Presentation on theme: "SouthEast Alaska MOnitoring Network for Scientific TElecommunication & Research: SEAMONSTERApplication of distributed sensor arrays to Southeast Alaska."— Presentation transcript:
SouthEast Alaska MOnitoring Network for Scientific TElecommunication & Research: SEAMONSTERApplication of distributed sensor arrays to Southeast Alaska Science Matt Heavner 1 Rob Fatland 2 Edwin Knuth 1 1 Dept. Natural Sciences, University of Alaska Southeast, 2 Vexcel Corporation, Boulder, CO, ABSTRACT WHAT IS SEAMONSTER? BENEFITS SEAMONSTER is a multi-tiered data acquisition network with communication capabilities and some analysis capability at the sensors. The multi-tiered nature of the network is intended to flexibly accommodate and take advantage of appropriate spatial scale sizes and communication technologies. For example, monitoring soil chemistry or snow accumulation of a single watershed may require closely spaced sensors communicating over Blue Tooth links. The data would be fed to a backbone of longer distance communication technologies. A hydrophone network monitoring Glacier Bay would have a much larger spatial separation and may use 900 MHz modems. SEAMONSTER nodes include a small, low-power computer. This computer manages communication, allows for data acquisition reconfiguration (e.g. adjust sampling rate or sensitivity), and provides a method for setting alarms if the data does not pass defined validation tests (if the sensor reports a value out of a defined range, or if a data value is missing). SEAMONSTER, the SouthEast Alaska Monitoring Network for Scientific Telecommunication and Research, is a network being developed to provide infrastructure to benefit research throughout Southeast Alaska. The array will be composed of bricks, which are small Linux-based computers with digitizers and wireless network communication capabilities. The first use of this network is for bioacoustic monitoring of bats is Southeast Alaska for species identification and measurements of population dynamics. Additional projects during summer 2004 included experiments for testing network link range, brick durability in adverse conditions, power requirements, and brick capabilities. We conducted several trial scientific measurements during the 2004 summer including monitoring of Lemon Glacier and Columbia Glacier. This poster is to illustrate the capabilities of SEAMONSTER and seek collaborators who will benefit from using the network to enhance their ongoing monitoring of the Glacier Bay region. Southeast Alaska in general, and Glacier Bay in particular, presents a challenging environment for both data acquisition and wireless communication. SEAMONSTER is an ambitious project to address both of these issues to benefit the scientific community studying Southeast Alaska and Glacier Bay. Long Duration Data Acquisition One of the main motivations behind the development of SEAMONSTER is to facilitate long-duration (multi-year) observations of various biological and environmental parameters in a robust manner. Data Retrieval Long-duration observations are currently possible, but often involve data loggers which much later be retrieved. If the data logger is lost (e.g., a radio collar is lost or destroyed, or a remote site is visited by a bear) then the entire data set is lost. SEAMONSTER provides real time data flow from the sensors to overcome this problem. Real-Time State of Health Information Real-time access to the data allows for both on-going data validation and monitoring of the instrument state of health information. Flexible Spatial Scale The multi-tier model of SEAMONSTER specifically provides data sampling over diverse spatial scales. For example, animal radio collar tracking through SEAMONSTER would require receivers at a larger spacing than required for an ongoing soil-chemistry monitoring project. Existing Systems Can Be Included Existing data acquisition systems can easily be incorporated to the SEAMONSTER architecture. Please contact us if you are interested! Sensor separation can vary from 10 meters to 10 km or more. This schematic shows multiple telemetry options: in situ investigator, over- flying plane, satellite. SEAMONSTER will be linked into the internet and provide data access from the investigators desk-top as well. BRICK Network Node Capabilities Existing PrototypeNext Generation (Mini-BRICK, Geo-BRICK) GPS5 meter accuracy1 cm differential Digitizer3000 Hz 4-channel (e.g. seismic)250 Khz 4-channel (bio- acoustics) Data Storage60 MB1 GB solid state – 80 GB hard drive Power8 watts: Commercial-off-the-shelf components ½ watt: custom computer, intelligent duty cycling Operating SystemLinux, Open Source paradigm Wireless Range500 meters10 km TelemetryFixed stationInternet Data rate2 MbpsTBD Sample Timing Uncertainty20 microseconds5 microseconds Interface optionsUSB / Ethernet / RS232 / Digital I/O Pins / wireless link / Parallel port Same as Existing, also Radio reception (for radio collar), Ultra-wideband wireless Operating TemperatureDown to –60C in the laboratoryDown to –60C in the field CostPartsTBD
NETWORK ELEMENTS The image at right shows a brick (the silver box) with a three-axis geophone (orange cylinder) and an b wireless bridge. This is the prototype for the main nodes of SEAMONSTER. The bricks are designed to not only acquire and forward data, but also form an intelligent network used for data storage. FUTURE PLANS CONTACT US We are currently developing the bricks to decrease power requirements, further develop the data communication and networking software, and add additional sensors. A network of bricks is scheduled to be deployed in Antarctica this fall. Other sensors, such as video cameras, weather station information, snow depth sensors, and radio collar animal tracking information is being tested for integration into the SEAMONSTER network. The wireless communication network is currently being established in the Juneau area to allow easy access and testing. A robust network will be in place by spring 2005, when we will be expanding the network to encompass a greater part of Southeast Alaska. Glacier Bay is a high priority for near-term establishment of the SEAMONSTER network and a link to the internet for real-time data transmission to investigators. We are very interested in working with researchers who want to investigate the utility of the SEAMONSTER network. Initially, we would work in parallel with existing data retrieval techniques. If you would like to find out more about SEAMONSTER please contact us! The Alaska Dept. of Fish & Game has funded a project to build bat detectors based upon the concept of wirelessly networked small, lower-power computers for long term (approximately a year or longer) monitoring of the bat population in Southeast Alaska. This project is currently underway and is based on the brick technology and the SEAMONSTER network for data communication. The project has successfully recorded bats onto computers and is developing the at-the-sensor software requried to descriminate the audio signal of bats against background noise (such as rain hitting the microphone). The bat project is a prototype for the biological monitoring applications possible with a SEAMONSTER network. A large part of why glacierslike many other environmental and biological phenomenaremain so mysterious is the difficulty of observations over long periods of time in fine detail. This is primarily because doing so is prohibitively expensive. We are taking advantage of rapidly-evolving technology to build better, cheaper, robust, telemetry-equipped field equipment. Results May 2004: Successful air-to-ground telemetry data recovery using a Cessna 172. June 2004: Columbia Glacier seismic data acquisition: Main trunk centerline serac, 4 geophones, 4 days, 100 samples per second. Additionally several more Bricks were deployed at the margin near the calving terminus. Recorded seismicity includes teleseisms and local events; probable ice fracture events, possible calving events. June 2004: Lemon Creek Glacier (Juneau Icefield) seismic acquisition, 4 geophones, 5 days, 100 samples per second. Seismic record includes the June 28 magnitude 6.7 earthquake on Queen Charlotte Island, 350 km distant from Brick sensor. PROTOTYPE EXPERIMENTS Locations of bricks with geophones, Columbia Glacier Photo courtesy Tad Pfeffers online Columbia Glacier archives. Brick Deployed on Lemon Glacier The Fish Creek Knob study site is located on the northeast ridge of Mount Ben Stewart on Douglas Island 8 km southwest of Juneau, Alaska (58° 16' 29" N and 134° 31' 48" W). The meteorological tower is located in a flat 20 m by 40 m open area just below treeline at 700 meters above sea level and 100 meters below the top of Eagle Crest. The meteorological tower monitors wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity, and net radiation. Additionally, a sonic snow depth sensor allows observation of real time snow accumulation during storms. Last year we added a network link and real time data publishing on the web. The three plots show representative data (snow depth and temperature) and state-of-health information (battery voltage). The photograph at left shows a waysmall computer (the white box with two black dots), a USB wireless network adaptor, a USB sound card, (with cable) and a pocket knife to indicate scale. The 400 MHz computer provides significant processing power at very low power, and is currently being evaluated for use as a SEAMONSTER node for a location with less acquisition requirements than a brick. If the main link to the internet goes down for some reason, the data collected is distributed among the bricks for redundancy.. Other SEAMONSTER elements can include radio tracking receivers (for relaying radio collar data) or other existing sensors.