Presentation on theme: "Most cost-effECTIVE brand of baking soda"— Presentation transcript:
1Most cost-effECTIVE brand of baking soda Keerthana Sundar, Deepa Selveraj, Desiree Chew and Amanda Lee from 211
2Contents Introduction Research Questions Hypothesis Background InformationMethodologyResultsData AnalysisConclusionReflectionsLimitations/Possible Extensions of project
3IntroductionThe purpose of this Research Studies project is to find out the most cost- effective brand of baking soda.This knowledge we acquire will be helpful to professional bakers and others who frequently use baking soda so that they can buy the most effective baking soda with the least amount of money.
4IntroductionThis project will also educate people on the science behind baking soda.We chose to embark on this project as we realised that many people nowadays use baking soda, without realising the science behind it, and how to maximise their money.
5Research QuestionsWhich brand of baking soda is the most cost-effective?How do you determine the most cost- effective baking soda?What are the differences between baking powder and baking soda?How does baking soda work?
6HypothesisThe greater the concentration of sodium bicarbonate in the baking soda, the more effective it is, for smaller amount of baking soda is needed for the same purpose.The greater the volume ratio of sodium bicarbonate per dollar, the more cost-effective it is.EDIT 2ND POINT :D
7Background Information – what is baking soda? Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)NaHCO3 reacts with HCl (hydrochloric acid) acid to form sodium, water and carbon dioxide, as shown in the equation below.NaHCO HCL -----> NaCl H CO2 (soda) (acid) (sodium) (water) (gas)Our experiment simulates the chemical reaction which baking soda undergoes during baking.Acid in recipes - It might be obvious, such as vinegar (in muffins?), lemon juice, sour milk or buttermilk.
8Background information – what is baking soda? Recipes that use baking soda for leavening always have an acidic ingredient.Uses for baking soda: SOMEONE PLS HELP US DO THIS THANKS :D
9Difference between baking soda and powder Baking PowderIngredientsSodium Bicarbonatecombination of baking soda and a few other ingredients, and most importantly a dry acidType-1) Double-acting - The first "action" occurs when baking powder is wetThe second "action" occurs when baking powder is heated2) Single-actingRequired for reaction to occurAcidWet ingredients (dry acid and baking soda will react)The first "action" refers to the release of gas when the baking soda in the powder reacts with an acidic liquid.The second "action" refers to the release of gas when the batter is heated in the oven or on a griddle.
10Materials and Apparatus QuantityRemarksRetort Stand1Electronic BalanceBuretteBaking soda1 bottleScreened Methyl OrangeDistilled waterConical FlaskFunnel2White TileBeakersHydrochloric acid (HCl)40cm30.2mol/dm-3Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)50cm3HOW TO ADD IN GOGGLES?
11Materials: Brands that we used Arm and HammerBake King - $1.15 per 100gRed Man - $1.00 per 50g
12Methodology (STEP BY STEP) Back Titration:- We added 40 cm2 (excess) of 0.2 mol/dm-3 Hydrochloric acid (HCl) to 0.2 g of baking soda for complete reaction with the baking soda.- The excess acid which had not been reacted is then titrated using 0.2 mol/dm-3 sodium hydroxide (alkaline)Titration:- Releasing alkali from a burette to excess acid + screened methyl orange (indicator) in a beaker- when the indicator turns green, it shows that the excess acid has completely reacted
13Methodology - Process of titration (using Bake King baking soda) Bake King + hydrochloric acid, before being titrated. Pinkish colour is due to the addition of screened methyl orange. The colour shows that the content of the Erlenmeyer flask is acidic.After titration, the screened methyl orange indicator turns green. This signifies that the solution has reached the ending point of titration.
14Methodology – back titration After the ending point, when we are going to record our results, it is important to read at the bottom of the meniscus in the burette.Keerthana and Amanda titrating the Arm and Hammer brand baking soda.
15Methodology – methods we considered Other methods we considered:- Adding acid to baking soda and measuring the amount of Carbon Dioxide released by gravimetric analysis IS IT BY GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS? OR BY PUTTING IT INTO THE CO2 CHAMBER?- TitrationAn appropriate method is to use is back titration:- gives us the exact readings of up to 0.1 cm3 that are extremely accurate as a burette is used.- measure the change in colour, which is easier than measuring when the fizzing stoppedGive reasons why we did not adopt other methods like we could not measure when the fizzing stopped for titration.
16Methodology – our various trials We experimented with 2g and 1g of baking soda at first but realised that it was too much for the 40cm3 of HCl to even neutralise.Hence, we decided to experiment with a smaller amount of baking soda: 0.2g and added in 40cm3 of HCl such that there was excess unreacted acid left.
17Methodology – data collection The smaller the volume the alkaline needed to react with excess HCl, the more cost effective the baking soda (ADD IN MORE LINK)This is because the amount of sodium hydroxide in the baking soda is higher in order to have reacted with a larger portion of the 40ml hydrochloric acidHigher amount of acid larger concentration of NaCO3 the more effective the baking sodaReacted HCl – amount of NaCO3 in baking sodaExcess unreacted HClAlkaline needed to react with excess HCl
19Data AnalysisThe greater the volume ratio, the smaller the amount of baking soda needs to be used in baking. This gives rise to a prolonged use of baking soda. Thus, the one with the greater volume ratio of NaHCO3 is the most cost-effective.
21Challenges we facedBaking powder could not be used for this experiment because baking powder already contains acid.Titration could not be used for baking soda; therefore we used back titration.For baking soda, could not determine when the chemical reaction had stopped by simply looking at the fizzingFound more brands of baking powder than sodaWhat we were supposed to do was baking powder. But we realised it could not be used for titration as it is a mixture of acid and alkali – sodium bicarbonate and other acids.Titration not really meant for solid-liquid neutralisation
22Cont’dTime constraints – RS sessions with mentor was disrupted due to school events.Learning how to titrate the correct way. (lasted for 3 sessions)Dono how to analyse and interpret our resultsConfused over how to measure cost-effectiveness. And effectiveness.
23Reflections of the project What we feel we have done well…Working well as a teamWorking with tight deadlines, such as coming up with the proposal, doing the experiment and getting results within a few sessions.What we feel we need to improve on…Should have tackled the issue from different angles, we could have used more methods to validate our results.Limitations of the project…That we don’t have apparatus to make our own cost- effective brand of baking soda.
24Extension of projectRepeat this experiment more times, to get even more accurate data, with less errors.We would like experiment and find out how we can ascertain the most cost-effective brand of baking powder. Titration may not be the best method to do so – we realised – because baking powder already contains acid.Using the results we have gathered and apply it to baking real goods and see if our results hold true.Share our results with those who can benefit from this and teach them how baking soda works.