Presentation on theme: "Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infection. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Throat Swab."— Presentation transcript:
Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Throat Swab
Throat swap culture First step : Breath deeply. Second step: open mouth widely& push the tongue out& phonate AAHHH
Third step : insert the cotton swap through the mouth and rotate on the area of tonsil or both tonsil.
4th step : remove the cotton swap from the mouth, avoid touch the tongue, teeth… 5th step: transport the specimen to the lab as soon (avoid dry)
6th step take the swap under sterile condition, rotate it on the first quadrant of blood agar plate
7th step # then do the streaking method by loop and stab it few times, then incubate at 37 c / 24 h. # Search for hemolytic ß hemolytic: Clear zone. Streptolysin S Streptolysin O (v. imp)
Streptococcus pyogenes Colonies of Streptococcus pyogenes on sheep blood agar. Notice: * Presence of b hemolysis around colonies * Enhanced hemolysis around stabbing sites * Sensitivity to bacitracin (Disk A)
Streptococcus pyogenes Pin point colony : (white or gray) Gram stain: G+ve, cocci, single chain. Catalase enzyme: differentiate between Streptococcus –ve Staphylococcus +ve
Streptococcus pyogenes Antibiotic susceptibility of S. pyogenes. Bacitracin Sensitive Optochin Resistance
Haemophilus influenzae G-ve, blood lover, fastidious M.O. need: X factor heme extra & intracellular. V factor NAD intracellular. Best media Choclate
Haemophilus influenzae G-negative coccobacilli, typical of H. influenzae Grayish mucoid colonies of H. influenzae on chocolate agar
Haemophilus influenzae Shows phenomena Satellitism: growth on blood agar near a line of Staphylococcus aureus.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Sputum Examination: Sputum: Trachiobroncial secretions, visco-elastic (95% water and only 5% solids) as it comes out, it is contaminated by nasal and salivary secretions and normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity.
Specimen collection In case of Adult: 1- mouth should be pre-rinsed remove contaminants. 2- first morning specimen, Good specimen 25 WBCs.
In case of children Nasopharyngeal swab. Cough Swab method. 1- the child mouth is held open by using tongue depressor. 2- Epiglottis is visualized and is touched with swab to induce cough.
3- Material expelled deposited on the swab and cultured in three different media. * Blood media. * Chocolate. * MacConcy.
Macroscopic Examination Consistency and Appearance. normal sputum is clear and watery. Color of Sputum: Normal color is clear and colorless.in case of infections
Color of Sputum yellow (indicates pus and epithelial cells)=pneumonic+ Staphylococcus aureus. Green (pseudomonas)== Otitis. Red (blood) TB.
Microscopic Examination Mycobacterium tuberculosis Acid fast bacilli
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Culture on Lowenestein-Jensen media. Yellowish colony on green background
Streptococcus pneumoniae Lancet-shaped, G-positive diplococci, typical of S. pneumoniae
S. pneumoniae hemolysis on 5% sheep blood agar, typical of S. pneumoniae. Sensitivity to optochin is also demonstrated
Klebsiella pneumoniae Colonies of Klebsiella pneumoniae on MacConkey agar, showing lactose fermentation and mucoid appearance
K. pneumoniae: IMViC reaction of K. pneumoniae:
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Greenish discoloration of media due to production of pyocyanin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Results of oxidase test
Corynebacterium diphtheriae G+ve non motile, pleomorphic rod. Formation of pseudomembrane covering the mouth & pharynx. Can be severe and sometimes fatal disease.
Paragonimus westermani Adult worm in the lung. Hermaphrodite (both sex)
Paragonimus westermani Eggs in sputum : diagnostic stages.