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Most cost-effECTIVE brand of baking soda

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Presentation on theme: "Most cost-effECTIVE brand of baking soda"— Presentation transcript:

1 Most cost-effECTIVE brand of baking soda
Keerthana Sundar, Deepa Selveraj, Desiree Chew and Amanda Lee from 211

2 Contents Introduction Research Questions Hypothesis
Background Information Methodology Results Data Analysis Conclusion Reflections Limitations/Possible Extensions of project

3 Introduction The purpose of this Research Studies project is to find out the most cost- effective brand of baking soda. This knowledge we acquire will be helpful to professional bakers and others who frequently use baking soda so that they can buy the most effective baking soda with the least amount of money.

4 Introduction This project will also educate people on the science behind baking soda. We chose to embark on this project as we realised that many people nowadays use baking soda, without realising the science behind it, and how to maximise their money.

5 Research Questions Which brand of baking soda is the most cost-effective? How do you determine the most cost- effective baking soda? What are the differences between baking powder and baking soda? How does baking soda work?

6 Hypothesis The greater the concentration of sodium bicarbonate in the baking soda, the more effective it is, for smaller amount of baking soda is needed for the same purpose. The greater the volume ratio of sodium bicarbonate per dollar, the more cost-effective it is. EDIT 2ND POINT :D

7 Background Information – what is baking soda?
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) NaHCO3 reacts with HCl (hydrochloric acid) acid to form sodium, water and carbon dioxide, as shown in the equation below. NaHCO HCL -----> NaCl H CO2 (soda) (acid) (sodium) (water) (gas) Our experiment simulates the chemical reaction which baking soda undergoes during baking. Acid in recipes - It might be obvious, such as vinegar (in muffins?), lemon juice, sour milk or buttermilk.

8 Background information – what is baking soda?
Recipes that use baking soda for leavening always have an acidic ingredient. Uses for baking soda: SOMEONE PLS HELP US DO THIS THANKS :D

9 Difference between baking soda and powder
Baking Powder Ingredients Sodium Bicarbonate combination of baking soda and a few other ingredients, and most importantly a dry acid Type - 1) Double-acting - The first "action" occurs when baking powder is wet The second "action" occurs when baking powder is heated 2) Single-acting Required for reaction to occur Acid Wet ingredients (dry acid and baking soda will react) The first "action" refers to the release of gas when the baking soda in the powder reacts with an acidic liquid. The second "action" refers to the release of gas when the batter is heated in the oven or on a griddle.

10 Materials and Apparatus
Quantity Remarks Retort Stand 1 Electronic Balance Burette Baking soda 1 bottle Screened Methyl Orange Distilled water Conical Flask Funnel 2 White Tile Beakers Hydrochloric acid (HCl) 40cm3 0.2mol/dm-3 Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 50cm3 HOW TO ADD IN GOGGLES?

11 Materials: Brands that we used
Arm and Hammer Bake King - $1.15 per 100g Red Man - $1.00 per 50g

12 Methodology (STEP BY STEP)
Back Titration: - We added 40 cm2 (excess) of 0.2 mol/dm-3 Hydrochloric acid (HCl) to 0.2 g of baking soda for complete reaction with the baking soda. - The excess acid which had not been reacted is then titrated using 0.2 mol/dm-3 sodium hydroxide (alkaline) Titration: - Releasing alkali from a burette to excess acid + screened methyl orange (indicator) in a beaker - when the indicator turns green, it shows that the excess acid has completely reacted

13 Methodology - Process of titration (using Bake King baking soda)
Bake King + hydrochloric acid, before being titrated. Pinkish colour is due to the addition of screened methyl orange. The colour shows that the content of the Erlenmeyer flask is acidic. After titration, the screened methyl orange indicator turns green. This signifies that the solution has reached the ending point of titration.

14 Methodology – back titration
After the ending point, when we are going to record our results, it is important to read at the bottom of the meniscus in the burette. Keerthana and Amanda titrating the Arm and Hammer brand baking soda.

15 Methodology – methods we considered
Other methods we considered: - Adding acid to baking soda and measuring the amount of Carbon Dioxide released by gravimetric analysis IS IT BY GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS? OR BY PUTTING IT INTO THE CO2 CHAMBER? - Titration An appropriate method is to use is back titration: - gives us the exact readings of up to 0.1 cm3 that are extremely accurate as a burette is used. - measure the change in colour, which is easier than measuring when the fizzing stopped Give reasons why we did not adopt other methods like we could not measure when the fizzing stopped for titration.

16 Methodology – our various trials
We experimented with 2g and 1g of baking soda at first but realised that it was too much for the 40cm3 of HCl to even neutralise. Hence, we decided to experiment with a smaller amount of baking soda: 0.2g and added in 40cm3 of HCl such that there was excess unreacted acid left.

17 Methodology – data collection
The smaller the volume the alkaline needed to react with excess HCl, the more cost effective the baking soda (ADD IN MORE LINK) This is because the amount of sodium hydroxide in the baking soda is higher in order to have reacted with a larger portion of the 40ml hydrochloric acid Higher amount of acid  larger concentration of NaCO3  the more effective the baking soda Reacted HCl – amount of NaCO3 in baking soda Excess unreacted HCl Alkaline needed to react with excess HCl

18 Results

19 Data Analysis The greater the volume ratio, the smaller the amount of baking soda needs to be used in baking. This gives rise to a prolonged use of baking soda. Thus, the one with the greater volume ratio of NaHCO3 is the most cost-effective.

20 Conclusion

21 Challenges we faced Baking powder could not be used for this experiment because baking powder already contains acid. Titration could not be used for baking soda; therefore we used back titration. For baking soda, could not determine when the chemical reaction had stopped by simply looking at the fizzing Found more brands of baking powder than soda What we were supposed to do was baking powder. But we realised it could not be used for titration as it is a mixture of acid and alkali – sodium bicarbonate and other acids. Titration not really meant for solid-liquid neutralisation

22 Cont’d Time constraints – RS sessions with mentor was disrupted due to school events. Learning how to titrate the correct way. (lasted for 3 sessions) Dono how to analyse and interpret our results Confused over how to measure cost-effectiveness. And effectiveness.

23 Reflections of the project
What we feel we have done well… Working well as a team Working with tight deadlines, such as coming up with the proposal, doing the experiment and getting results within a few sessions. What we feel we need to improve on… Should have tackled the issue from different angles, we could have used more methods to validate our results. Limitations of the project… That we don’t have apparatus to make our own cost- effective brand of baking soda.

24 Extension of project Repeat this experiment more times, to get even more accurate data, with less errors. We would like experiment and find out how we can ascertain the most cost-effective brand of baking powder. Titration may not be the best method to do so – we realised – because baking powder already contains acid. Using the results we have gathered and apply it to baking real goods and see if our results hold true. Share our results with those who can benefit from this and teach them how baking soda works.

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