Presentation on theme: "PRELIM REVISION SKILLS AND TECHNIQUE"— Presentation transcript:
1 PRELIM REVISION SKILLS AND TECHNIQUE HIGHER PE/INT 2PRELIM REVISIONSKILLS AND TECHNIQUE
2 What is a motor skill? Fine motor skills - subtle movements -involve small muscles- eg. Piano playing, Table-tennis serve.Gross motor skills-large movements-involve major muscles- can be complicated- eg. Running, kicking, Jumping
3 What is a Skill? What is a technique? A movement with a purpose. Eg Badminton serveThe way that a skill is performed. E.g Low / High serveWhat is a technique?
4 What is a skilled performance? Skill is relative to abilitySeries of linked movements demonstrating- fluency- control- minimum of effortReflecting the performers ability
5 CYCLE of ANALYSIS ANALYSE INVESTIGATE REVIEW / EVALUATE DEVELOP Key Concept knowledge helped analyse info.INVESTIGATEData collection – general / focused. Eg observation schedule / movement analysis.REVIEW / EVALUATEReflect on benefits. Improvements to achieve.DEVELOPProgramme of improvement. Detail Practices. Eg Shadow / Pressure / Conditioned.
6 Preparation / Action / Recovery Effective way of analysing Skills & Techniques.3 Phases of breaking down skills / movements eg Badminton High Serve.PrepActRecBalanced split stance.Weight back.Racquet head back.Shuttle held in front of body.Transfer weight to front foot.Swing Racquet head quickly up and forwardRelease shuttle onto racquet head.Follow through in direction of shuttle travel.Regain balance.Return to base.Anticipate return stroke.
9 Little decision making. Basic movement patterns. simplecomplexSIMPLELittle decision making.Basic movement patterns.Repetition of set movements.Eg Basketball Free throw / Badminton High Serve.COMPLEXLots of info to be processed.Speed for feedback.Accuracy involved.Lots of subroutines.Eg High Dive / Marathon running (tactical).
10 Identifiable constituent parts. discreteserialcontinuousDISCRETEClear start and finish points.Eg Tennis serve Golf drive.SERIALIdentifiable constituent parts.Eg Front Crawl Lay-up.CONTINUOUSRepetitive in nature, cyclicalEg Cycling Running.
11 Data Collection There are different methods of collecting- Mechanical AnalysisMovement AnalysisConsideration of QualityThe most effective method or combinations of data collecting depend on the activity being studied / skills or techniques being examined.
12 GENERAL DATA COLLECTION This gives us information about the overall performance.Knowledge of Results (p11)Tick Sheet on effectiveness of general characteristics – movement / positioning / stroke choice / control(p12)Observation Schedule (p14)Video of performance (p17)We are now in a position to focus on weakness!
13 FOCUSED DATA COLLECTION There are different methods of collecting-Mechanical AnalysisMovement AnalysisConsideration of QualityThe most effective method or combinations of data collecting depend on the activity being studied / skills or techniques being examined.
14 What is Movement Analysis? Measures effectiveness of Preparation / Action / Recovery in a particular stroke/skill.Based on criteria from Model Performer.(AHPE / teacher / pro’s)Based on technique.Knowledge of results
15 Badminton Focus… MOVEMENT ANALYSIS OBSERVATION SCHEDULEPrep / Act / RecSkills are compared with a model performer.Eg OH Clear.Video used in conjunction with the observation schedule. (p16)MODEL PERFORMERSteacherAHPE pupilInternational player from video footage.
16 Cont.Collecting data in this way will give the necessary information to continue to improve.Continual review is needed to measure improvement. This must be consistent / frequent / accurate.
17 FEATURES OF ‘MODEL PERFORMANCE’ Movement AnalysisAn observation schedule would be used to analyse your performance. E.g. Overhead ClearPHASE OF ACTIONFEATURES OF ‘MODEL PERFORMANCE’MY PERFORMANCEPreparation Starts from base. Performer tracks path of shuttle and begins moving towards place shuttle will be played from. While moving, body turns side-on to net. Racquet is taken up and back behind head. Weight shifts mostly onto back foot. Back shoulder drops. Front arm balances racquet arm (both arms are raised).√
18 FEATURES OF ‘MODEL PERFORMANCE’ Movement AnalysisPHASE OF ACTIONFEATURES OF ‘MODEL PERFORMANCE’MYPERFORMANCEAction Shoulder, arm and racquet are brought forward at speed to help generate power. Action resembles throwing action. Weight is transferred forward from back foot to front foot to coincide with moment of impact. Impact is with open racquet face above racquet shoulder. Performer strikes ‘through’ shuttle and body weight continues to move forward (a smooth continuous action leads naturally into recovery).√
19 FEATURES OF ‘MODEL PERFORMANCE’ Movement AnalysisPHASE OF ACTIONFEATURES OF ‘MODEL PERFORMANCE’MYPERFORMANCERecovery Racquet comes down and across body in recovery phase. Forward movement at end of stroke leads to ‘base’ and recovery of ‘ready’ position.√
20 Movement Analysis Benefits of Using an Observation Schedule Identifies Strengths & Weaknesses of a skillPinpoints specifically where weakness liesPractice programme can be designed from the information receivedYou can use an observation schedule at the beginning and end of a training block to see if your technique has improved
21 Match analysis SheetMovement analysis sheet marking all shots and their effectiveness in a full performance situation.Provides statistics of how each shot is played in percentages.Experienced performer/teacher watches game to ensure data is reliable.Tallies are marked in 3 categories – very effective, fairly effective andineffective.Totals are calculated with strengths and weaknesses being identifiedfrom the data.
22 VideoVideo is positioned to ensure that the full court is in view and that all shots are recorded.Playback and slow motion is used to ensure that no skills are missed (Match Analysis)Video is paused and rewound to closely identify problems with technique (Observation Schedule)
23 Scatter GraphType of observation schedule which is used to plot where the shuttle lands for each attempt of the identified skill.Indicate where shot 1 landed, then shot 2 and so on.Then I can reference where shot 1 landed with action 1 from the video of my performance
24 STAGES OF LEARNINGThere are 3 important stages in learning and developing skills;Planning stage (Cognitive)Practice stage (Associative)Automatic stage (Autonomous)REMEMBER When DESCRIBING a skill we use PAR (preparation, action, recovery)
25 Knowledge of results Measurement of performance Success rate (as a %) Goals or points scoredPasses or shoots on targetInfo about a persons strengths and weakness when in certain situations or positions
26 MODEL PERFORMER A skilled performance shows these 3 characteristics: Effectiveness (Accuracy)Being accurate in placing shots where you want them to goBeing consistent in placing shots where you want them to goTechnique (Efficiency)Correct Preparation of techniqueCorrect Action of techniqueCorrect Recovery of techniqueAdaptiveness (Range) – how well skill can be adapted to meet the demands of the task:Good anticipationGood judgement of shuttle flightAppropriate decision-makingCan disguise shotsCan play a range of shots
27 MODEL PERFORMERBy seeing someone else playing badminton, you will get a clearer picture of what it is you are trying to do.Model performers can show you how to perform different skills and techniquesModel performers motivate you to improve
28 Planning Stage (Preparation/Cognitive Stage) Get a mental picture of the skill or technique.Understand the basics of what is to be learned.Shadow the movement.Break the skill down, if possible.Slow the skill down, if possible.(Errors are common and, feedback and encouragement is required.)
30 Practice Stage (Associative Stage) Repeated practice, so that you become more consistent in performing the skill or technique successfully.Detect and correct errors in your execution of skills/technique.Practice in a controlled environment, e.g. to work in a reduced court area.The assistance of an accurate ‘feeder’.Pressure gradually increased as you improve.Compare your performance with a ‘model’.Target/Combination/Co-operative Drills(Your ability, experience and the type of skill involved will determine the amount of time needed to practice. Gradually the number of mistakes made will reduce.)
32 Automatic Stage (Autonomous Stage) The opportunity to play conditioned games.Pressure/Decision Making Drills.Put the skill/technique you have learned into a full-game situation.Greater attention is paid to other aspects of the game: game strategy, opponent.(Errors are less likely at this stage of learning.)
34 STAGES OF LEARNINGThe stages of learning are a progressive process and each stage merges into the next. As your skill level develops you will gradually progress from the planning stage to the practice stage to the automatic stage. During your training programme you may move back a stage if you have progressed too quickly.
35 Designing Practices…Identify current performance strengths and weaknesses.Base your practices on your current level of ability. Use this as your start point.This will help you design practices that are realistic and effective for specific aspects of skills and technique.
36 Designing Practices…Set realistic targets for improvement over a specified period of time.Keep your practices closely related to the demands of the whole performance.By doing this it is easier to transfer your improvements back into the activity.Avoid endless repetition of the same practice.Quality practice is better than quantity of practice.
37 Designing Practices…Consider the work-to-rest interval when you are training.Make sure you rest enough and avoid fatigue.Make sure the practices show progression.As you improve, you can move on to to slightly more demanding practices.
38 SOLO/SHADOW PRACTICES Establish patterns and routines (movement and body position)SHADOWProgress form soloMirror movements / actions of another playerPerform actions without opposition and shuttlePREPERATION STAGE OF LEARNING
39 OPPOSED / UNOPPOSED To begin, the practice is done with no opposition. This allows the learner to learn the movement patterns unopposed. PREPARATION STAGEPassive opposition is then introduced which gradually becomes more active. PRACTICE STAGELater the skill can be attempted in conditioned games. AUTOMATIC STAGE(Method also used when developing tactics)
40 CONDITIONED GAMESRule imposed on the game to encourage the use of a particular shot.For example, to encourage net play, the court can be shortened.Improvement programmeworking on weaknessmaintenance programmeworking on strengths
41 BLOCKED / RANDOM PRCTICE Executing ONE technique repeatedlyThen move onto anothere.g hit 30 overhead clears then 30 drop shotsFocus on one skillChange (time / fatigue / boredom)Level of difficulty may / may not changeRepeated movement allows for movement memoryAssociative stage of learning
42 BLOCKED / RANDOM PRCTICE Mixing a variety of techniquesMore game / competition likeMore meaningful memories of technique (when to play)Develops shot selectionIncreases interestIf skill not consolidated in earlier stages of learning this practice will not be as effective
43 DRILLSSingle Feed practice is a drill where the performer focuses on the skill itself or aspects of the skill.This gives the performer the opportunity to focus on the movement patterns that need improvement without the distraction of the game and/or other skills.Be ready with several drills that are progressive. For instance, multiple feed practices are more challenging and also ensure repetition.
44 REPATITIONDuring practice it is vital that movement patterns are repeated until the body systems (muscle and nerves) have learned to move ‘automatically’ in the newly learned way.The movement will be grooved into the muscle’s memory.Used with every other type of practice
45 PRESSUREOnce a skill has been established in a pressure situation, pressure can be gradually increased to groove the skill whilst consideringtime restrictionsfatigue factors.The chances of the improved skill being used successfully in a game are greatly increased after pressure training
46 MASSED / DISTRIBUTEDDemands of different activities influence whether practicing different skills / techniques is best practiced on a MASSED or DISTRIBUTED basis;Skill demand (simple/complex)Ability levelsMotivation LevelsPracticing under Fatigue
47 GRADUAL BUILD UP Learning complex skills Skill involves risk Many subroutines learned in stagesChallenge yet achievableInformation load is kept to a minimum at early stages – easier to learn.Attention to vital aspects is enhanced and fatigue is minimised
48 WHOLE – PART - WHOLE EXAMPLE Individual parts can be separated Some experience of activityNot wasting time or being bored by working on areas of strength within the technique.EXAMPLEFor example Shadow practice is a type of whole/part/whole learning we use in Badminton. The movement patterns are learned without the distraction of the shuttle or the game. Movement patterns are practised separately e.g. practising the chasse step and lunging movement towards the net, mimicking net play.
49 PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE PRACTICE In order to ensure that practices are effective and that improvement will take place, performers need to consider the Principles of Effective Practice.Considering the following principles, performers can plan and carry out an effective training programme that will enable them to achieve their goals
50 PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE PRACTICE The Principles of Effective Practice can be easily remembered as; V.P.S.M.A.R.T.E.RVariableProgressiveSpecificMeasurableAchievableRealisticTimed – PhasedExcitingRecorded
51 GOAL SETTINGUse goal-setting to ensure that you can perform at your highest level. Goal-setting involves you (either individually or with your teacher) setting challenging targets which are specific to your performance.
52 INFLUENTIAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT PERFORMANCE Once you have considered your stage of learning, methods of practice and principles of effective practice, it is useful to think about your;ConfidenceMotivationConcentrationFeedbackRead Leckie and Leckie Pages 75-78
53 Confidence Effectiveness poor accuracy and consistency as the performer is more negative about their chances of winning and this reduces their success.High anxiety will lead to ineffective performance.Players low in confidence give up more easily
54 Confidence Technique Adaptiveness Parts of the technique which are weaknesses will be repeated when there is a lack of confidence causing the shot to be inefficient and inaccurateAdaptivenessLimited confidence means that you might avoid some shots; this reduces the range of shots available and makes you easier to ‘read’.Reduced confidence may also affect decision making if performer decides to take ‘easy way out’.Little confidence may mean a player will try less to win the point and is less likely to take calculated risks to do so.
55 Concentration A lack of concentration results in some of the following Game tactic: not watching where your opponent is or the space to hit the shuttle (effectiveness reduced)Not watching the flight of the shuttle (preparation of technique affected)Executing a specific technique incorrectly (efficiency reduced)Making the wrong decision (adaptiveness reduced)
56 MotivationMotivation is your level of desire to succeed. You need to be motivated in order to improve your level of performance.Motivation is an important factor in learning practical skills.
57 MotivationIntrinsic motivation is your own ‘internal’ level of desire to succeed to meet the challenge of the task/goal. Again this is done through goal-setting (process or product goals). It may also be that you were extrinsically motivated to reach a goal set by your teacher. Motivation is also linked to feedback in meeting goals.Extrinsic Motivation occurs when your involvement in an activity is for reasons apart from simply participation. For example, earning money through competing is an external motivation.
58 FEEDBACKFeedback is important and can be used to develop performance in many ways:Lets you know your strengths and weaknesses (Match Analysis Sheet).Provides Objective feedback detailing your effectiveness in terms of percentages which also illustrates consistency.Analyses your effectiveness in a range of skills to show your adaptiveness.Provides the cause of poor technique (observation checklist).Helps determine what stage of learning to work at and therefore what methods of practice might be appropriate.Teacher feedback or internal feedback is immediate therefore action can be taken instantly.Identifying problems helps you plan a course of action.
59 FEEDBACKRemember that feedback and motivation are linked. You are likely to be motivated to do well in an activity if you receive positive feedback about your performance when learning and developing your skills.For external feedback to be effective, it needs to be precise and accurate and be given as soon as possible after the activity of part of the game.