3UV DisinfectionPhysical process (inducing photobiochemical changes within microorganisms)Two conditions must be met:Radiation of sufficent energy to alter chemical bonds must be availableSuch radiation must be absorbed by the target molecule or microorganismEʎ = (h*Cv*AN)/ʎEʎ = Radiant energy associated with given wl(kcal/einstein)h = Planck’s constant, * kcal.sCv = Speed of electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum, 3 * 1017 nm/sʎ = Wl of electromagnetic radiation, nmAN = Avogadro’s number, 6.023*1023 photons/einstein
5Two conditions must be met: DNA and RNA are the two most common forms of nucleid acid, that consists of single or double stranded polymers comprising building blocks called nucleotides. Purines: Adenine, Guanine Pyrimidines: Thymine, Cytosine (DNA), Uracil, Cytosine (RNA) Strong absorbers of UV light.Physical process (inducing photobiochemical changes within microorganisms)Two conditions must be met:Radiation of sufficent energy to alter chemical bonds must be availableSuch radiation must be absorbed by the target molecule or microorganism
8Source of UV Radiation Low-Pressure Low-intensity UV Lamps : Produce essentially monochromatic UV light at nm. UV light is produced by mercury at low vapor pressure.Low-Pressure High-Intensity UV Lamps :Mercury-indium amalgam is used. Allows 2-4 times greater UV-C output. 25% greater lamp life.Medium-Pressure High-Intensity UV Lamps :Mercury vapor emission is carried out at higher lamp pressures and temperatures. Produce polychromatic UV light.
11UV Reactor Configuration Open – Channel Disinfection SystemsLamp placement can beHorizontalVerticalClosed – Channel Disinfection SystemsIn most design configurations, the direction of flow is perpendicular to the placement of the lamps
18UV Intensity and UV Dose UV Intensity is a measure of radiative power per unit of exposed area. The total UV intensity at a point in space is the sum of the intensity of UV light from all directions.UV Dose is the integral of UV intensity during exposure period.
19UV DoseD = I x t D = UV dose, mWs / cm2 I = UV intensity, mW / cm2 t = Exposure time, s
20UV Disinfection Kinetics The measured concentration of microorganisms before and after exposure provides the response, or log reduction of microorganisms from exposure to UV light.Log Reduction = log (N0 / N), where,N0 is the concentration of infectious microorganisms before exposure to UV lightN is the concentration of infectious microorganisms after exposure to UV light.UV dose – response relationships can be expressed as either the proportion of microorganisms inactivated (log reduction) or the proportion of microorganisms remaining (log survival) as a function of UV dose.
21Factors Affecting UV Disinfection Flow RateUVTSuspended SolidsWater QualityIronHardnessD = I x t
22UVTUVT is the percantage of light passing through material over a specified distance.
23Suspended Solids Shadowing Microbes within particles Potential for microbes to pass through system without seeing UV light
24Water QualityIron and HardnessDeposition of minerals on the sleeve
25Water QualityIron is a strong absorber of UV light
26Advantages of UV Disinfection Effective disinfectantMore effective than chlorine in inactivating most viruses, spores, cystsNo chemical addition requiredNo formation of disinfection byproductsWater retains its natural flavour and smellMicroorganism inactivation achieved within secondsMax operational safetyMinimal operating costs