG’s authority had been critically weakened because of June Offensive…. Made a bid for powerFailure of July Days – major setback for Bols… Lenin accused of treason/traitor
8 KORNILOV AFFAIRJuly 1917 – Kornilov becomes new Commander in Chief of ArmyKornilov concerned about possible left wing radical plot against government.Ordered Russian troops into PetrogradKerensky panicked fearing a military takeover!Armed workers (including Bolsheviks) in the capital.. Many Bolsheviks also released from Prison for same purpose..By Sept – affair over but devastating effect on PGBy Oct 1917 – PG lost all authority!!!
9 SUMMARY OF 1917 APRIL Lenin returns – ‘April Theses’ JUNE Failed ‘June Offensive’JULYFailed ‘July Days’AUGUSTKornilov CoupOCTBolshevik Revolution
10 BOLSHEVIK SEIZURE OF POWER Capture and arrest of PG at Winter PalaceBloodless take overTiming was important – 12 Nov, elections planned for Constituent Assembly planned by PG, to take place 28 Nov.Lenin suggested all political power should be handed to the All Russia Soviet (where Bolsheviks dominated) – new tactic
11 Trotsky planned the takeover 24 Oct – Red guards occupied key areas of Petrograd and arrested most of the PGMinimal resistanceAll Russia Soviet took over – 390 Bols in it, 80 Mensheviks, 180 SRs – so All Russia Soviet therefore endorsed the Bolshevik takeover.
12 Reasons for Bolshevik Success.. Changing circumstancesKornilov affair meant could present themselves as defenders of PG and revTiming of the UprisingTimed cleverly, claimed acting on behalf of Soviet, bloodless, executed efficientlyWeakness of the Provisional GovernmentLittle support for PG – failed to tackle pressing issues; food shortages, inflation, the land questions, continuation of the war
13 Bolshevik Consolidation of Power Problems facing Bolsheviks;Still at war (virtually defenceless)Peasants had seized lands across countryIndustrial production slumpedUnemployment and inflation risingDid not have mass support across country
14 No experience of governing/admin Lenin aimed to create a gov free from control of All Russia Soviet… but used them first to pass 3 decrees;Decree on Land – confiscating all private land, putting it in hands of peasantsPeace Decree – ending War – had to, was unpopular… forced to sign harsh treaties e.g Brest Litovsk (loss of 1/3 Russia’s pop)Setting up organisation of new gov – At top, Sovnarkom with Lenin as chairman
15 Constituent Assembly Its creation had been promised by PG Elected Nov, SR majorityLenin concerned will challenge his ruleMet for first and only time Jan, Bols said assembly should be subservient to decrees passed by Bols… C.A disagreed and left…..Bolsheviks were successful as opposition were divided about what to do.
16 Civil War Opponent Reason Allied intervention Forces in 1918 To overthrow the Communists and get Russia back in the First World WarWhite armiesDifferent reasons;To return Russia to monarchy (most wanted)To establish democratic ruleGreen armiesTo create a society based on local organisations of peasantsLeft SRsTo create a more open society with major soc and econ change to aid the peasantsOpposition to the Treaty of Brest LitovskNationalist movementsTo gain independence from Russian rule
17 Reasons for RED Victory Due to their skill AND failure of their opponentsDisunity of oppositionReds = strong central leadership under LOpposition lacked clear strategy or central direction, fought for different reasons, sometimes fought amongst themselves.Geographical and Organisational factorsReds dominated heartland of Russia, inc important industrial areas and railwayCould produce more munitions than whites who had to rely on foreign supportCould use railways to send troops/distribute/communicateWhites = geographically dispersed
18 Reasons for RED Victory The TerrorTo remove pol opposition, established Cheka – pol police force, engaged in terror tactics, some civilians offered choice between joining army or executionTrotsky and the Red ArmyMilitary leadership of Trotsky – important in victory1918 – founded Red Army, by 1921 – 5 milHeld families hostage to ensure loyalty of former officers of Tsarist armyRed Army, very effective
19 War CommunismLenin’s aim = complete replacement of the capitalist economic system by communismIf the Bolsheviks were to wage war successfully they needed to have enough food to feed the army… needed to produce enough guns to defeat their opponents….Lenin introduced new policy… War Communism
20 WAR COMMUNISM What was it? Nationalisation of industry Private trade bannedGrain surpluses seized from peasantsUse of terror – slave labourImpact?Allowed communists to win the civil war… but achieved at great human cost– over ½ of urban working pop disappeared. Decline due to death in civil war, famine or going back to their villages to find foodMajor famine in 1921 (war, drought, peasants not producing as much as would be siezed)Failed to stop the fall in industrial production1921 – Lenin announced end of War Communism
21 NEP – NEW ECONOMIC POLICY- 1921 Major crisis 1921 – serious econ problems (Ind production = a fraction of pre WW1 levels), famine etcFor communist regime to survive, Lenin had to consider major changes in the economy.Growing opposition in Communist party, re increasing central control
22 NEP – NEW ECONOMIC POLICY Kronstadt rebellion – naval base (loyal supporter in oct 1917) – 1921, now become disillusioned with Lenin’s rule….. Open rebellion V Lenin’s regime…. Trotsky given task of putting it down.10th Party Congress– Announced end of War Communism- NEP – requisitioning of food abandoned, private trade allowed, growth of new class ‘nepmen’, new currency 1922
23 NEP – NEW ECONOMIC POLICY Lenin announced plan was a ‘tactical retreat’ in order to preserve communist power… doing it to give Russian economy ‘breathing space’= radical departure… to many communists it seemed a betrayal of their ideas…= 1921 – Lenin announced a ban on factions within the Communist Party… ‘democratic centralism’ – from now on decisions made by Lenin etc were binding!
24 Intro of NEP saw a loosening of economic control but tightening of political control! Impact of NEP;Almost immediate effectGoods available, markets returned, food shortages disappeared, famine of 1921 came to an endLivestock numbers increased,Impact not all positiveSparked off ‘Scissor Crisis’ – ever widening gap between agricultural and industrial prices (as Agr production rose, cost of goods fell)…. Peasants had to pay more and more for manufactured goods when they were getting less for what they were producing
25 Lenin and creation of USSR By 1922, Lenin given up immediate prospect of worldwide communist rev.Lenin had to deal with how to build a new state, made up of different nationalities1922 – creation of new state - USSR –Until 1921 – Lenin ruled the area called the RSFSR…Creation of USSR – Lenin’s solution of creating a multi national communist state.. In which each republic possesses its own government. At federal level, the individual republics would send reps to congress of republic.
26 Lenin’s dictatorshipPolitical power still firmly in hands of communists1921 onwards, no other political parties allowed in USSRSovnarkom – most senior committee of Communist partyPolitburo – main policy making body of the USSRLenin possessed complete controlLenin controlled media – only communist newspapers, terror police – Cheka established, Gulags introduced (system of labour camps)