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An Old Testament Survey Introduction. OT Survey – The History of OT Times Content from Evangelical Teacher Training Association The history of the OT.

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Presentation on theme: "An Old Testament Survey Introduction. OT Survey – The History of OT Times Content from Evangelical Teacher Training Association The history of the OT."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Old Testament Survey Introduction

2 OT Survey – The History of OT Times Content from Evangelical Teacher Training Association The history of the OT is found primarily in the first 17 books (Genesis – Ester) of our English Bible. After a brief account from Adam to Terah (father of Abram), biblical history basically concentrated on God’s chosen nation beginning with Abraham and continuing until the time of the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem under Nehemiah (~450BC). The Poetic and prophetic books reflect various periods of history and allow insight into prevailing political, religious and cultural situations. The historical books are more than the national records of the Jewish nation, and tell us more than God’s revelation of Himself to man. Jesus gave His stamp of approval as a Holy Writ and taught that it had predicted His coming (Luke 24:44…). Paul called the OT Scripture the oracles of God (Romans 3:2).

3 The Pre-existent Christ Creation Satan cast out of heaven Six days of creation Garden of Eden Fall of Adam and Eve Expulsion from Eden Cain kills Abel Noah is born The Flood John 1 Gen. 1:1 Isaiah 14:12-17 Gen. 1:3-26 Gen. 2:8-17 Gen. 3:1-7 Gen. 3:21-24 Gen. 4 Gen. 5:28-29 Gen. 7:10-24 From the Creation to the Flood The Tower of Babel Abram (Abraham) is born Job Abram becomes Abraham Birth of Isaac, then Jacob, then Joseph Gen. 11 Gen. 11:27 Job 1 Genesis 17 Genesis 21Gen. 11 Gen. 11:27 Job 1 Genesis 17 Genesis 21-3030 The Flood to the Patriarchs Joseph sold into slavery to Egypt Famine and move of Hebrews to Egypt The Hebrew population grows Their bondage and oppression Moses is born Genesis 27Genesis 27- 28 Gen. 41 Genesis 47:27 Exodus 8 Exodus 6:2028 Gen. 41 Genesis 47:27 Exodus 8 Exodus 6:20 The Patriarchs to the Exodus 1606 - 1462 B.C. The 10 plagues against Egypt The Hebrews are freed then pursued Crossing the Red Sea Receiving the 10 Commandments Israel wanders in the desert for 40 years Exodus 7Exodus 7 - 11 Exodus 12 Exodus 13 - 15 Exodus 20 Numbers 1411 Exodus 12 Exodus 1315 Exodus 20 Numbers 14 The Exodus to Entering Canaan 1462 - 1422 B.C. Old Testament Chronology (

4 The conquest and division of Canaan Israel becomes a world power Samson is born Saul becomes first King Joshua 6Joshua 6 - 12 Judges 13 1 Samuel 912 Judges 13 1 Samuel 9 Canaan to the Reign of King Saul 1422 - 1065 B. C. David and Goliath David becomes King David with Bathsheba Absalom's rebellion David prepares temple materials 1 Samuel 17 2 Samuel 5 2 Samuel 11 2 Samuel 15-18 1 Chronicles 22 The Reign of King David 1025 - 985 B. C. Solomon becomes King Solomon asks God for wisdom The building of the Temple Solomon's downfall 1 Kings 1 1 Kings 3 1 Kings 6 1 Kings 11 The Reign of King Solomon 985 - 945 B. C. The nation of Israel divided into two: Israel to the north and Judah to the south. This period was full of kings, who ruled each realm. Many of the kings were evil. Other gods were worshiped occasionally. During this time Elijah has his ministry. Hosea preached. Jonah dealt with Nineveh. Rome was founded. The temple was restored. The Divided Kingdom (Israel and Judah) From Solomon to the Fall of Israel 945 - 586 B. C.

5 Old Testament Chronology ( Both Israel and Judah fall to foreign powers. Micah prophesies. Isaiah is martyred. Jeremiah is born. Daniel is born. Zephaniah prophesies. Ezekiel is born. Jeremiah preaches. The Fall of Israel to the Fall of Judah 722 - 586 B. C. Ezekiel prophesies as Jerusalem falls Nebuchadnezzar's image Daniel's vision of the four beasts Daniel's vision of the 70 weeks Fall of Babylon to Persians Ezekiel 33 Daniel 3 Daniel 7 Daniel 9 Isaiah 13Ezekiel 33 Daniel 3 Daniel 7 Daniel 9 Isaiah 13, Jer. 25Jer. 25 Israel is taken into Captivity 586 - 516 B.C. Dedication of the Temple Deliverance of the Jews Ezra prepares to return to Jerusalem Building of the wall of Jerusalem Malachi's Prophecies Ezra 6 Esther 8 Ezra 7 Nehemiah 2 Malachi The Restoration from Captivity 516 -400 B. C. Greece is the world power from Rome is the world power from God does not speak for about 400 years 331 - 168 B. C. 168 B.C.- 476 A.D. Time Between the Testaments 400 B.C. - Christ

6 OT Survey – The History of OT Times Content from Evangelical Teacher Training Association OT history may be conveniently divided into the following periods : 1.The Era of Beginnings……...…Genesis 1-11 2.Patriarchal Times…………...….Genesis 12-50 3.Israel Becomes a Nation……….Exodus-Deuteronomy 4.Conquest and Occupation…...…Joshua, Judges, Ruth 5.The United Kingdom………….I Sam, II Sam, I Chron, II Chron 19, I Kings 1-11 6.The Divided Kingdom………..I Kings 12-II Kings 25; II Chron 10-36 7.The Post Exilic Era…………..Ezra, Ester, Nehemiah

7 OT Survey - Outline Content from Evangelical Teacher Training Association The Beginnings……………………… ….Genesis 1-11 The Patriarchs…………….………….…...Genesis 12-50 God’s Holy Nation………………….……Exodus, Leviticus Looking Forward To Canaan…………..….Numbers, Deuteronomy Possessing the Promise Land……….……..Joshua, Judges, Ruth Time of Transition……………….………1 st Samuel The Reign of David………………….…...2 nd Samuel, 1 st Chronicles The Solomonic Kingdom……………........1 st Kings1-11; 2 nd Chronicles 1-9 The Northern Kingdom…………….…..…1 st Kings 12-22; 2 nd Kings 1-17 The Kingdom of Judah: Rehoboam-Jotham…1 st Kings 12-22; 2nd Kings 1-15; 2nd Chron 10-27 The Kingdom of Judah: Ahaz-Zedekiah…2nd Kings 16:1-25:7; 2nd Chron 28:1-36:21 Beyond the Exile…………………………...Ezra, Ester, Nehemiah

8 OT Survey - Timeline Content from Evangelical Teacher Training Association

9 OT Survey – The Torah and Talmud Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy are sometimes referred to as: The "Five Books of Moses," because the writings themselves identify the author as Moses The "Pentateuch," a Greek term meaning "pente (5) teuchos (volumes)," The "Books of the Law" The "Torah" (a Hebrew word meaning "instruction") These books were originally written as a single unbroken scroll. Sometime before the 2nd Century BC, it was divided into the 5 books that we see today.BC The Talmud – Oral Law; it varied among various schools. The most famous two were the School of Shammai and the School of Hillel. In general, all valid opinions, even the non-normative ones, were recorded in the Talmud.ShammaiHillel The Septuagint – "LXX", or "Greek Old Testament" is a translation of the Hebrew Bible and some related texts into Greek. Hebrew BibleGreek The Vulgate is a late 4th-century Latin translation of the Bible.Latin translation of the Bible Content from Evangelical Teacher Training Association

10 God – From its opening verse, the OT affirms the following important truths about God: Regarding time he is timeless, regarding power he is limitless, and regarding knowledge he is infinite; He is one and not two or more, He is creator not creature, and He is both loving and holy. He is primarily revealed not in abstractions or propositions, but in relationship with human beings. Man – In contrast with God, human beings are limited: they have a beginning and are mortal, they have only limited power and knowledge, and they are certainly not always loving and holy. The original pair of human beings comes into existence in relationship with God, objects of his grace and love and reflections of His likeness. Unfortunately, however, they give up their standing with the Lord. In the name of independence, they become slaves to sin, in need of deliverance. The progress of their descendants reaches the climax when Genesis 6 says, "Every inclination of the heart of man is only evil all the time." Sin – The OT reveals the nature of sin primarily in narrative form--in other words by telling the story of what happened to real people. Since we bear the image of God, sin is whatever contradicts God's own nature. Because God is true, lies are sin. Because God is holy, defilement is sin. Because God is love, hatred is sin. Because God is unity, division is sin, and so on. This is best expressed in Leviticus 19:1, where God says, "You must be holy, for I am holy." All through Leviticus, the moral precepts announced are tied again and again to the affirmation, "I am the Lord." Doing what is right and experiencing the blessing God brings with it is what the OT means by knowing that God is the Lord. OT Survey – OT Themes © 2007 | Steve Singleton

11 Righteousness – If sin is rebelling against reflecting God's nature in our lives, then righteousness is living in harmony with that nature. It is maintaining a relationship of trusting obedience with God. Righteousness involves faith, but it also bursts forth from the loyal heart into faithfulness in one's walk. The Old Testament describes the righteous person as being devoted to God in with your heart, your soul, and your strength. A right relationship with other human beings accompanies this right relationship with God. The Old Testament portrays the righteous person as treating others as they would want to be treated, with acting toward them as God would act. Grace – Some have gotten the impression that the reader of the Bible does not encounter grace in the OT, that it only becomes a primary emphasis in the New Testament. This impression is a false one, dispelled by nearly every Old Testament book. God's graciousness to human beings begins with the first couple and continues as a constant theme in the Old Testament symphony. He is "abounding in steadfast love" and willing to forgive to a thousand generations. Again and again He reveals His great patience and His tender mercy toward sinners. Covenant – The sovereign, almighty, transcendent Creator-God is willing to stoop to enter into agreements with human beings. These agreements are called covenants, and they provide much of the framework on which the OT unfolds. The major covenants of the Old Testament include the ones with Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses (and all of Israel), Aaron & Levi, and David. Each of these covenants involves promises God makes and expectations He has for the subjects of the covenant. The OT also looks forward to a New Covenant, which is what NT is all about. OT Survey – OT Themes © 2007 | Steve Singleton

12 Law – The covenant God made with the nation of Israel is called the Law (or the Law of Moses). In the Law, God rehearses the saving acts by which He has placed the nation of Israel in His debt and then challenges them to agree to live in relationship with Him, experiencing the blessings that attend that relationship. Of course, He also warns them of the curses they will bring upon themselves if they break the covenant. Basic to the Law are the Ten Commandments, which lay out the fundamentals of living in harmony with God and with other humans. Atonement – Under that same covenant with Israel, God provided a means of gaining forgiveness through a system of animal sacrifices. These offerings were a way the believer had of removing offenses and pleading to God for a renewal of the close relationship the sin made impossible. According to the Old Testament, atonement was only possible through the shedding of the blood of a perfect sacrifice. This laid the groundwork for the New Covenant's eternal sacrifice of the Perfect Lamb of God, Jesus Christ. Holiness – According to the Old Testament, to be holy means to be dedicated to God. Holiness is a part of God's nature and is imparted by Him to human beings in a right relationship with him. God intends for all human beings to be holy all of the time. Sin, however, defiles us and puts us in need of atonement so that we can be holy once more. OT Survey – OT Themes © 2007 | Steve Singleton

13 Messiah – The Old Testament anticipates the coming of the Holy One of God who would have a miraculous conception, live a perfect life, serve as the ideal human being, and then voluntarily offer up Himself as the once-for-all sin offering so that human beings could be restored to God and made holy again. Over a period spanning more than 1,000 years, inspired prophets foretold aspects of the life of this Holy One. The accumulation of their predictions paints a perfect portrait of the birth, life, character, death, and even resurrection of Jesus Christ. Several of these Old Testament prophecies describe him as "the Anointed One” or "the Messiah," in keeping with the practice in Old Testament times of pouring olive oil on the head of a person specially appointed by God to accomplish His purposes. © 2007 | Steve Singleton

14 ThemeOld Testament ReferenceNew Testament Fulfilled in Jesus Ascension of Jesus to the right hand of God Ps. 110:1Matt 26:64; Acts 7:55-60; Eph. 1:20 Atonement by blood Lev. 17:11Heb. 9:22 Baptism Exodus 40:12-15; Lev. 16:4; Gen. 17:10; Ezek. 36:25Matt. 3:16; 28:19; Col. 2:11-12; Heb. 10:22 Begotten Son, Jesus is Psalm 2:7Acts 13:33; Heb. 1:5 Creative work Gen. 1; 1:26John 1:1-3; Col. 1:16-17 Crucifixion Psalm 22:11-18; Zech. 12:10Luke 23:33-38 Damnation and Salvation Dan. 12:2Matt. 25:46 Eternal Son Micah 5:1-2; Psalm 2:7Heb. 1:5; 5:5 First and Last Isaiah 41:4; 44:6; 48:12Rev. 1:8,17; 22:13 God among His people Isaiah 9:6; 40:3John 1:1,14; 20:28; Col. 2:9; Matt. 3:3 Incarnation of God Ex 3:14; Ps. 45:6; Isaiah 9:6; Zech. 12:10John 8:58; 1:1,14; Heb. 1:8; Col. 2:9; Heb. 1:1-3 Monotheism Isaiah 43:10; 44:6,8; 45:5John 10:30; Eph. 4:5 Only Begotten Son Gen. 22:2John 3:16; Heb. 11:7 Priesthood of Jesus Psalm 110:4Heb. 6:20; 7:25 Resurrection of Christ Psalm 16:9-10; 49:15; Is. 26:19John 2:19-21 Return of Christ Zech. 14:1-5; Mic. 1:3-4Matt. 16:27-28; Acts 1:11; 3:20 Sacrifice of the Son Gen. 22. See TypologyHeb. 9:27 Salvation by grace Gen. 12:3; Gen 15:6; Hab. 2:41) Gal. 3:8-11; 2) Rom. 4:9 Sin offering Ex. 30:10; Lev. 4:3Rom. 8:3; Heb. 10:18; 13:11 Sin offering made outside the camp Ex. 29:14Heb. 13:12-13 Sin offering without defect Ex. 12:5; Lev. 22:20; Deut. 17:1Heb. 9:14 Son of God Psalm 2:7John 5:18 Substitutionary Atonement Isaiah 53:6-12; Lev. 6:4-10,21 Matt. 20:28; 1 Pet. 2:24; 2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Pet. 3:18 Trinity Gen. 1:1,26; Job 33:4; Gen. 17:1; 18:1; Ex. 6:2-3; 24:9-11; 33:20; Num. 12:6-8; Psalm 104:30; Gen. 19:24; Amos 4:10-11; Is.48:16 John 1:1-3; John 1:18; 6:46; Matt. 28:19; 2 Cor. 13:14 Virgin Birth Isaiah 7:14Matt. 1:25 Worship of Jesus Psalm 97:7 Matt. 2:2,11; 14:33; 28:9; John 9:35-38; Heb. 1:6 OT Survey – OT Themes Fulfilled in Jesus

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