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Presentation on theme: "GCSE PE Unit 1.1 HEALTHY ACTIVE LIFESTYLES. GCSE PE Unit 1.1.1 HEALTHY ACTIVE LIFESTYLES & HOW THEY COULD BENEFIT YOU."— Presentation transcript:



3 HEALTHY BALANCED LIFESTYLES: MENTAL, SOCIAL OR PHYSICAL BENEFITS Living a HEALTHY LIFESTYLE involves an individual making CHOICES about 5 elements; 1. DIET 2. EXERCISE 3.Avoiding harmful SUBTANCES 4.Sustaining (keeping) FRIENDSHIPS 5.Being able to CONCENTRATE HEALTH is a STATE of COMPLETE MENTAL, PHYSICAL & SOCIAL WELL-BEING and not just the ABSENCE of ILLNESS or INFIRMITY The BENEFITS of a HEALTHY ACTIVE LIFESTYLE can be CLASSIFIED into 3 types: 1. SOCIAL benefits: This is to do with how well you RELATE to OTHERS. It involves development of TEAMWORK & COOPERATION in overcoming an OPPOSITION, mixing with others with similar INTERESTS and a chance to MAKE NEW FRIENDS and increasing your SELF WORTH 2. PHYSICAL benefits: This relates to changes to your BODY. It involves developing SPECIFIC components of FITNESS (such as FLEXIBILITY, STRENGTH, and CARDIO-VASCULAR adaptations). It also BURNS FAT, improves BODY IMAGE, Muscle TONE & POSTURE and makes you LOOK GOOD. You are also at LESS RISK of INJURY and exercise / activity INCREASES your LIFE EXPECTANCY 3. MENTAL benefits: This is related to your MIND and ATTITUDE. It involves developing SELF ESTEEM, a FEEL GOOD factor, and it provides FUN & ENJOYMENT. Physical activity can RELIEVE STRESS & TENSION and provide OPPORTUNITIES to increase CONFIDENCE, chances of SUCCESS, personal DEVELOPMENT.

4 HEALTHY BALANCED LIFESTYLES A Healthy Balanced Lifestyle is one which contributes POSITIVELY to MENTAL, SOCIAL, and PHYSICAL WELLBEING. It also includes EXERCISE. A HEALTHY ACTIVE LIFESTYLE is one which follows 4 elements (DRES) a)A Balanced DIET b)Plenty of REST or SLEEP c)Regular EXERCISE d) STRESS free life. The body produces SEROTONIN and ENDORPHINS when we exercise which are called the ‘MOLECULES OF HAPPINESS’. It reduces STRESS, ANXIETY, TENSION & ANGER. It also improves the body’s IMMUNE SYSTEM and allows you to SLEEP better. Your body is also DETOXIFIED (poisons are removed) There are 7 BENEFITS of taking part in PHYSICAL ACTIVITY are: 1)To increase FITNESS 2)To FEEL GOOD 3)To relieve STRESS. Exercise relieves stress because it releases SEROTONIN which makes us feel HAPPY 4)To increase SELF ESTEEM and CONFIDENCE 5)To improve your social, mental and physical HEALTH 6)To have FUN and ENJOYMENT 7)For a MENTAL CHALLENGE

5 HEALTHY BALANCED LIFESTYLES There are 5 REASONS for taking part in PHYSICAL ACTIVITY (PACCS) 1) PHYSICAL CHALLENGE: People can set CHALLENGING GOALS or TARGETS to achieve. Reaching those goals can give a person CONFIDENCE 2) AESTHETIC APPRECIATION: A Performance that is PLEASING to WATCH. You also start to understand how DIFFICULT a performance is 3) COOPERATION: People may also become involved with the ADMINISTRATION (organiser) of the club 4) COMPETITION: As you develop your skills you become more COMPETENT which gives you the DESIRE and MOTIVATION to compete against OPPOSITION 5) SOCIALISING and the DEVELOPMENT of FRIENDSHIPS and SOCIAL MIXING: Through sport you can become more OUTGOING and CONFIDENT in the company of others


7 FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE PARTICIPATION There are 6 FACTORS which INFLUENCE Participation. These are factors which MOTIVATE us to take part 1. PEOPLE: such as FAMILY (particularly PARENTS), PEERS (especially in TEENAGERS) or ROLE MODELS (often ELITE athletes) can MOTIVATE you to participate 2. IMAGE: such as FASHION (and TRENDS for equipment merchandise and sports) and MEDIA (RADIO, TV & SATELLITE) COVERAGE can motivate you to participate. EG: WIMBLEDON fortnight 3. CULTURAL factors such as RACE (ETHNIC MINORITES can be DISCRIMINATED against) AGE (EG: age LIMITS, LEAGUES or COMPETITIONS) GENDER (because of STEREOTYPING and SINGLE SEX TEAMS) and DISABILITY (where FACILITIES & EQUIPMENT are MODIFIED) can motivate you to participate. You are MORE likely to participate amongst SIMILAR groups 4. RESOURCES: whether FACILITIES are AVAILABLE or where they are LOCATED, or whether someone has the TIME, or whether a person has the MONEY or ACCESS can depend on the OPPORTUNITY to participate, PROVISION to participate and ESTEEM (how you feel about the sport/activity) 5. HEALTH & WELL BEING: This is important for participation. This can be to do with SOCIAL, MENTAL or PHYSICAL health. ILLNESS or HEALTH PROBLEMS may affect participation but do achieve HEALTH benefits for each such as WEIGHT management, STRESS RELIEF, and CV benefits 6. SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS: For some the COST (sport often requires a FINANCIAL commitment) is too much and for others it is because of their STATUS such as being UNEMPLOYED

8 RANGE OF ROLES AVAILABLE IN SPORT There are 5 ROLES through which you can REMAIN INVOLVED in sport; ‘SPOC-V’ 1. SPORTS LEADER; You can gain QUALIFICATIONS and LEAD sports PRACTICALLY & THEORETICALLY. The sports LEADERS course is a NATIONAL qualification 2. PERFORMER; Athletes follow a PATHWAY and PROGRESS through SCHOOL sport, CLUB sport, REGIONAL & NATIONAL COMPETITION 3. OFFICIAL; This is learning to officiate in sport as REFEREE, UMPIRE or ASSISTANT. They must learn RULES & REGULATIONS 4. COACHING; This is to SUPPORT all PERFORMERS at all LEVELS, It involves a NETWORK of NGBs (National Governing Bodies) Sports ENGLAND, UK SPORT and the YST (Youth Sports Trust) 5. VOLUNTEER; This is CHOOSING to be involved without PAYMENT for the good of the organisation. There are 9 ways to volunteer; TOFF MACCC a) TRANSPORT b) OFFICIATING c) FUNDRAISING d) FINANCE e) MAINTENANCE f) ADMINISTRATION g) CATERING h) COACHING i) CLEANING

9 SPORTS PYRAMID There are 4 SECTIONS of the PYRAMID 1) FOUNDATION: This is where children first encounter sport. This is for FUN and in this stage you learn the basic SKILLS. This can be anything from EXTERNAL CLUBS to introductions in SCHOOL especially at PRIMARY PE level. TOP PLAY activities are an example 2) PARTICIPATION: This is when you play REGULARLY for a CLUB or for your SCHOOL. You may not necessarily be a high performer but you have a COMMITMENT 3) PERFORMANCE: This is characterised by performers who develop SKILLS and play to a REASONABLE level. This might include DISTRICT, REGIONAL level. There is a bigger COMMITMENT. COACHING is a factor in this stage 4) ELITE / EXCELLENCE: at this stage the PERFORMER is at a HIGH and COMPETENT SKILL LEVEL. This is characterised by NATIONAL or INTERNATIONAL performers. GOVERNING BODIES are responsible. This involves the OLYMPICS, PARALYMPICS & WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS


11 INITIATIVES FOR STAYING INVOLVED IN SPORT INITIATIVES are SCHEMES which aim to increase PARTICIPATION, EXCELLENCE and the POPULARITY of sport. They try also to improve HEALTH. There are different AGENCIES which use initiatives to do this. 1.The DCMS (Department for Culture Media and Sport) 2. SPORT ENGLAND 3.The YOUTH SPORT TRUST 4. NATIONAL GOVERNING BODIES (NGBs): These are the agencies which coordinate specific sports. For example the FA (Football Association) or the RFU (Rugby Football Union) The initiatives are aimed at SPECIFIC TARGET GROUPS which can have LOWER participation levels; 1. LOWER SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS; 2. ADULTS with DISABILITIES or ILLNESS; 3. WOMEN and GIRLS; 4. ETHNIC MONORITY groups; 5.The ELDERLY; The initiatives provide 7 OPPORTUNITIES; 1. For ETHNIC MINORITIES to participate 2. To improve SKILL levels 3. For high level COACHING 4. For different ROLES in sport 5. For COMPETITIONS 6. To use high quality FACILITIES 7. To pursue sport as a CAREER

12 OPPORTUNITIES FOR TALENTED PERFORMERS These are performers who have PROGRESSED from the FOUNDATION levels to the PERFORMANCE stage or HIGHER. This is often with the help of NGBs but an INITIATIVE called ‘WORLD CLASS SUCCESS’ aimed to TRAIN talented athletes to compete at the HIGHEST level CENTRES OF EXCELLENCE and NATIONAL SPORTS CENTRES have been developed to achieve this. There are 3 main AGENCIES involved. 1. SPORT ENGLAND: This is FUNDED by the NATIONAL LOTTERY and works with UK SPORT (ELITE sport) and the YST (PE in schools) to GROW participation, then SUSTAIN it and then EXCEL. 2. YOUTH SPORTS TRUST (YST): this is a CHARITY launched in 1994 and promotes SCHOOL SPORT & PE. it aims to IMPROVE PE, inspire ACHIEVEMENT, support COMPETITION and develop COACHING 3. NATIONAL GOVERNING BODIES: each PROFESSIONAL sport is organised by a NGB. They PROVIDE A) A national STRUCTURE B) RULES & REGULATIONS C) SUPPORT D) COACHING E) COMPETITION F) FACILITIES G) FUNDING


14 KEY TERMS 1) HEALTH is a state of complete MENTAL, PHYSICAL and SOCIAL WELLBEING and not just the absence of DISEASE or INFIRMITY 2) EXERCISE is the PARTICIPATION in a PHYSICAL activity that requires EFFORT and which EXERTS your MUSCLES in order to IMPROVE or SUSTAIN your HEALTH and/or PHYSICAL FITNESS 3) FITNESS is the ability to meet the demands of the ENVIRONMENT 4) PERFORMANCE is HOW WELL a task is completed The LINK between the terms. EXERCISE improves HEALTH, which develops FITNESS and then improves PERFORMANCE.

15 HEALTH RELATED FITNESS There are 5 COMPONENTS of Health Related Fitness 1. CARDIOVASUCLAR FITNESS uses the HEART, BLOOD and BLOOD VESSELS and its the ability to EXERCISE the BODY for long periods of TIME without TIRING. This is important in the MARATHON for example as OXYGEN is required to be delivered to the WORKING MUSCLES in order to RELEASE ENERGY 2. MUSCULAR STRENGTH is the ability to exert a FORCE against a RESISTANCE. This is important in RUGBY for example as your muscles provide a FORCE against the opposition which is the RESISTANCE in a tackle 3. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE is the ability to CONTRACT VOLUNTARY muscles MANY times without getting TIRED. This is important in ROWING for example when continuously performing the same stroke through the CONTRACTION of the DELTOID and TRAPEZIUS muscles 4. FLEXIBILITY is the RANGE of MOVEMENT possible at a JOINT. This is important in the SHOULDER JOINT for example when BOWLING in cricket 5. BODY COMPOSITION is the percentage of body weight which is FAT MUSCLE and BONE. There is an IDEAL body shape for each ACTIVITY. Athletes can IMPROVE their shape by DIET & EXERCISE

16 TESTING HEALTH RELATED FITNESS 1. CARDIOVASUCLAR FITNESS: This can be tested in 3 ways A) The HARVARD STEP test uses PULSE RATES to measure ENDURANCE. B) The COOPER test is a 12 MINUTE RUN. The performer must RUN as far as they can in this time METRES or above is an EXCELLENT score. C) The MSFT (Multi Stage Fitness Test/Bleep test) is a 20 metre PROGRESSIVE SHUTTLE test in which a performer must meet a BEEP. This is run to EXHAUSTION. 2. The MUSCULAR STRENGTH: This is measured using a HAND GRIP test. It tests GRIP strength ONLY 3. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE: This is tested using the TREADMILL test. The performer starts at 2.74KM and at specific TIMES the SPEED is INCREASED until performer is EXHAUSTED 4.FLEXIBILITY: This is tested using the SIT & REACH test. This only tests HIP flexibility 5. BODY COMPOSITION: This is tested with BIOMETRIC SCALES which inform you of FAT & MUSCLE PERCENTAGES

17 SKILL RELATED FITNESS (ABC PRS) There are 6 COMPONENTS of SKILL Related Exercise. Remember it using ABC PRS 1.AGILITY is the ability to CHANGE the POSITION of the body and to CONTROL the movement of the WHOLE BODY. You need this to SIDE STEP in RUGBY 2.BALANCE is the ability to maintain the body’s CENTRE OF MASS above the SUPPORT BASE whilst remaining still (STATIC BALANCE) You will need this in GYMNASTICS on the BEAM 3.COORDINATION is the ability to use 2 or more BODY PARTS together. You will need to coordinate your ARMS & HANDS when CATCHING in CRICKET 4.POWER is the ability to perform STRENGTH performances QUICKLY. POWER = STRENGTH X SPEED. You need this from the STARTING BLOCKS in the 100m 5.REACTION TIME is the TIME TAKEN from the presentation of a STIMULUS to the beginning of the MOVEMENT. You need this to REACT to the STIMULUS of the GUN in the 100m 6.SPEED is the RATE at which an athlete is able to perform a MOVEMENT or cover a DISTANCE in a period of TIME. Eg Leg Speed, Hand Speed, Speed of Thought You need this to get to the FINISH line in the 100m as fast as possible

18 TESTING SKILL RELATED FITNESS 1. AGILITY: Tested using the ILLINOIS AGILITY test which is a 5 METRE X 10 METRE shuttle in which the performer runs around 8 CONES in the fastest time 2. BALANCE: This is measured using the STANDING STORK test in which a performer stands on ONE LEG with their HEEL off the ground for as long as they can 3. COORDINATION: 3 BALL JUGGLE. You count the number of times the ball is JUGGLED 4. POWER; This is tested using the SARGEANT (VERTICAL) JUMP test. You reach up with one hand as far as you can above your head. You then perform a STANDING jump and measure how far you reach with the same hand. You then measure the DISTANCE between the 2 marks STANDING BROAD JUMP test. You start with 2 feet together and then jump HORIZONTALLY as far as you can. You measure how far you jump 5. REACTION TIME; This is tested using the RULER DROP test. A ruler is dropped between the fingers of a performer and then the performer uses 2 FINGERS to catch the ruler. The distance it drops is measured 6. SPEED; This is tested using the 30 METRE SPRINT test. The performer has a STANDING start and sprints as fast as they can for 30 metres. The TIME is recorded


20 PAR-Q & TESTING FITNESS LEVELS A PAR-Q stands for PHYSICAL ACTIVITY READINESS QUESTIONAIRRE and it is used as a first step in assessing someone’s SUITABILITY to take part in PHYSICAL activity. The questionnaire asks you questions related to; 1. HEART problems 2. CHEST pains 3.Blood PRESSURE 4. BONE and JOINT problems 5. INJURIES 6.Present AGE 7. Present ACTIVITY levels

21 THE PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING There are 4 PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING & 2 CONSIDERATIONS 1. PROGRESSIVE OVERLOAD: This is GRADUALLY increasing the OVERLOAD to allow your body to ADAPT. This links with FITT F.I.T.T: FREQUENCY (how often you TRAIN) INTENSITY (how HARD you train) TIME (how LONG you train for) TYPE (which METHOD you use to train) 2. SPECIFICITY: This is MATCHING your Training to the requirements of your activity 3. INDIVIDUAL NEEDS: Every athlete has their own needs and their GOALS, TIME, AGE, GENDER, FITNESS and INJURIES must be taken into account 4.REST AND RECOVERY: Rest is the amount of TIME given to Recovery and Recovery is the TIME required to REPAIR DAMAGE REVERSIBILITY: This is when you LOSE fitness through ILLNESS, INJURY or through lack of Training

22 GOAL SETTING People who set GOALS are more likely to achieve and reach them. They allow us to i) PLAN targets ii)DEVELOP targets and iii) MAINTAIN them. To set them we must consider the AIMS of your programme. The SMART TARGET technique is effective in helping an athlete accurately tailor the programme to their needs. S = SPECIFIC: This is knowing EXACTLY what the AIM is. Stating that you want to ‘get fitter’ is not specific enough. I want to run 100m further in the Cooper Test is much more specific! M = MEASURABLE: You need to measure it so that you know if you have achieved it. You need to measure in UNITS. You need a STARTING POINT & an END POINT A = ACHIEVABLE: ‘Running the Marathon after 4 weeks’ is unrealistic. The Aim must be achievable by the specific athlete R = REALISTIC: The goal may be achievable in theory but not in PRACTICE. EG: if you are unable to train you may not be able to improve enough to achieve your targets T = TIME BOUND: This is the START and the END POINT of the programme. This gives you a clear FOCUS

23 METHODS OF TRAINING AEROBIC exercise / training: Is training at MEDIUM intensity (60 to 80% of your MAXIMUM HEART RATE) whilst using OXYGEN (O2) ANAEROBIC exercise / training: Is training at HIGH intensity WITHOUT using OXYGEN (O2) (above 80% of your MAXIMUM HEART RATE) but this also creates LACTIC ACID CONTINUOUS TRAINING CONTINUOUS TRAINING is exercising at a constant pace or the same speed for at least 20 minutes. It is AEROBIC as it uses 02 to release ENERGY in the muscles. A typical athlete who would train in this way are MARATHON runners, TOUR DE FRANCE cyclists, CROSS CHANNEL swimmers, LONG DISTANCE rowers, CROSS COUNTRY skiers. Training in this way improves ENDURANCE. An athlete trains between 60 to 80% of their MAXIMUM HEART RATE. Your MHR is calculated using the formulae 220 – YOUR AGE. If the athlete drops below 60 % they are not working intensely enough and if they work above 80 % they are working too intense INTERVAL TRAINING INTERVAL TRAINING is VERY HIGH INTENSITY ANAEROBIC WORK intervals mixed in with NO INTENSITY REST intervals. A collection of WORK intervals is known as a SET. It is good training for those athletes who require POWER and SPEED. When you are in your WORK INTERVAL your heart rate is at 85% or higher. It will drop below this in your REST intervals to allow you to RECOVER. Athletes that use this training include SPRINT RUNNERS, SPRINT SWIMMERS, SPRINT CYCLISTS and GAMES players

24 METHODS OF TRAINING: CIRCUIT TRAINING Circuit Training improves MUSCULAR ENDURANCE, CARDIO -VASCULAR FITNESS and CIRCULO- RESPIRATORY FITNESS. It includes a number of different exercises at areas called STATIONS. This can take place in a SPORTS HALL or OUTSIDE. It is used by a VARIETY of athletes. The participant completes the exercise for a PERIOD of TIME or for a specific number of REPETITIONS in a set time. The athlete then moves onto the next station. If a group are doing this it is better organised if the group all move at the same time. This is sometimes organised using MUSIC. Stations are sometimes COLOUR CODED to indicate how hard you need to work. EG: Very fit athletes use the RED colour for instructions of their target. There is no set number of stations but sometimes circuits are arranged around body parts. EG: Upper Body Station, Lower Body Station, Core Station, CV Station. This is so that one area is not worked CONSECUTIVELY There are 2 TYPES of Circuit: 1) FITNESS 2) SKILLS: A Skills Circuit does not concentrate on improving fitness but on improving TECHNIQUE. For example a basket baller may Shoot at one station then Dribble at the next etc.

25 METHODS OF TRAINING: FARTLEK TRAINING FARTLEK Training is taken from a Swedish word which means ‘SPEEDPLAY’. It is a METHOD of Training which is used mainly by GAMES Players because it replicates or copies their MOVEMENTS during a game. It is quite similar to INTERVAL Training in that you have different INTENSITIES. However unlike Interval Training there is a RANGE of different intensities during the same session. It is a MIX of AEROBIC and ANEAROBIC Intensity Athletes involved in Games such as Rugby, Football, Tennis, Basketball, and Hockey would use Fartlek Training. A Typical Session would include SPRINTING, JOGGING, WALKING, JUMPING, CHANGING LEVELS, STANDING STILL. An accurately designed session would SPECIFICALLY copy the DIRECTION of movement, the TIME spent doing, and the DISTANCES covered in all of the above. EG: A Basketball player would use smaller Distances than a Rugby Player when sprinting

26 METHODS OF TRAINING: WEIGHT TRAINING Weight Training uses PROGRESSIVE RESISTANCE. You can do this through the amount of WEIGHT lifted or through the number of REPETITIONS lifted. It can develop 5 things: 1) MUSCULAR ENDURANCE. (HIGH Rep / LOW Weight) 2) MUSCULAR STRENGTH 3) SPEED 4) MUSCLE BULK (Size) (LOW Rep / HIGH Weight) 5) REHABILITATION after injury. The purpose of the training will affect the following 8 aspects: A)The NUMBER of exercises. B)The exercise for each MUSCLE GROUP C)The WEIGHT used from 10RM to 1RM D) Number of REPETITIONS E) Number of SETS F) The Repetition’s SPEED G) Length of REST between Sets H) FREQUENCY of Training (1 Day Rest)

27 METHODS OF TRAINING: CROSS TRAINING Cross training COMBINES different methods of training and is ADAPTABLE to a VARIETY of situations. It IMPROVES different MUSCLE groups giving a wide range of development of the BODY. By CHANGING the ACTIVITY parts of the BODY are able to REST and it prevents OVER TRAINING and INJURY. It is used to develop GENERAL FITNESS but ELITE TRI-ATHLETES would use this TECHNIQUE to develop each of their DISCIPLINES. It can also BENEFIT athletes whose normal TRAINING is disrupted by the WEATHER Exercise used in cross training include SWIMMING, RUNNING, CYCLING a chosen GAME and AEROBICS. F.I.T.T principles can also apply to cross training

28 THE EXERCISE SESSION A Training session, match or competition should always be split into 3 SECTIONS, performed in the LOGICAL order: A) WARM UP: This consists of 3 PHASES. The purpose is to increase BODY TEMPERATURE and increase the 02 EXCHANGE from HAEMOGLOBIN, to prevent INJURY, to improve PERFORMANCE, and to prepare PSYCHOLOGICALLY. PHASE 1) PULSE RAISER: This should be CARDIOVASCULAR, for 5 to 15 MINUTES at MEDIUM INTENSITY. PHASE 2) STRETCHING. This can be STATIC (JOINT held still) or DYNAMIC (moving the JOINT). This should be held between SECONDS PHASE 3) SKILLS PRACTICE: This is where athletes REPLICATE the movements required for their events. EG: Shooting, Tumble Turns, Starts.. B) MAIN ACTIVITY: This is the main event, competition or it is the Method of Training. The HEART RATE is elevated during this period C) COOL DOWN: The purpose is to return the Heart Rate to pre exercise levels gradually. This is very important after ANAEROBIC exercise to flush out LACTIC ACID. There are 2 phases: PHASE 1) ACTIVE RECOVERY: This is 5 to 10 minutes of LOW to MEDIUM intensity CV work followed by… PHASE 2) STRETCHES: This time held for 30 – 35 SECONDS

29 ANALYSING TRAINING SESSIONS You must analyse training sessions to see the EFFECT that your training is having. You need to know what to RECORD and what this INFORMATION is TELLING you. You need to consider the following aspects: 1) HEART RATE: This is the NUMBER of times the heart beats PER MINUTE 2) RESTING HEART RATE: This is best taking when you first GET UP. It AVERAGES between 60 to 80 BEATS PER MINUTE (BPM). A Trained Heart can be LOWER EG: 40 BPM because the heart is strong enough to pump out enough blood 3) WORKING HEART RATE: This is your HR DURING or IMMEDIATELY AFTER exercise. You can measure INTENSITY in the session 4) MEASURING HEART RATE: You use your FINGERS and not your THUMB to measure your RADIAL (wrist) or CAROTID (neck) pulse 5) MAXIMUM HEART RATE: This is calculated according to AGE: Use the FORMULA: MHR = 220 – AGE. A 16 Year old = 204 BPMs 6) TARGET HEART RATE or TARGET ZONE: This is giving your heart rate an UPPER (80% of MHR) and LOWER THRESHOLD (60% of MHR). If people train between these AEROBIC thresholds they will get FITTER 7) RECOVERY RATE: This is the TIME TAKEN for the HR to RETURN to normal after exercise. The quicker is does this the fitter the person is


31 THE LINK BETWEEN EXERCISE REST WORK AND DIET WORK provides finance and opportunity. EXERCISE provides the fitness necessary to ENJOY life. REST provides a BALANCE between the 2. A BALANCED DIET provides the essential NUTRIENTS to health and WELL BEING. DIET is the NORMAL food that we eat. People adopt certain diets to MANIPULATE their BODY COMPOSITION. Diet provides ENERGY, REPAIRS MUSCLE and provides essential NUTRIENTS. If we want to maintain our BODY COMPOSITION we must consume the same number of CALORIES that we expend. The FACTORS of a balanced diet are: There are 3 MACRO NUTRIENTS 1) CARBOHYDRATES: Provide ENERGY. Should be 55% of Diet. There are 2 Types: A) COMPLEX: These take longer to digest and provide LONG LASTING energy. EG Rice, Pasta, Potatoes, Bread. B) SIMPLE: These digest quickly. EG: Fruit, Biscuits, Sugar, Fizzy Drinks. These are not as Healthy 2) FATS: Provide ENERGY. EG: Oils, Butter, Nuts, Red Meat. 30% of Diet 3) PROTEIN: For GROWTH & REPAIR. 2 Types A) ANIMAL: EG Meat, Fish, Eggs, Dairy B) PLANT: EG Peas Beans Potatoes. Should be 15% of Diet There are 2 MICRO NUTRIENTS 1) MINERALS: for Health EG: CALCIUM (strong Bones) IRON (for blood) 2) VITAMINS: For Health. A (Vision) B1 (Release Energy) C (Immune System) B (Absorbs Calcium) E (for Growth) There are 2 additional elements needed for HEALTH and WELL-BEING 1) FIBRE (ROUGHAGE): For Digestion. Found in Vegetables 2 Types A) SOLUBLE: Reduce Cholesterol B) INSOLUBLE: Bulks food to avoid Constipation 2) WATER: half Body weight. Transports Blood, 02,Nutrients,Controls Temperature

32 DIETARY INTAKE & PERFORMANCE The TIMING of Dietary INTAKE is important in ensuring that you OPTIMISE performance levels. Its not just about WHAT you eat but WHEN YOU EAT IT! Exercise approximately 2 hours after you eat because this is how long it takes for Complex carbohydrate (CHO) to be available & your blood has been SHUNTED away from the muscles to DIGEST food instead. It is important to time it correctly because the BLOOD needed to DIGEST the food is SHUNTED (redistributed) to other parts of the body when you start to EXERCISE CARBO-LOADING: mainly used by MARATHON or Distance runners. It makes maximum use of carbohydrate for ENERGY SUNDAY (1 Week before Event): Go on a 2 hour run to deplete CHO stores MONDAY & TUESDAY: Reduce training and do not eat CHO. Only eat Proteins to REAPIR the body. Your body then CRAVES CHO which means it will store more when it receives it. WEDNESDAY & THURSDAY: Eat lots of CHO, make training shorter but sharper FRIDAY & SATURDAY: No Training. Attend a PASTA PARTY SUNDAY: Run the Marathon with a Higher than normal level of CHO (Energy) in your system


34 SOMATOTYPES: The CLASSIFICATION of Body Types There are 3 SOMATOTYPES. Sport attracts EXTREME SOMATOTYPES 1) ENDOMORPH (The degree of FATNESS: EG: SUMO Wrestler) 2) MESOMORPH (how MUSCULAR you are) EG: SPRINTER 3) ECTOMORPH (How LINEAR / TALL & THIN or SKINNY you are) EG: HIGH JUMPER Each of the 3 areas are graded out of 7 in this order, with 1 being LOW. Most People are a Mix of all 3. EG: Extreme Mesomorph is 1/7/1 OPTIMUM WEIGHT The Most FAVOURABLE weight in a sport is the weight at which athletes perform BEST. There are 4 FACTORS that affect your PARTICPATION and PERFORMANCE in a sport 1) GENDER: Men have more Muscle and bigger bones 2) BONE STRUCTURE: This is FRAME SIZE and affects your Weight 3) MUSCLE GIRTH: This increases with Training. More Muscle means heavier athlete 4) GENETICS: This is passed down from your parents. Your BODY COMPOSITION is the make up of your FAT, MUSCLE and BONE. EG: Your HEIGHT. The TALLER a person the greater their OPTIMUM WEIGHT OPTIMUM WEIGHT depends on your sport. If you need to change your weight then you need to INCREASE or DECREASE CALORIE INTAKE

35 WEIGHT RELATED CONDITIONS There are 5 terms which describe different weight conditions 1)ANOREXIC: means without appetite and refers to a chronic condition of people not wanting to become fat. It is a serious lack of NUTRITION 2)OBESE: This is a term used to describe people who are ABNORMALLY FAT 3)OVERFAT: This is a physique which is carrying too much FAT. 4)OVERWEIGHT: It is having weight of ABOVE AVERAGE. It is not harmful unless it is accompanied by Over fatness 5)UNDERWEIGHT: Weighing LESS than AVERAGE weight

36 PERFORMANCE ENHANCING & RECREATIONAL DRUGS A DRUG is a chemical that changes to the bodies chemical balance. Most drugs have Physical SIDE EFFECTS. DOPING is when a drug is used to improve performance. There are 2 Types: 1. PERFORMANCE ENHANCING 2. RECREATIONAL PERFORMANCE ENHANCING: These improve performance. Often this is because of the PRESSURE to win, for MONEY or for FAME. 6 include.. A) ANABOLIC STEROIDS: These mimic the male hormone TESTOSTERONE to increase Aggression, Muscle and Strength. Side effects include HEART ATTACKS, STROKE, INCREASED BLOOD PRESSURE, DEATH B) BETA BLOCKERS: These reduce HEART RATE and ANXIETY. They are used in sports where STEADINESS is essential such as ARCHERY. Side effects are DEPRESSION C) DIURETICS: This increases the amount of URINE produced which reduces weight so is used by boxers and jockeys. Side effects include DEHYDRATION D) NARCOTIC ANALGESICS: These are strong PAINKILLERS which enable an athlete to compete when injured. Side effects are loss of BALANCE & CONCENTRATION E) STIMULANTS: Commonly used for alertness. EG: Ephydrine but also Caffeine Side Effects: CHD & ORGAN problems F) PEPTIDES (HORMONES): Same effect as Steroids EG: EPO increases RED BLOOD CELLS which allows more OXYGEN to be transported, HGH increases Muscle. Side Effects: HEART ATTACKS, STROKE due to thickened blood

37 PERFORMANCE ENHANCING & RECREATIONAL DRUGS RECREATIONAL: A)SMOKING / NICOTINE: Illegal under 18 and banned in public places due to its links with CANCERS, HEART PROBLEMS CHD (CORORNARY HEART DISEASE). Contains Carbon Monoxide which Red Blood Cells like 240 times more than 02. Nicotine is the drug in cigarettes and is ADDICTIVE. B)ALCOHOL: It is a DEPRESSANT which slows down Heart Rate and is banned in some sports. It also impairs JUDGEMENT and REACTION TIMES. It also DEHYDRATES. It can cause CIRRHOSIS of the Liver SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE DRUGS: These are drugs PRESCRIBED by a Doctor and can be bought in Pharmacies SOCIALLY UNACCEPTABLE DRUGS: These are drugs which are ILLEGAL and are unacceptable to most people EG: ECSTACY, HEROIN, LSD, AMPHETAMINES. All have negative effects on the body and can cause DEATH WADA is the World Anti Doping Agency and it works with the IOC (International Olympic Committee) to TEST and PUNISH/SANCTION athletes who Dope.

38 RISK ASSESSMENT & PREVENTING INJURIES There are 6 ways of preventing injury and reducing RISK. 1.WARM UP / COOL DOWN: A Cool Down helps dissipate LACTIC ACID which prevents soreness and aches 2.CHECKING EQUIPMENT & FACILITIES: This is generally done by the OFFICIALS before an event or practice 3.PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT & CLOTHING: this is to prevent injury but it can be dependent on the position you play EG: Hockey Goalkeeper. FOOTWEAR is an important aspect of this 4.BALANCED COMPETITION: A) WEIGHT CATEGORIES: Boxing or Weight Lifting B) MIXED or SINGLE SEX: Men play against Men and Women against Women. In some sports like Tennis they play against each other C) AGE: This is in CHILDREN because they develop at different rates. Also there are VETERANS leagues for older players D) HANDICAP SYSTEM: Used to allow weaker players to compete with skilled players such as in golf 5.PLAYING TO THE RULES OF COMPETITION: PUNISHMENTS can be given for PROFESSIONAL FOULS or over aggressive play. Need to play in the SPIRIT OF THE GAME 6.PHYSICAL READINESS: PARQ (physical activity readiness questionnaire) should be completed before you compete to ensure you are


40 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 1. RESTING HEART RATE: This is the amount of times the heart beats in one minute measured in BEATS PER MINUTE (BPM) 2.Increased RECOVERY RATE: This is the speed at which the heart returns to its PRE- EXERCISE state. The fitter you are the faster this is 3. STROKE VOLUME: is the amount of BLOOD PUMPED out of the LEFT VENTRICLE in 1 BEAT. 4. CARDIAC OUTPUT: This is the amount of BLOOD PUMPED out of the LEFT VENTRICLE in 1 MINUTE. It is calculated as: CARDIAC OUTPUT = STROKE VOLUME x HEART RATE Healthy VEINS (take blood IN to the heart) and ARTERIES (take blood AWAY): Exercise increases the amount of tiny blood vessels called CAPILLARIES


42 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: Effects of Exercise The 6 IMMEDIATE effects of exercise on the Cardio Vascular system 1.Increase of HEART RATE, STROKE VOLUME & CARDIAC OUTPUT. The amount this increases depends on the exercise INTENSITY 2.Increase in BLOOD PRESSURE 3.Blood is DISTRIBUTED to the WORKING MUSCLES 4.Blood flow to non essential ORGANS is REDUCED (EG: Digestive system) 5. OXYGEN is sent to the working MUSCLES 6. BLOOD VESSELS DILATE (widen) to allow more blood flow to the working muscles and also near the SKIN to LOSE HEAT Long term 7 ADAPTATIONS of exercise on the Cardio Vascular system 1.Increased LEFT VENTRICLE strength which means increase of HEART RATE, STROKE VOLUME & CARDIAC OUTPUT 2. REDUCED RESTING heart rate 3.Increased AEROBIC CAPACITY 4.Increased OXYGEN DELIVERY to the MUSCLES 5. REDUCED RECOVERY time 6.Less RISK of CORONARY HEART DISEASE such as a HEART ATTACK or ANGINA 7.Healthy VEINS & ARTERIES

43 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: Effects of LIFESTYLE (Rest, Diet & Drugs) It is important to lead a HEALTHY BALANCED LIFESTYLE. This is made up of 5 COMPONENTS (DRES) a)Correct DIET b)Plenty of REST/ SLEEP: REST is important to allow the HEART MUSCLE to ADAPT though HYPERTROPHY of the LEFT VENTRICLE WALL. The HEART MUSCLE grows in size and the CAPILLARIES increase in number to allow more blood flow and increased 02 and C02 EXCHANGE c)Regular EXERCISE d) STRESS free lives. 4 LIFESTYLE FACTORS have a NEGATIVE effect on the CV System: 1. HIGH CHOLESTEROL: Due to poor DIET. It is a fatty substance in the blood called LIPOPROTEINS. There are 2 forms of these A) LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (LDL): This is BAD cholesterol. It leads to a build of PLAQUE which restricts BLOOD FLOW and INCREASES blood PRESSURE and makes the heart work harder. Foods include those with ANIMAL FATS But if you eat.. B) HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (HDL): This is GOOD cholesterol because it takes the BAD cholesterol out of the body. It is found in fruit and veg: 5 A DAY!!!! 2. RECREATIONAL DRUGS: NICOTINE lowers HDL and causes the blood to CLOT. Too much ALCOHOL and PRESCRIPTION drugs has a serious impact on CHD (Coronary Heart Disease) 3. SEDENTARY LIFESTYLES: (Lack of exercise) can increase chance of OBESITY and CHD 4. STRESS: leads to an increase in RESTING BLOOD PRESSURE




47 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: THE MECHANICS OF BREATHING During INSPIRATION 2 PROCESSES occur: 1.The INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES (between the RIBS) CONTRACT moving the rib cage UPWARDS & OUT. 2.The DIAPHRAGM muscle CONTRACTS (Flattens) Both of these processes cause a LARGER VOLUME & DECREASED PRESSURE which creates a VACCUUM and therefore AIR rushes IN During EXPIRATION 2 PROCESSES occur: 1.The INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES (between the RIBS) RELAX moving the rib cage DOWNWARDS & IN 2.The DIAPHRAGM muscle RELAXES (Becomes DOME shaped) Both of these processes cause a SMALLER VOLUME & INCREASED PRESSURE which FORCES AIR OUT

48 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM AEROBIC RESPIRATION: Involves the use of OXYGEN and GLUCOSE. It RELEASES ENERGY C02 and HEAT GLUCOSE + OXYGEN (O2)CARBON DIOXIDE (C02) + WATER (H2O) + ENERGY + HEAT ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION: Involves the use of GLUCOSE. It RELEASES ENERGY C02, HEAT & LACTIC ACID GLUCOSE CARBON DIOXIDE (C02) + ENERGY + HEAT + LACTIC ACID KEY TERMS: 1. INSPIRED AIR COMPOSITION is 79% NITROGEN / 20% O2 / and 0.4% CO2. 2. EXPIRED AIR COMPOSITION is 79% NITROGEN / 16% O2 / and 4% CO2. 3. FREQUENCY (Breathing Rate) is the NUMBER of times you INSPIRE & EXPIRE in 1 MINUTE 4. TIDAL VOLUME: The amount of AIR that can be INSPIRED or EXPIRED during NORMAL breathing 5. VITAL CAPACITY (Lung Volume): The MAXIMUM amount of AIR that can be EXPIRED after a DEEP INSPIRATION 6. GASEOUS EXCHANGE: is the process of EXCHANGING O2 and CO2 at the LUNGS and the WORKING MUSCLES. During INSPIRATION Oxygen makes its way to the ALVEOLI (1 cell thick air sacs) at the end of the BRONCHIOLES in the lungs. The CONCENTRATION of oxygen in the alveoli is much HIGHER than the oxygen in the capillary. Therefore the oxygen DIFFUSES in to the capillary. It send this to the working muscles where the same process occurs and the oxygen moves into the muscle. During EXPIRATION a HIGH concentration of CO2 in the capillary and a LOW concentration of CO2 in the alveoli means the CO2 DIFFUSES into the alveoli and breathed out 7. DIFFUSION: Is the movement of a gas from an area of HIGH CONCENTRATION to a LOW concentration 8. OXYGEN DEBT: Is the amount of OXYGEN required during RECOVERY ABOVE the amount of OXYGEN that you would normally require AT REST

49 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: EFFECTS OF EXERCISE 6 IMMEDIATE (Short Term) EFFECTS: 1. TIDAL VOLUME increases 2. BREATHING RATE increases 3. GASEOUS EXCHANGE increases 4. Release of ENERGY increases 5. AEROBIC and ANAEROBIC Respiration increases but which one depends on the exercise INTENSITY 6. If ANAEROBIC then OXYGEN DEBT also increases 4 ADAPTATIONS (Long Term Effects): 1.Increased LUNG VOLUME or VITAL (LUNG) CAPACITY 2. Increased GASEOUS EXCHANGE 3. Increased TOLERANCE of LACTIC ACID which allows you to exercise at HIGHER INTENSITY 4. Increased V02 MAX and PERFORMANCE

50 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: EFFECTS OF SMOKING & ALCOHOL SMOKING: A smoker reduces the SURFACE AREA of the ALVEOLI because it lines the alveoli with NICOTINE. This means that there is REDUCED GASEOUS exchange and therefore REDUCED O2 UPTAKE which means REDUCED PERFORMANCE. Smoking can also cause EMPHYSEMA. Cigarettes contain a gas called CARBON MONOXIDE. This cannot be used by the body but RED BLOOD CELLS like this 240 times more than 02. ALCOHOL: Increased use of alcohol leads to POOR RESPIRATION because it causes LOWER BLOOD PRESSURE, IRREGULAR and SLOWER breathing rate


52 THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM Deltoid Bicep Abdominals Pectorals Quadricep Trapezius Tricep Latissimus Dorsi Gluteals Hamstrings Gastrocnemius

53 THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM The Muscles control the MOVEMENT of the body. They CONTRACT or LENGTHEN and this moves the JOINTS. Muscles also define BODY SHAPE and give POSTURE. They can work A)VOLUNTARILY (eg: Biceps) and these are CONSCIOUSLY controlled. B)INVOLUNTARILY (eg: Diaphragm). Muscles can be TRAINED to improve STRENGTH, ENDURANCE, FLEXIBILITY. There are 11 major SKELETAL muscles that attach to the SKELETON through TENDONS. 1. DELTOID (shoulder) 2. TRAPEZIUS (Upper Back between Shoulder Blades) 3. LATISSIMUS DORSI (Side of the Back below arm pit and above hip) 4. PECTORALS (Chest) 5. ABDOMINALS (Stomach / Core): 6. BICEPS (Front of Upper Arm) 7. TRICEPS (Back of Upper Arm) 8. GLUTEALS (Top of Leg at Rear) 9. QUADRICEPS (Front of Thigh) 10. HAMSTRINGS (Back of Thigh) 11. GASTROCNEMIUS: (Calf)

54 THE IMPACT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON YOUR MUSCULAR SYSTEMS IMMEDIATE effects are those which happen STRAIGHT AWAY when you start exercising. LONG TERM ADAPTATIONS are effects that happen over WEEKS & MONTHS. 7 Muscular IMMEDIATE EFFECTS: 1.The muscles CONTRACT & RELAX quicker 2.The muscles produce HEAT 3.The muscles demand MORE O2 4.Increased ACHES in the muscles 5.Increased LACTIC ACID if the exercise is ANAEROBIC (without O2) 6. GLYCOGEN from the liver and the muscles is released to provide the FUEL for energy 7.Increased risk of STRAINS (muscle fibre tears) and tendon RUPTURES 5 Muscular ADAPTATIONS: 1.Increased STRENGTH 2. Increased POWER 3. Increased Muscular ENDURANCE and 4. HYPERTROPHY (increased size) and 5. Increased strength around JOINTS

55 THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM: JOINT MOVEMENT There are 8 main JOINT MOVEMENTS 1. FLEXION: This is when the ANGLE of the joint DECREASES. The Joint BENDS 2. EXTENSION: This is when the ANGLE of the joint INCREASES. The Joint STRAIGHTENS 3. ABDUCTION: When a LIMB moves AWAY from the MID LINE of the Body. This can happen at the SHOULDER joint or the HIP Joint 4. ADDUCTION: When a LIMB moves TOWARDS the MID LINE of the Body. This can happen at the SHOULDER joint or the HIP Joint 5. ROTATION: When the JOINT moves around an AXIS 6. CIRCUMDUCTION. When the END of a LIMB moves in a CIRCULAR shape 7. PLANTAR FLEXION: When the TOES point AWAY from the body at the ANKLE joint 8. DORSI FLEXION: When the TOES point TOWARDS the FACE from the ANKLE joint



58 EXERCISING THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM The Muscles use 02 and GLYCOGEN for FUEL to release ENERGY. Lack of 02 can lead to LACTIC ACID build up. When muscles CONTRACT they are under TENSION and they change SHAPE. This is because the TENDON of the muscle pulls on a bone. When they RELAX the simply return to their NORMAL SHAPE. There are 2 types of CONTRACTION: 1.ISOTONIC CONTRACTIONS: This is when the muscle SHORTENS or LENGTHENS to create movement. Eg: Running Muscles work as ANTAGONISTIC PAIRS. This means that they work in 2s to create movement. Whilst one CONTRACTS the other RELAXES. Two examples of this are the BICEP & TRICEP muscle which work to cause FLEXION & EXTENSION of the elbow. Another are the HAMSTRINGS & the QUADRICEPS which contract & relax to cause FLEXION & EXTENSION of the knee 2. ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION: This is when the muscle remains the SAME LENGTH whilst under TENSION Eg: The TRICEP muscle CONTRACTS but does not change LENGTH in a Rugby Scrum

59 Steps to identifying the type Muscle Contraction Is the muscle under TENSION? No No Contraction Yes Is the joint moving?NoISOMETRIC Contraction YesIt is ISOTONIC Contraction Name the muscles that controls movement at this joint

60 EFFECTS OF LIFESTYLE & PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUGS ON THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM 1.REST is essential for the muscles to repair themselves and STRENGTHEN. No rest will mean you are OVERTRAINING 2.DIET is essential for this repair. Specifically an athlete needs PROTEIN to REPAIR muscles and prevent ATROPHY.(Muscle reduces in size) It is important to eat within 2 HOURS of training 3.PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUGS such as ANABOLIC SEROIDS are sometimes used to increase MUSCLE MASS & STRENGTH & the RECOVERY process. They allow the athlete to work for LONGER and with HIGHER INTENSITY. They are BANNED in sport and can lead to serious HEALTH issues The Muscular System helps in every day life in 6 ways: 1.Increased WORK CAPACITY 2.Decreased chance of INJURY 3.Decreased BACK PAIN 4.Improvement in POSTURE 5.Improved ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE 6.Helps REHABILITATION after injury



63 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS: This system consists of BONES and has 3 main FUNCTIONS: 1. MOVEMENT: this is where the BONES meet. This is a JOINT. Muscles attach to the skeleton through TENDONS. The 2 systems work together to cause movement 2. SUPPORT: The skeleton gives the body SHAPE & supports it through a variety of movements or positions. It also affects BODY COMPOSITION & FRAME 3. PROTECTION: Examples of this are the CRANIUM which protects the BRAIN, the RIBS protect the HEART, LUNGS & LIVER. JOINTS & MOVEMENT STRUCTURE The structure of joints varies. There are 3 types: 1. FIXED or FIBROUS Joints: These cannot move. EG: the Cranium 2. SLIGHTLY MOVEABLE / CARTILAGINOUS: These can move a little bit and have CARTILAGE which is ‘sandwiched between 2 bones. EG: Vertebrae 3. SYNOVIAL / FREELY MOVEABLE Joints: These can perform a RANGE of movements depending on their STRUCTURE. There are 2 main types A) HINGE Joints: EG The KNEE or the ELBOW. They can perform EXTENSION & FLEXION. B) BALL & SOCKET Joints: EG: The SHOULDER. These can perform EXTENSION, FLEXION, ABDUCTION, ADDUCTION, and ROTATION

64 THE IMPACT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON YOUR SKELETAL SYSTEMS IMMEDIATE effects are those which happen STRAIGHT AWAY when you start exercising. LONG TERM ADAPTATIONS are effects that happen over WEEKS & MONTHS. 3 Skeletal IMMEDIATE EFFECTS: 1.Increased FLEXIBILITY at the joints 2.Increased risk of FRACTURES 3.Increased risk of SPRAINS (damage to the joint – twisted) or DISLOCATIONS (when the joint moves out of its normal location) 4 Skeletal ADAPTATIONS: 1.Increased BONE SIZE & STRENGTH 2.Increased BONE DENSITY which reduces the risk of OSTEOPOROSIS. This is gained by performing WEIGHT BEARING activities such as WALKING RUNNING TENNIS WEIGHTS & AEROBICS) 3.Increased general FLEXIBILITY at the joints 4.Increased STRENGTH of TENDONS & LIGAMENTS

65 THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM: CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS SYNOVIAL JOINTS contain 5 similar characteristics: 1. CARTILAGE: This covers the end of the bone and is responsible for reducing FRICTION. This can cause ARTHRITIS if bone is exposed and rub together 2. SYNOVIAL FLUID: This is liquid which LUBRICATES the joint 3. SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE: This releases the Synovial Fluid 4. LIGAMENTS: These joins the BONES to other BONES 5. TENDONS: These join the MUSCLE to the BONE


67 DIET & THE SKELETAL SYSTEM You must have a good DIET for a strong skeletal system. 1. CALCIUM: helps bones become DENSE and STRONG. Found in MILK, CHEESE 2. VITAMIN ‘D’ (Sunlight) helps the bones ABSORB the calcium 3. SMOKING and too much ALCOHOL have a TOXIC effect on the bones

68 INJURIES TO THE SKELETAL SYSTEM INJURIES TO BONES: FRACTURES are injuries to BONES. It is a CRACKED or a BROKEN bone. There are 4 types of fracture 1. CLOSED FRACTURE: This is where the SKIN over the break is NOT BROKEN 2. COMPOUND FRACTURE : The SKIN has been broken by the protruding BONE 3. SIMPLE FRACTURE : These take place in a STRAIGHT LINE with no displacement to the BONE. These include GREENSTICK (particularly common in CHILDREN), TRANSVERSE, IMPACTED, COMMINUTED, OBLIQUE 4. STRESS FRACTURE: These are sometimes called OVERUSE injuries and mainly occur in WEIGHT BEARING parts of the body such as JOINTS. These are often caused by REPETITIVE actions. INJURIES TO JOINTS: 5 Injuries to Joints are common because of the MOVEMENT allowed. REPETITIVE actions can cause it to tear LIGAMENTS and TENDONS 1. TENNIS ELBOW: The OUTSIDE of the elbow is painful 2. GOLFERS ELBOW: The INSIDE of the elbow is painful 3. DISLOCATIONS: is when a BONE at a JOINT is forced out from its NORMAL POSITION EG: Shoulder 4. SPRAINS: this is an injury to the LIGAMENT EG: Sprained ankle 5. TORN CARTILAGE: This is the shiny substance at the end of bones which can TEAR when joints are SPRAINED

69 TREATMENT FOR INJURIES TO THE SKELETAL SYSTEM For MAJOR injuries such as FRACTURES and DISLOCATIONS … or worse, then MEDICAL help must be called for. For MINOR injuries such as STRAINS (Muscle FIBRE tears) of SPRAINS (damage to the JOINT) … We need to use the R.I.C.E method: 1.R = REST: Stop exercising 2.I = ICE: Ice the injured area to reduce SWELLING 3.C = COMPRESS. Press on the injury to also prevent SWELLING. Swelling increases the RECOVERY TIME 4.E = ELEVATE. This also reduces swelling through GRAVITY and reducing BLOOD FLOW to the area


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