2Other Curriculum Models Tactical Games (used in PE 279)Teaching games for understanding (TGFU)Personalized system for instructionJigsawSPARKDevelopmental Model*Humanistic education*Conceptually based education*Personally Meaningful Education*Social responsibility*Cognitive integration*Cultural studies** - not discussed in this course
3Tactical Games (similar to TGFU) “When do we get to play?”Cleverly uses student interest in the game itself to promote skill development and tactical knowledge. In essence, students are playing the game as they work on skills and tactics (bait and switch)Based on game-formsGame forms are game like tasks which function as bridge between skills and game itself.
4Tactical Games Focus is on teaching offensive and defensive tactics This includes positioning, starts and restartsYou may also use this model to teach basic skillsSoccer: dribbling, passing, headers, etc
5Steps in a Tactical Approach Lesson 1. Game (game-form or full-game)2. Questions (class discussion)3. Practice (teacher directed)4. Game
6Steps in a Tactical Approach Lesson Game or game-form that emphasizes a tactical problem (challenge) before identifying and practicing skillsUse a half-speed activity or brief activity related to the sport as a warm-upGather students together and asks questions to focus them on a tactical problem and how to solve itHow were you defending someone in the open space (basketball); what were others doing off the ball?Practice tasks used to develop tactical awareness, typically via teacher-centered instructional stylesGame situation to reinforce the tactical problem or skill addressed earlierThe game situation is often the same game from step 1
7Tactical GamesUses deductive questions to help students solve tactical problems before each task begins.BasketballA couple individuals are having difficulty defending their assignment. How can we give them help?Your team seems to mostly be shooting from the outside. Now the defense is focusing on defending this option. How might you diffuse this?What other examples can you give?Examples of tactical game concepts
8Advantages Advantages Interest and excitement Knowledge as empowerment Students see where instruction is needed and therefore are often more receptiveCan use consistent teams like sport edKnowledge as empowermentLearning what to do in the game situations is just as important as skill acquisitionNovelty
9Disadvantages Disadvantages Requires flexibility and “on the spot” adaptations if not focusing on predetermined tactical problems and instead focus on observables from the initial game or game-form.Can be difficult for teachers to get out of the mindset:Warm-up, practice drills, game (same old, same old)
10Levels of Tactical Complexity You must ensure that the tactical complexity of the game matches student developmentUltimate frisbee exampleAsking relevant questions is the most difficult part of this model
11Personalized System for Instruction Steps:Teacher first determines the skills and knowledge necessary for participationDesigns a series of learning tasks for learning those elements, typically via stationsActivities, skills, common errors, and performance criteria are all determined by the teacherPresents tasks via a written workbook (This is quite different from a captain’s packet in sport ed). This frees teacher to provide more feedback.When students reach a predetermined performance level via the criteria determined by the teacher, they are assessed and allowed to move to the next task.
12Personalized System for Instruction Badminton example:Workbook with skills on short and deep serve, three types of clears, forehand and backhand drive shots, overhead smash, and forehand and backhand drop shot.On the first day, explain principles of PSIStudents begin working at their own pace, each day picking up where they left off.The teacher clarifies skills and activities for students, observes students attaining criteria, and giving feedback.
13Personalized System for Instruction 1. Short Serve2. Long Serve3. Forehands and Backhands4. Drive Shots5. Smash5. Smash
14Personalized System for Instruction Badminton example:Task # 3 – In this task, you are going to serve short but now to a smaller area. You are going to still serve to the front half of the court….(continued) Practice in attempts of 10. Record your results. When you get a least 5 out of 10, 3 times, into one of the smaller boxes, initial and date your recording form. Then move onto the next task.Attem-pt 1Attem-pt 2Attem-pt 3Attem-pt 4Attem-pt 5Attem-pt 6Attem-pt 7Attem-pt 8Attem-pt 9Attem-pt 10_/10
15Jigsaw Model Also called the peer teaching model Students are assigned to teach a skill, combination of skills, or a strategy/tactic to their classmates.Students take on all aspects of a lesson such as demonstrating tasks, reciting cues, giving feedback, and assessing their learners (peer assessment is not admissible as grades).They are grade according to a rubricThe teacher provides resources to assist “lesson” development.
16Jigsaw ModelThe teacher should ensure quality by limiting the number of cues, clearly demonstrating the cues, providing assessments, and providing suggested learning activities.Organizational FormatsOne group teaches the entire class with each group member leading instruction at different points.Each group has a leader who teaches all of the lessons in a unit.
17Jigsaw ModelA variation of the jigsaw model would be to have students create a game with a pre-arranged list of equipment
18SPARK Sport, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids Goal: Put kids on the right path towards health and physical activity while they are young and before you have to CHANGE habits.Focus is a comprehensive health-related elementary physical education programCommercial product (costs $)See Dr. Housner’s PPT
19Closing Thoughts on PE Models Some models are stand-alone models (primary models) meaning they can be done all year without significant modifications.My suggestion would be to have a couple primary models for your grade level but to vary instruction (keep it fresh) by using secondary models and various teaching styles.
20Closing Thoughts on PE Models Suggested Model SequenceK-2(3) – Movement exploration (inquiry)Start off with basic concepts/skills and progress to more difficult ones (movement sequences)3-5 – Skill themesBuild basic skills, start with throw/catch for example and end with punt receiving, field goal kicking, and combinations of skills.6-8 – Sport education/adventure education/tactical gamesIdeal time for adventure (personal and group growth)9(10) – Fitness education & or elective lifetime activities10-12 – Elective lifetime activities (can use a variety of models)
21Closing Thoughts on PE Models Fitness should be incorporated throughout every grade and every model.Use the secondary models as a stand-alone approach or incorporate concepts into your primary approaches (take the good, leave the bad):Multi-activity modelTactical gamesPersonalized system for instructionJigsaw
22Remember ~EVERY DAY:make it funmake it activemake it educational