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MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS RUMAH SAKIT RUMAH SAKIT dr.Adib Abdullah Yahya,MARS. dr.Adib Abdullah Yahya,MARS.

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Presentation on theme: "MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS RUMAH SAKIT RUMAH SAKIT dr.Adib Abdullah Yahya,MARS. dr.Adib Abdullah Yahya,MARS."— Presentation transcript:

1 MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS RUMAH SAKIT RUMAH SAKIT dr.Adib Abdullah Yahya,MARS. dr.Adib Abdullah Yahya,MARS.

2 PEMBAHASAN - PENGERTIAN MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS - ELEMEN DARI MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS - PERAN KEPEMIMPINAN - PENYUSUNAN STRATEGI DI RUMAH SAKIT - STRATEGIC STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT - SYNERGY AS A STRATEGIC MANGEMENT PROGRAM - SYNERGY AS A STRATEGIC MANGEMENT PROGRAM

3 PENGERTIAN ETIMOLOGI : - YUNANI : STRATEGOS BERARTI :. JENDRAL. TENTARA. MEMIMPIN STRATEGEO BERARTI : MERENCANAKAN UNTUK MENGHANCURKAN MUSUH MELALUI PEMANFAATAN SUMBER DAYA SECARA EFEKTIF MERENCANAKAN UNTUK MENGHANCURKAN MUSUH MELALUI PEMANFAATAN SUMBER DAYA SECARA EFEKTIF

4 STRATEGI ADALAH PENDEKATAN POLA PIKIR, PERENCANAAN DAN PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN DALAM SITUASI BISNIS YANG MENGHARUSKAN MANAJER UNTUK MENGETAHUI, MEMAHAMI, MENERIMA DAN MENDUKUNG MISI ORGANISASI, ATAU UNIT DI DALAM ORGANISASI, DAN MENGHUBUNGKAN MISI TERSEBUT DENGAN LINGKUNGAN DITEMPAT KEPUTUSAN-KEPUTUSAN TERSEBUT AKAN DIIMPLEMENTASIKAN. DRIVING FORCE DI BALIK POLA PIKIR, PERENCANAAN DAN MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS ADALAH MISI ORGANISASI.

5 MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS ADALAH KEGIATAN KOLEKTIF YANG MENYANGKUT PEMAHAMAN TENTANG HAKEKAT DAN IMPLIKASI DARI PERUBAHAN EKSTERNAL, KEMAMPUAN UNTUK MENGEMBANGKAN STRATEGI YANG EFEKTIF DALAM MENGHADAPI PERUBAHAN, DAN KEMAUAN SERTA KEMAMPUAN UNTUK MENGELOLA SECARA AKTIF MOMENTUM ORGANISASI SUATU KEHARUSAN BAGI MANAJER RUMAH SAKIT, UNTUK MEMAHAMI PERUBAHAN-PERUBAHAN YANG TERJADI DI LINGKUNGANNYA; MEREKA TIDAK HANYA RESPONSIF TERHADAP PERUBAHAN TETAPI HARUS MAMPU MENCIPTAKAN MASA DEPAN MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS DISUSUN SEBAGAI PENDEKATAN ATAU FILOSOFI UNTUK MENGELOLA ORGANISASI YANG SANGAT KOMPLEKS

6 ELEMEN DARI MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS PENDEKATAN MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS PADA ORGANISASI YANG KOMPLEKS SEPERTI RUMAH SAKIT, DALAM MELAKSANAKAN MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS DIPERLUKAN PENDEKATAN ANALITIS MAUPUN PENDEKATAN KEDARURATAN ( EMERGENT/CONTINGENCY) : –PENDEKATAN ANALITIK ATAU RASIONAL BERGANTUNG PADA PENGEMBANGAN LANGKAH-LANGKAH ATAU PROSES YANG LOGIS (LINEAR THINKING) –MODEL EMERGENT, BERGANTUNG PADA PEMIKIRAN INTUITIF, KEPEMIMPINAN, DAN PEMBELAJARAN DAN MERUPAKAN BAGIAN DARI MANAJEMEN KEDUA PENDEKATAN INI DIBUTUHKAN DAN DIPANDANG SEBAGAI SATU SINGLE MODEL PENDEKATAN ANALITIS DAPAT DISAMAKAN DENGAN PETA,SEDANGKAN MODEL EMERGENT MERUPAKAN KOMPASNYA

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8 MODEL MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS YANG MENCAKUP PENDEKATAN ANALITIS DAN EMERGENT BIASANYA TERDIRI DARI TIGA ELEMEN : POLA PIKIR STRATEGIS (STRATEGIC THINKING) PERENCANAAN STRATEGIS (STRATEGIC PLANNING) MOMENTUM STRATEGIS (STRATEGIC MOMENTUM)

9 STRATEGIC THINKING MENGENALI KENYATAAN TENTANG PERUBAHAN MEMPERTANYAKAN ASUMSI DAN KEGIATAN TERKINI MEMBANGUN PEMAHAMAN SISTEM MELIHAT KEMUNGKINAN MASA DEPAN MENCIPTAKAN IDE-IDE BARU MEMPERTIMBANGKAN KESESUAIAN ORGANISASI DENGAN LINGKUNGAN EKSTERNAL

10 STRATEGIC THINKING MELAKUKAN ASESMEN TERHADAP: PERUBAHAN KEBUTUHAN DARI STAKE HOLDERS (PEMANGKU KEPENTINGAN) PERUBAHAN MENYANGKUT TEKNOLOGI, SOSIAL DAN DEMOGRAFI, EKONOMI, POLITIK/PERUNDANGAN TUNTUTAN KOMPETITIF

11 STRATEGIC THINKERS SELALU MEMPERTANYAKAN: WHAT ARE WE DOING NOW THAT WE SHOULD STOP DOING? WHAT ARE WE NOT DOING NOW, BUT SHOULD START DOING? WHAT ARE WE DOING NOW THAT WE SHOULD CONTINUE TO DO BUT PERHAPS IN A FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT WAY?

12 STRATEGIC PLANNING STRATEGIC PLANNING ADALAH PROCESS SECARA PERIODIK DALAM MENGEMBANGKAN SATU PERANGKAT LANGKAH-LANGKAH DALAM ORGANISASI UNTUK MENCAPAI MISI DAN VISINYA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN POLA PIKIR STRATEGIS

13 STRATEGIC PLANNING : –MENYIAPKAN PROSES LANGKAH DEMI LANGKAH YANG BERURUTAN UNTUK MENCIPTAKAN STRATEGI –MELIBATKAN KEGIATAN-KEGIATAN PERIODIC GROUP STRATEGIC THINKING (BRAINSTORMING) –MEMBUTUHKAN DATA/INFORMASI –MEMBANGUN FOKUS UNTUK ORGANISASI –MEMFASILITASI PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN YANG KONSISTEN –KONSENSUS AKAN KEBUTUHAN GUNA PENYESUAIAN ORGANISASI DENGAN LINGKUNGAN EKSTERNAL –HASILNYA ADALAH PERENCANAAN STRATEGIS YANG TERDOKUMENTASI

14 STRATEGIC MOMENTUM STRATEGIC MOMENTUM MENYANGKUT KEGIATAN SEHARI-HARI UNTUK MENGELOLA STRATEGI GUNA PENCAPAIAN SASARAN STRATEGIS PENCAPAIAN SASARAN STRATEGIS DARI ORGANISASI DARI ORGANISASI

15 STRATEGIC MOMENTUM: –KEGIATAN NYATA UNTUK MENCAPAI SASARAN SPESIFIK –MENYANGKUT PROSES PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN DAN DAMPAKNYA –MENGHASILKAN BUDAYA DAN STYLE –MEMUNCULKAN ANTISIPASI, INOVASI DAN KEUNGGULAN –MENGEVALUASI KINERJA STRATEGI MELALUI PENGENDALIAN –SUATU PROSES PEMBELAJARAN –BERGANTUNG PADA PENINGKATAN POLA PIKIR STRATEGIS DAN PERENCANAAN STRATEGIS PERIODIK MOMENTUM STRATEGIS MENJAMIN FILOSOFI YANG BERKELANJUTAN DALAM MENGEMBANGKAN DAN MENGATUR PERENCANAAN, KEGIATAN DAN PENGENDALIAN DARI ORGANISASI

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17 MANFAAT MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS KETIGA KEGIATAN MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS (STRATEGIC THINKING, STRATEGIC PLANNING DAN STRATEGIC MOMENTUM) AKAN MEMBERIKAN MANFAAT BAGI RUMAH SAKIT: –MENGHUBUNGKAN ORGANISASI DENGAN TUJUAN YANG RASIONAL DAN NILAI-NILAI YANG BERLAKU –MEMPERBAIKI KINERJA KEUANGAN –ADANYA KONSEP YANG JELAS, TUJUAN YANG SPESIFIK DAN PANDUAN SERTA PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN YANG KONSISTEN –MEMBANTU MANAJER MEMAHAMI KONDISI SAAT INI, MEMIKIRKAN MASA DEPAN DAN MENGENALI TANDA-TANDA PERLUNYA PERUBAHAN –PERLUNYA MANAJER BERKOMUNIKASI SECARA VERTIKAL DAN HORISONTAL MEMPERBAIKI KOORDINASI DALAM ORGANISASI SECARA MENYELURUH –MENDORONG INOVASI DAN PERUBAHAN DALAM ORGANISASI UNTUK MEMENUHI KEBUTUHAN DARI SITUASI YANG DINAMIS

18 PERAN KEPEMIMPINAN KEPEMIMPINAN MEMEGANG PERAN PENTING DALANM PENGEMBANGAN STRATEGI STRATEGI TIDAK BISA DICIPTAKAN HANYA DENGAN ANALISIS, TETAPI PENGEMBANGANNYA DAPAT DIPERKUAT DENGAN PENDEKATAN YANG LOGIS PERAN KRITIS KEPEMIMPINAN : –MENGAJUKAN PERTANYAAN YANG TEPAT KETIMBANG MENEMUKAN JAWABAN YANG BENAR –MENGAJUKAN ALTERNATIF KONSEP INTERPRETASI SITUASI –BERTINDAK SELAKU KATALISATOR, MENDORONG MANAJER UNTUK MEMIKIRKAN MASA DEPAN DENGAN CARA YANG KREATIF –MEMBANTU MENGENALI DAN MENYEDIAKAN INFORMASI TENTANG ISU-ISU STRATEGIS PENTING –MENYAMPAIKAN STRATEGI DENGAN CUKUP JELAS UNTUK KEPENTINGAN OPERASIONALISASI –MENGURAIKAN STRATEGI KE DALAM SUB STRATEGI, PROGRAM- PROGRAM DAN RENCANA AKSI UNTUK MEREALISAIKAN TIAP STRATEGI –MEMPERTIMBANGKAN DAMPAK PERUBAHAN STRATEGI DALAM OPERASIONAL ORGANISASI –MENGKOMUNIKASIKAN DAN MENGENDALIKAN STRATEGI

19 TIAP MANAJER/LEADER SEBAGAI BAGIAN DARI TUGASNYA HARUS PEDULI DENGAN PERUBAHAN, INOVASI DAN KEUNGGULAN, SERTA MENGAJUKAN PERTANYAAN KRITIS : –SHOULD WE BE DOING THIS IN THE FUTURE? –HOW SHOULD WE BE DOING THIS? –WHAT NEW THINGS SHOULD WE BE DOING?

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21 PENYUSUNAN STRATEGI RUMAH SAKIT PENYUSUNAN STRATEGI ADALAH SUATU PROSES PENETAPAN POLA KEGIATAN YANG MENJADI PANDUAN BAGI ORGANISASI UNTUK BERGERAK KE SATU TUJUAN EMPAT KOMPONEN YANG MEMPENGARUHI PENYUSUNAN STRATEGI : – PELUANG PASAR (MARKETING OPPORTUNITY) –KOMPETENSI KORPORAT DAN SUMBER DAYA (CORPORATE COMPETENCE AND RESOURCES) –NILAI-NILAI DAN ASPIRASI PERSONAL (PERSONAL VALUES AND ASPIRATIONS) –KEWAJIBAN SOSIAL (SOCIETAL OBLIGATIONS)

22 PROSES PERENCANAAN STRATEGIS PROSES DIMULAI DENGAN ASESMEN YANG MENDALAM TENTANG ORGANISASI, MISINYA DAN LINGKUNGANNYA

23 LANGKAH-LANGKAH : –LANGKAH 1 PERENCANAAN PROSES: ASESMEN TENTANG MISI, KEKUATAN DAN KELEMAHAN INTERNAL, PELUANG DAN ANCAMAN EKSTERNAL IDENTIFIKASI SASARAN-SASARAN MENGEMBANGKAN ALTERNATIF STRATEGI UNTUK PENCAPAIAN SASARAN MONITOR PERILAKU ORGANISASI DAN KEMAJUAN TERHADAP PEMENUHAN MISI LANGKAH PERTAMA INI ADALAH MEMBANGUN ROAD MAP ATAU SERING DI SEBUT PLAN TO PLAN ROAD MAP ATAU SERING DI SEBUT PLAN TO PLAN

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25 –LANGKAH 2 MENGEMBANGKAN DAN/ATAU ASESMEN TERHADAP MISSION STATEMENT MISSION STATEMENT YANG BERBASIS NILAI MENJADI FONDASI DARI PROSES PERENCANAAN STRATEGISMISSION STATEMENT YANG BERBASIS NILAI MENJADI FONDASI DARI PROSES PERENCANAAN STRATEGIS MISSION STATEMENT DIKEMBANGKAN SEBAGAI RESPON TERHADAP KEBUTUHAN DAN KEPENTINGAN DARI STAKE HOLDERS

26 –LANGKAH 3 MELAKUKAN ASESMEN EKSTERNAL LINGKUNGAN EKSTERNAL DAPAT BERUPA : MACRO-ENVIRONMENT REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

27 –LANGKAH 4 MELAKSANAKAN ASESMENTINTERNAL KOMPONEN YANG DIEVALUASI: MANAGEMENT HUMAN RESOURCES FINANCEMARKETING CLINICAL SYSTEM ORGANIZATION CULTURE PHYSICAL PLANT INFORMATION SYSTEMS LEADERSHIP ABILITIES

28 –LANGKAH 5 MENETAPKAN GOALS DAN OBJECTIVES GOALS (OBJEKTIVES) ADALAH TITIK AKHIR YANG HARUS DICAPAI OLEH PERENCANAAN ORGANISASI DALAM SATU PERIODE WAKTU TERTENTU KARAKTERISTIK GOALS (OBJECTIVES) : –GOALS HARUS BISA DI CAPAI –GOALS HARUS BISA DIUJI (VERIFIABLE) –GOALS HARUS SPESIFIK DAN EKSPLISIT

29 –LANGKAH 6 MENYUSUN PILIHAN-PILIHAN STRATEGI MENGEMBANGKAN DAFTAR STRATEGI YANG REALISTIS YANG DAPAT MENUNTUN KE PENCAPAIAN TIAP GOAL KATEGORI STRATEGI ALTERNATIF : –PRACTICAL ALTERNATIVES –INCREMENTAL ALTERNATIVES –RADICAL ALTERNATIVES

30 –LANGKAH 7 MENYELEKSI DAN MENGEMBANGKAN STRATEGI PILIHAN STRATEGI (STRATEGIC OPTIONS) HARUS MERUPAKAN LANGKAH TERPISAH DENGAN PENGEMBANGAN ALTERNATIVE STRATEGI TIAP OPSI HARUS DIEVALUASI

31 –LANGKAH 8 MENGEMBANGKAN IMPLEMENTASI PERENCANAAN TIAP KEGIATAN DALAM IMPLEMENTASI PERENCANAAN STRATEGIS HARUS BERSIFAT STRATEGIS PENUGASAN PENANGGUNG JAWAB SPESIFIK TENTUKAN WAKTU PENYELESAIAN TENTUKAN CHECK POINT UNTUK MENGUKUR KEMAJUAN KEMAJUAN SELALU DIMONITOR DAN DIEVALUASI

32 STRATEGIC STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT

33 CUSTOMER vs. STAKEHOLDER CUSTOMER IS ANYONE WHO HAS AN EXPECTATION ABOUT THE OUTPUT OF A PROCESS ( JAMES 1989 ) ( JAMES 1989 ) STAKEHOLDER IS ANYONE WITH INTEREST IN OR WHO IS AFFECTED BY THE WORK OF AN INDIVIDUAL, A DEPARTMENT, OR AN ORGANIZATION. MAHASISWA,CO –ASS,RESIDEN ….?

34 STAKEHOLDERS ORGANIZATIONS,GROUPS, AND INDIVIDUALS THAT HAVE AN INTEREST OR STAKE IN THAT HAVE AN INTEREST OR STAKE IN THE SUCCESS OF THE ORGANIZATION.

35 HOSPITALS STAKEHOLDERS Hospital's stakeholders can include its patients, families and the larger community. Stakeholders also include employees, physicians, businesses and other community health care providers, all of which have an interest in seeing the hospital succeed.

36 PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYEES HOSPITAL GOV.BODY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE STUDENTS & RESIDENTS PHYSICIANS THIRD PARTY PAYORS LOCAL PAYING PATIENTS ORG. MANAGING CARE NONLOCAL PHYSICIANS INDIGENT PATIENTS INSURANCE COMPANY STATE & LOCAL REGULATORS PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS NONLOCAL PATIENTS ADMINISTRATION SERVICES HOSPITAL STAKEHOLDER MAP STAKEHOLDER MAP

37 STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS BASED ON THE BELIEF THAT THERE IS A RECIPROCAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AN ORGANIZATION AND CERTAIN OTHER ORGANIZATIONS, GROUPS,AND INDIVIDUALS

38 THE STEPS TO STRATEGIC STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT 1. IDENTIFY ALL RELEVANT EXTERNAL, INTERFACE, AND INTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS 2. CLASSIFY EACH STAKEHOLDER AS : SUPPORTIVE, MIXED BLESSING, NONSUPPORTIVE,ORMARGINAL 2. DIAGNOSE EACH STAKEHOLDERS IN TERMS OF - POTENTIAL FOR THREAT AND - POTENTIAL FOR COOPERATION

39 THE STEPS TO STRATEGIC STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT FORMULATE GENERIC STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES : - INVOLVE THE SUPPORTIVE STAKEHOLDER; - COLLABORATE WITH THE MIXED BLESSING STAKEHOLDER; - DEFEND AGAINST THE NONSUPPORTIVE STAKEHOLDER; AND - MONITOR THE MARGINAL STAKEHOLDER 5. DEVELOP SPECIFIC IMPLEMENTATION TACTICS AND PROGRAMS FOR EACH STRATEGY-STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT 6. IDENTIFY WHICH EMPLOYEES SHOULD BE INVOLVED IN THE IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS.

40 STEP 1 IDENTIFY ALL RELEVANT STAKEHOLDERS

41 EXTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS 1. COMPETITORS 2. RELATED HEALTH CARE ORGANIZATIONS 3. GOVERNMENT REGULATORY/ LISENSING AGENCIES 4. PRIVATE ACCREDITATION ASSOCIATIONS 5. PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS 6. LABOR UNION 7. PATIENTS 8. THIRD PARTY PAYORS 9. HOSPITAL SUPPLIERS 10. MEDIA 11. FINANCIAL COMMUNITY 12. RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS 13. LOCAL COMMUNITY

42 INTERFACE STAKEHOLDERS 1. NONMANAGEMENT MEDICAL STAFF 2. HOSPITAL BOARD 3. STOCKHOLDERS/ TAXPAYERS/ CONTRIBUTORS 4. RELATED HEALTH CARE ORGANIZATIONS

43 INTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS 1. MANAGEMENT : - TOP MANAGERS - CLINICAL MANAGERS - PHYSICIAN MANAGERS - NONCLINICAL MANAGERS 2. NONMANAGEMENT EMPLOYEES : - PROFESSIONAL - PARAPROFESSIONAL - SUPPORT PERSONNEL

44 STEP 2 CLASSIFY EACH STAKEHOLDER

45 DIFFERENT TYPES OF STAKEHOLDERS TYPE 1 : THE MIXED BLESSING STAKEHOLDER : - MEDICAL STAFF - PHYSICIAN NOT ON THE STAFF - INSURANCE COMPANIES - INSURED PATIENTS - HOSPITAL WITH COMPLEMENTARY

46 TYPE 2 : THE SUPPORTIVE STAKEHOLDER : - BOARD OF TRUSTEES - MANAGERS - STAFF EMPLOYEES - PARENT COMPANY - LOCAL COMMUNITY - NURSING HOMES

47 TYPE 3 : THE NONSUPPORTIVE STAKEHOLDER - COMPETING HOSPITALS - FREESTANDING ALTERNATIVES - EMPLOYEE UNIONS - GOVERNMENT REGULATORY AGENCIES - INDIGENT PATIENTS - THE NEWS MEDIA - EMPLOYER COALITIONS

48 TYPE 4 : THE MARGINAL STAKEHOLDER - VOLUNTEER GROUP - STOCKHOLDERS - PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS

49 STEP 3 DIAGNOSE EACH STAKEHOLDER

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51 STEP 4 FORMULATE GENERIC STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

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53 MONITOR COLLABORATEINVOLVE DEFEND SUPPORTIVE STAKEHOLDER MARGINAL STAKEHOLDER MIXED BLESSING STAKEHOLDER NON- SUPPORTIVE STAKEHOLDER Low High STAKE HOLDERS POTENTIAL FOR COOPERATION WITH HOSPITAL STAKE HOLDERS POTENTIAL FOR THREAT TO THE HOSPITAL Low ?

54 SYNERGY AS A STRATEGIC MANGEMENT PROGRAM TO COLLABORATE WITH HOSPITAL STAKEHOLDERS AS A STRATEGIC MANGEMENT PROGRAM TO COLLABORATE WITH HOSPITAL STAKEHOLDERS

55 synergy Webster (1991) defines synergy as the action of two or more substances, organs, or organisms to achieve an effect of which each is individually incapable.

56 Synergy can be defined as the breakthroughs in thinking and action that are produced when a collaborative process successfully combines the complementary knowledge, skills, and resources of a group of participants (Lasker, Weiss, and Miller, 2000; Fried and Rundall, 1994; Gray, 1998; Mattesich and Monsey, 1992; Richardson and Allegrante, 2000).

57 Synergism, in the world of people, is sometimes used to reference a team. In other words, the effects of synergism are always interdependent (Corning, 1996) and the result of cooperation. synergy is the close coordination of efforts and resources of individuals working together so that the outcome or performance of the whole is greater than the sum of the parts (PathQuest, 2001).

58 components of synergy There are some components of synergy that must be followed in order to make it effective, especially in the arena of health care. Some of these elements are : - establishing a clear purpose, - listening actively by focusing on the individual who is speaking, and - having a sympathetic consciousness of anothers distress and a desire to alleviate that distress. - flexibility and openness to another persons viewpoint

59 for the phenomenon of synergy to function effectively, members must speak clearly to personal points and perspectives while acknowledging that they are, merely, a personal perspective. There may be times, as well, that team members may have to agree to disagree agreeably when their perspectives differ.

60 COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND SYNERGY A partnership creates synergy by combining the complementary knowledge, skills, and resources of different people and organizations.

61 At a practical level, the limited capacity of partnerships to create synergy appears to be related to three factors: (1) who is involved in the partnership; (1) who is involved in the partnership; (2) how they are involved; and (2) how they are involved; and (3) how well the leadership and management of the partnership support the interaction of the partners. (3) how well the leadership and management of the partnership support the interaction of the partners. management

62 Who is Involved in the Partnership The people and organizations involved in a partnership are the building blocks of synergy. the community stakeholders involved in synergistic partnerships often go well beyond the "usual suspects," including : - service providers - people who use services, - youth and low-income residents who are directly affected by problems, - formal and informal community leaders, - academics in different disciplines, - government agencies, - schools, - businesses, and - faith-based organizations

63 Together, a broad array of participants can: * Obtain more accurate information (e.g., about the concerns and priorities of people in the community): * See the "big picture" (e.g., appreciate how different services, programs, and policies in the community relate to each other and to the problems the partnership is trying to address); * Break new ground (e.g., combine statistical and qualitative information to get a better understanding of the root causes of problems and discover innovative approaches to solving problems); and * Understand the local context (e.g., appreciate the values, politics, assets, and history of the local environment and use this information to identify strategies that are most likely to work in that environment.

64 How Partners Are Involved Two types of partnerships: - the "lead agency" model and - the "community engagement" model

65 The "lead agency" model refers to partnerships that are established to help a public- or private- sector organization carry out a predetermined program. These kinds of partnerships are quite common in the health and human services areas but, unfortunately, have a very limited capacity to create synergy regardless of how diverse the participants are.

66 In the "community engagement" model, a broad array of community stakeholders work together in all phases of the partnership's work-understanding the problem, developing plans, taking collective action, and refining the partnership's actions over time. The "community engagement" model has a much greater potential to create synergy than the "lead agency" model because diverse participants have an opportunity to influence the thinking and plans of the partnership as well as its actions. As a result, a broad array of community stakeholders can create new ideas and strategies together and the way the group ultimately understands issues and the actions it takes to address issues are usually very different from the way any single participant in the partnership started out.

67 Leadership and Management of Partnerships The kinds of leadership and management capacities that synergistic partnerships require go beyond those involved in coordinating services or running a program or organization. Consequently, these capacities differ from the leadership and management that most people have been exposed to or have been trained to provide.

68 What does the leadership of a partnership need to do to enable a diverse group of participants to create synergy and, thus, make the most of their collaborative efforts? reach out to and recruit a broad range of community stakeholders, providing the partnership with the perspective, skills, and resources that it needs. inspire and motivate participants by articulating what they can accomplish together and how their joint work will benefit not only the community but also each of them individually. facilitate a collaborative process that empowers participants by assuring that they have real influence in the way the partnership address problems that affect their lives. help participants from different backgrounds develop relationships with each other and engage in ongoing meaningful discourse.

69 foster respect, trust, inclusiveness, and openness in the partnership and need to help the participants develop a commonly understood jargon-free language. create an environment in which differences of opinion can be voiced. create something new and valuable together by stimulating them to challenge conventional wisdom and look at things differently, by relating and synthesizing their different ideas, and by finding effective ways to combine their complementary skills and resources.

70 STAGES OF COLLABORATION -ACHIEVE OBJECTIVS -SUSTAIN COMMITMENT DEV.STRATEGY COORD./ COMMITMENT DEFINE PURPOSE SUSTAINABILITY DEPENDABILITY COMMON PROBLEM FACTORS STAGES MANAGER TASK EMERGENCETRANSITIONMATURITY NETWORKNETWORKNETWORKNETWORK INTER ORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

71 THE UNDERLYING DYNAMIC OF THE NEWLY FORMED INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENT IS NOT COMMAND AND CONTROL BUT ONE THAT IS BETTER DESCRIBED AS ONE OF TRUST,COMMITMENT AND SYNERGY. GOOD PARTNERSHIPS, LIKE GOOD MARRIAGES,DONT WORK ON THE BASIS OF OWNERSHIP OR CONTROL. IT TAKES EFFORT AND COMMITMENT AND ENTHUSIASM FROM BOTH SIDES IF EITHER IS TO REALIZE THE HOPED FOR BENEFITS.

72 TERIMAKASIH


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